characterization of two new serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus.two new virus isolates, one from a california sea lion (zalophus californianus californianus) and the other from a northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) were partially characterized. their physicochemical characteristics were similar to those of vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv). the virion morphology was in both instances typically calicivirus. on the basis of this and the serum cross-neutralization testing, these isolates were classed as two new t ...197767101
acute viral hepatitis in california sea lions.acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed in five california sea lions (zalophus californianus) stranded along the los angeles coast. light microscopy revealed large nuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. electron microscopy provided evidence that these inclusion bodies were composed of adenovirus-like virions. attempts to grow the virus in cell culture systems were unsuccessful.1979521373
parasites and associated pathology observed in pinnipeds stranded along the oregon coast.forty-two seals and sea lions found dead along the oregon coast were examined for parasites and associated pathology. nematode infections of the lung and/or gastrointestinal tract were the primary cause of death in 5 of 42 animals examined. new distribution records were established for pricetrema zalophi and zalophotrema hepaticum. new host records include z. hepaticum and diphyllobothrium cordatum in the steller's sea lion (eumetopias jubatus); nanophyetus salmincola in the california sea lion ...1978567698
prevalence of vesicular exanthema of swine antibodies among feral mammals associated with the southern california coastal zones.serum-neutralizing antibodies to both vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) were found in a number of animal species having an association with the southern california coastal zones. california sea lions (zalophus californianus) had antibodies to 9 vesv types (a48, c52, d53, e54, f54, g55, i55, j56, and k56). fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) and elephant seal pups (mirounga angustirostris) were tested for antibodies to 6 vesv types and all were negative. c ...1978629463
vesicular exanthema of swine.vesicular exanthema of swine (ves) was first recognized in 1932. at the time, eradication measures and, later, quarantine procedures were instituted and extension of the disease to surrounding farms appeared to have been prevented. between 1932 and 1936, however, seemingly unrelated epizootics continued among swine herds being fed raw garbage. in 1936, ves disappeared only to reappear in 1939. the disease was contained within california until 1952, at which time it spread to all the major swine ...1976786969
vesicular exanthema of swine and san miguel sea lion virus.san miguel sea lion virus (smsv), recently isolated from marine mammals, and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv), which caused epizootics of vesicular exanthema of swine (ves) over a period of 24 years (1932 to 1956), may be the same virus. this finding is of particular interest because the source of the original ves epizootic was never identified, swine were the only known natural host of vesv, and vesv was thought to have been eradicated. the smsv has been shown to be enzootic in 2 speci ...1976786970
toxoplasmosis in a california sea lion (zalophus californianus).disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a female california sea lion that had been used in thermoregulation studies for about 4 years while housed in a small enclosure with a fresh-water pool at the university of hawaii, honolulu. toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in and around necrotic lesions of the heart and the stomach. source of the infection was not established; however, studies on toxoplasmosis in cats were being conducted at the institution, and common caretakers attended both group ...1977835862
an epizootic of leptospirosis in california sea lions.between may and december 1984, an epizootic of leptospirosis in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) occurred along the west coast of the united states from monterey county, calif, northward to seattle, wash. clinical signs observed were severe depression, excessive thirst, and tucked-up posturing, with associated leukocytosis and increased globulin, bun, and creatinine values. effective antibiotic therapy consisted of tetracycline (22 mg/kg of body weight every 8 hours, orally) or pota ...19854077625
survey of diseases in free-living california sea lions. 19744373587
leptospira pomona and reproductive failure in california sea lions. 19744443311
isolation of leptospira pomona from a naturally infected california sea lion, sonoma county, california. 19715156488
leptospirosis epizootic among california sea lions.a leptospira species is suspected of being the etiological agenit in a recent epizootic among california sea lions. the disease was confined to subadult males of the species zalophus c. californianus.19715576161
a new species of dipetalonema from the california sea lion and a report of microfilariae from a steller sea lion (nematoda: filarioidea). 19676062061
serologic survey and serum biochemical reference ranges of the free-ranging mountain lion (felis concolor) in california.serum samples from 58 mountain lions (felis concolor) in california (usa) were collected between april 1987 and february 1990. nineteen serum samples were used for serum biochemistry determinations; the ranges were similar to reference values in domestic cats, captive exotic felidae and free-ranging mountain lions. a serological survey was conducted to determine whether antibodies were present against selected infectious agents. fifty-four (93%) of 58 sera had antibodies against feline panleukop ...19948028105
leptospirosis in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) stranded along the central california coast, 1981-1994.prevalence of leptospirosis was determined in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) stranded live along the central california (usa) coast between january 1981 and december 1994. clinical signs of renal disease were seen in 764 (33%) of 2338 animals examined; 545 (71%) of these 764 animals died, with similar gross lesions of nephritis. in silver impregnation stains of sections of formalin-fixed kidney, numerous loosely coiled spiral organisms were observed. leptospira pomona kenniwicki w ...19969359054
bartonella henselae antibody prevalence in free-ranging and captive wild felids from order to determine the importance of wild felids in the epidemiology of bartonella spp. infection, 136 nobuto strips or serum samples from free-ranging mountain lions (felis concolor) and bobcats (felis rufus) captured in california (usa) between 1985 and 1996 were tested for b. henselae antibodies (titer > or = 1:64) using an immunofluorescence test. similarly, 124 serum samples from 114 captive wild cats representing 26 species or subspecies collected between 1991 and 1995 were retrieved fr ...19989476226
leptospirosis in rehabilitated pacific harbor seals from california.renal disease was observed in two rehabilitated pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsii) from a facility in california (usa). the seals had leukocytosis and high serum phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations. a retrospective study of leptospiral antibody serum titers indicated both seals had elevated titers to leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa. a third seal, which died about the time when the index cases occurred, also had elevated titers to l. interrogan ...19989577797
isolation of reptilian calicivirus crotalus type 1 from feral pinnipeds.ten virus isolates were obtained from three species of marine mammals sampled on san miguel island (california, usa) and 1,200 km north on rogue reef (oregon, usa) during tagging operations in 1986-87. seven of these 10 were derived from 30 sampled steller sea lion (eumetopias jubatus pups, while two of 10 were isolated from one of 19 sampled california sea lion (zalophus californianus californianus pups, and the remaining isolate was derived from 30 sampled northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinu ...19989706554
coccidioidomycosis in a bottlenose dolphin.a stranded bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus gilli) succumbed to a pulmonary infection of coccidioides immitis. the dolphin initially presented with mild inspiratory dyspnea that rapidly worsened over 48 hr to include buoyancy abnormalities and finally death. at necropsy, caseous nodules were observed throughout the lungs and perihilar lymph nodes. on histological examination of tissues, double walled organisms containing endospores characteristic of c. immitis were observed in lung, perihi ...19989706575
bacterial isolates from california sea lions (zalophus californianus), harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) admitted to a rehabilitation center along the central california coast, 2 yr of bacteriologic culturing of 297 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 154 harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and 89 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) stranded alive along the california coast, the most frequent isolates from inflammatory lesions in live animals were escherichia coli, streptococcus viridans, listeria ivanovii, beta-hemolytic streptococcus spp., and enterococcus spp. this is the first report of l. ivanovii isolation from a marine mammal. the common i ...19989732032
antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from pinnipeds stranded in central and northern california.over a 2-yr period (1994-1995), the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 129 bacterial isolates recovered from live stranded california sea lions (zalophus californianus), harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) were studied. nineteen genera of bacteria were isolated from various sites of inflammation; abscesses and umbilici were the most common sites. seventy-two percent of the bacterial isolated were gram negative, and the enterobacteriaceae (escherich ...19989809600
peritoneal coccidioidomycosis in a mountain lion in adult mountain lion (felis concolor) from the vicinity of weldon, california (usa) was necropsied following euthanasia due to emaciation and proximity to semi-rural housing. there were spherules consistent with coccidioides immitis within peritoneal surfaces with granulomatous inflammation and fungi consistent with c. immitis were cultured from abdominal fluid. this is the first reported case of coccidioidomycosis in a wild mountain lion.199910073349
granulocytic ehrlichiosis and tick infestation in mountain lions in california.forty-seven mountain lions (puma concolor) collected year-round in 1996 to 1998 from the sierra nevada foothills, the northern coast ranges, and in monterey county (california, usa) were examined for infestation with ixodes pacificus and dermacentor variabilis ticks. ticks were found predominantly in winter and spring. the seroprevalence of granulocytic ehrlichiae (ge) antibodies (ehrlichia equi or the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) was 17% and the pcr-prevalence of dna characteristic ...199910574529
prevalence of bartonella henselae antibody in florida panthers.serum samples from 28 free-ranging florida panthers (puma concolor coryi) and seven mountain lions from texas (p. concolor stanleyana) living in south florida (usa) between 1997 to 1998 were tested for antibodies to bartonella henselae. twenty percent (7/35) of the samples were reactive to b. henselae antisera with a subspecies prevalence of 18% (5/ 28) for florida panthers and 28% (2/7) for cougars from texas (usa). there was not a significant sex related difference in infection rates among the ...200010682759
molecular tracking of mountain lions in the yosemite valley region in california: genetic analysis using microsatellites and faecal dna.twelve microsatellite loci were characterized in california mountain lions (puma concolor) and sufficient polymorphism was found to uniquely genotype 62 animals sampled at necropsy. microsatellite genotypes obtained using mountain lion faecal dna matched those from muscle for all of 15 individuals examined. dna from potential prey species and animals whose faeces could be misidentified as mountain lion faeces were reliably distinguished from mountain lions using this microsatellite panel. in a f ...200010736046
epizootic vesicular disease in captive california sea epizootic of vesicular disease occurred in a group of semi-domesticated california sea lions (zalophus californianus) during the months of april and may 1997. ten castrated mature male sea lions, ages 12 to 19 yr, were housed in three adjacent open-ocean net enclosures in san diego bay (california, usa). four animals (40%) developed oral and extremity vesicles, anorexia, and were reluctant to perform learned behaviors. one animal developed vesicles but maintained a normal appetite and behavio ...200010941736
diagnosis and seroprevalence of leptospirosis in california sea lions from coastal california.the sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic agglutination test (mat) as a method for detection of exposure to leptospira spp. in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) were determined. sera came from individuals that demonstrated clinical signs of renal disease, had lesions suggestive of leptospirosis at necropsy, and had visible leptospires in silver stained kidney sections as positive controls. sera from unexposed captive individuals were used as negative controls. the test was 1 ...200211838231
characterization and clinical manifestations of arcanobacterium phocae infections in marine mammals stranded along the central california coast.between 1994 and 2000, 141 arcanobacterium phocae isolates were recovered from marine mammals that stranded along the central california coast (usa). arcanobacterium phocae was cultured from tissue sites with abnormal discharge or evidence of inflammation in 66 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 50 pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii), 19 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), five southern sea otters (enhydra lutris nereis), and one common dolphin (delphinus d ...200312685077
evidence of leptospira interrogans infection in california sea lion pups from the gulf of california.forty-two urine and 96 blood and serum samples were obtained from california sea lion (zalophus californianus) pups from the gulf of california during the 2000 reproductive season. antibody prevalence to 13 serovars of leptospira interrogans was determined by microagglutination tests (mat); presence of pathogenic leptospires was detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). samples with antibody titers > or = 1:25 or 115 bp fragments on ethidium bromidestained 1.5% agarose gels were considered po ...200312685078
temporal changes in the prevalence of parasites in two oregon estuary-dwelling fishes.the parasite faunas of juvenile english sole (parophrys vetulus) in 1971-1972 and staghorn sculpin (leptocottus armatus) in 1971 from yaquina bay, oregon, were compared with faunas found in the same estuary in 1997-2000 (english sole) and 1999-2000 (staghorn sculpin). the 7 most commonly occurring parasites in 1971 were compared with the same species observed during the same month and sampling sites in 1997-2000. multivariate community analysis of juvenile english sole parasites supported the su ...200415270100
pcbs and ddt in the serum of juvenile california sea lions: associations with vitamins a and e and thyroid predators like california sea lions bioaccumulate high levels of persistent fat-soluble pollutants that may provoke physiological impairments such as endocrine or vitamins a and e disruption. we measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) in 12 healthy juvenile california sea lions captured on año nuevo island, california, in 2002. we investigated the relationship between the contamination by pcbs and ddt and the circulati ...200515589659
leptospirosis in northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) stranded along the california coast.leptospirosis was identified in six northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) that were stranded in 1995 along the coast of california (usa). histologic lesions in all seals included tubulointerstitial nephritis with tubular degeneration and necrosis. infection was confirmed through identification of spirochetes using an immunohistochemical stain for leptospira sp. antigens. one affected seal had an elevated titer to leptospira interrogans serovar pomona. four of the six seals developed ...200516107678
transmission of toxoplasma: clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment.toxoplasma gondii affects a wide variety of hosts including threatened southern sea otters (enhydra lutris nereis) which serve as sentinels for the detection of the parasite's transmission into marine ecosystems. toxoplasmosis is a major cause of mortality and contributor to the slow rate of population recovery for southern sea otters in california. an updated seroprevalence analysis showed that 52% of 305 freshly dead, beachcast sea otters and 38% of 257 live sea otters sampled along the califo ...200516157341
metastrongyloid nematode (otostrongylus circumlitus) infection in a stranded california sea lion (zalophus californianus)--a new host-parasite association.a stranded yearling male california sea lion was admitted to a rehabilitation center june 2003. on presentation, the sea lion was emaciated and had diarrhea and neutrophilia. two weeks later, the animal became anorexic, blood and mucus were observed around the oral cavity, and corneal opacity was noted in the right eye. hematology results at that time included leukocytosis consisting of neutrophilia with a left shift, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. despite supportive care, the sea lion died. on p ...200516244070
california sea lions (zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern baja california, méxico, than in california, usa.chlorinated hydrocarbons (chs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 california sea lions (zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along todos santos bay, ensenada, baja california, méxico, january 2000-november 2001. summation operatorddts were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 microg/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ( summation operatorpcbs, 2.96 microg/g), chlordanes (0.12 microg/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 microg/g). the summation operat ...200616297516
molecular phylogenetics and diagnosis of anisakis, pseudoterranova, and contracaecum from northern pacific marine mammals.individual specimens of anisakis, pseudoterranova, and contracaecum collected from marine mammals inhabiting northern pacific waters were used for comparative diagnostic and molecular phylogenetic analyses. forty-eight new sequences were obtained for this study of 14 anisakis taxa, 8 pseudoterranova taxa, 4 contracaecum taxa, and 4 outgroup species. partial 28s (lsu) and complete internal transcribed spacer (its-1, 5.8s, its-2) ribosomal dna was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and seq ...200516539026
pathology and preliminary characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a california sea lion (zalophus californianus).cutaneous pox-like lesions are a common complication in the rehabilitation of pinnipeds. however, the exact identity, taxonomy, and host range of pinniped parapoxviruses remain unknown. during a poxvirus outbreak in may 2003 in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) at a marine mammal rehabilitation facility, multiple raised, firm, 1-3-cm skin nodules from the head, neck, and thorax of one sea lion weanling pup that spontaneously died were collected. histologically, the nodules were chara ...200616699145
lesions associated with a novel mycoplasma sp. in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation.from july 1999 to november 2001, mycoplasma sp. was cultured from lesions in 16 california sea lions (zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation. the mycoplasma sp. was the likely cause of death of four animals in which it was associated with either pneumonia or polyarthritis. the most common lesion associated with this bacterium was subdermal abscessation, found in 12 animals. other lesions included intramuscular abscesses, septic arthritis, and lymphadenopathy. infection was associated ...200616699147
age-prevalence of otarine herpesvirus-1, a tumor-associated virus, and possibility of its sexual transmission in california sea lions.otarine herpesvirus-1 (othv-1) is a gammaherpesvirus routinely detected in urogenital tumor tissues of adult sea lions dying during rehabilitation, to investigate the epidemiology of this virus and guide the development of a mathematical model of its role in the multifactorial etiology of cancer in california sea lions, polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of an othv-1 specific fragment of the dna polymerase gene was used to look for evidence of othv-1 infection in urogenital and pharyn ...200717208394
notoedric mange in two free-ranging mountain lions (puma concolor).two mountain lions (puma con-color) were found dead in the simi hills area of southern california (ventura county). postmortem examination and toxicological analyses indicated that the cause of death was anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. in addition, both lions had marked alopecia and skin crusts, caused by notoedres cati. the diagnosis of notoedric mange was confirmed by histology and direct examination of mites obtained from skin scrapings of the two animals. histologically, the affected ...200717495313
cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in california sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species?leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. california sea lions (zalophus californianus) have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis since 1970, but it is unknown whether the pathogen persists in the sea lion population or is introduced repeatedly from external reservoirs.200717986335
type x toxoplasma gondii in a wild mussel and terrestrial carnivores from coastal california: new linkages between terrestrial mammals, runoff and toxoplasmosis of sea otters.sea otters in california are commonly infected with toxoplasma gondii. a unique type x strain is responsible for 72% of otter infections, but its prevalence in terrestrial animals and marine invertebrates inhabiting the same area was unknown. between 2000 and 2005, 45 terrestrial carnivores (lions, bobcats, domestic cats and foxes) and 1396 invertebrates (mussels, clams and worms) were screened for t. gondii using pcr and dna sequencing to determine the phylogeographic distribution of t. gondii ...200818452923
risk factors for an outbreak of leptospirosis in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) in california, 2004.leptospirosis has been reported in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) since 1970; however, the source of infection and mode of transmission remain unknown. to elucidate these features, demographic and environmental risk factors for leptospirosis were evaluated. california sea lion stranding records from northern california for 2004 were used to identify cases of leptospirosis (n = 316) and controls (n = 143). demographic characteristics (age class, sex) and environmental factors, repr ...200818957639
geographical dissemination of leptospira interrogans serovar pomona during seasonal migration of california sea lions.leptospirosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonoses in the world and affects most mammalian species. although leptospirosis is well documented and characterized in terrestrial species, less information is available regarding the distribution and impact of leptospirosis in marine mammals. additionally, the role of animal migrations on the geographical spread of leptospirosis has not been reported. periodic epizootic outbreaks of acute leptospirosis among california sea lions (zalophus ...200919186009
novel hemotrophic mycoplasma identified in naturally infected california sea lions (zalophus californianus).the hemoplasmas are the trivial name for a group of erythrocyte-parasitizing, non-cultivable in vitro bacteria of the genus mycoplasma that have been described in several mammalian hosts worldwide. this study is the first report of hemoplasmas in marine mammals. edta anticoagulated whole blood samples from 137 california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and 20 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) admitted to the marine mammal center (sausalito, ca; or l ...201021111543
segniliparus rugosus-associated bronchiolitis in california sea lion. 201121291617
metagenomic identification of a novel anellovirus in pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsii) lung samples and its detection in samples from multiple investigate viral pathogens potentially involved in a mortality event of 21 pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsii) in california in 2000, viral metagenomics was performed directly on lung samples from five individuals. metagenomics revealed a novel seal anellovirus (sealav), which clusters phylogenetically with anelloviruses from california sea lions and domestic cats. using specific pcr, sealav was identified in lung tissue from two of five animals involved in the 2000 mortality ev ...201121402596
human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in california sea lions (zalophus californianus).the environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. to do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. we in ...201121436887
isolation of a novel adenovirus from california sea lions zalophus californianus.viral hepatitis associated with adenoviral infection has been reported in california sea lions zalophus californianus admitted to rehabilitation centers along the california coast since the 1970s. canine adenovirus 1 (cadv-1) causes viral hepatitis in dogs and infects a number of wildlife species. attempts to isolate the virus from previous sea lion hepatitis cases were unsuccessful, but as the hepatitis had morphologic features resembling canine infectious hepatitis, and since the virus has a w ...201121790072
identification of two novel coccidian species shed by california sea lions (zalophus californianus).abstract routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic californa sea lions (zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 california sea lions admitted to the marine mammal center between april 2007 and october 2009. phylogenetic analysis using the full its-1 region, partial small subunit 18s rdna sequence and the apicomplexa rpob region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred ...201122091999
verminous pneumonia in the california sea lion (zalophus californianus). 20164937313
zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in california mountain lions (puma concolor), 1987-2010.sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 california counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to yersinia pestis, francisella tularensis, bartonella henselae, borrelia burgdorferi, and anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. seroprevalences for b. burgdorferi (19.9%) and b. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with t ...201222925024
otariodibacter oris and bisgaardia genomospecies 1 isolated from infections in pinnipeds.we document the first associations of two recently described species of pasteurellaceae bacteria with lesions in wild pinnipeds in rehabilitation. samples were collected from nine lesions in four california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and two pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina) during necropsy or admission examinations at a rehabilitation facility in northern california. seven pasteurellaceae isolates were identified using phenotypic tests and partial rpob gene sequencing. six strains o ...201323778617
isolation of bartonella henselae, bartonella koehlerae subsp. koehlerae, bartonella koehlerae subsp. bothieri and a new subspecies of b. koehlerae from free-ranging lions (panthera leo) from south africa, cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) from namibia and captive cheetahs from california.bartonellae are blood- and vector-borne gram-negative bacteria, recognized as emerging pathogens. whole-blood samples were collected from 58 free-ranging lions (panthera leo) in south africa and 17 cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) from namibia. blood samples were also collected from 11 cheetahs (more than once for some of them) at the san diego wildlife safari park. bacteria were isolated from the blood of three (5%) lions, one (6%) namibian cheetah and eight (73%) cheetahs from california. the lion ...201627453220
feline infectious peritonitis in a mountain lion (puma concolor), california, usa.feline infectious peritonitis (fip) is a fatal immune-mediated vasculitis of felids caused by a mutant form of a common feline enteric virus, feline enteric coronavirus. the virus can attack many organ systems and causes a broad range of signs, commonly including weight loss and fever. regardless of presentation, fip is ultimately fatal and often presents a diagnostic challenge. in may 2010, a malnourished young adult male mountain lion (puma concolor) from kern county, california, usa was eutha ...201323568918
feline immunodeficiency virus cross-species transmission: implications for emergence of new lentiviral infections.owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. we previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lent ...201728003486
molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidium spp. and giardia spp. in mussels (mytilus californianus) and california sea lions (zalophus californianus) from central california.cryptosporidium and giardia are of public health importance, with recognized transmission through recreational waters. therefore, both can contaminate marine waters and shellfish, with potential to infect marine mammals in nearshore ecosystems. a 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the presence of cryptosporidium and giardia in mussels located at two distinct coastal areas in california, namely, (i) land runoff plume sites and (ii) locations near sea lion haul-out sites, as well as in feces o ...201425281384
development and validation of a quantitative pcr for rapid and specific detection of california sea lion adenovirus 1 and prevalence in wild and managed populations.california sea lion adenovirus 1 (csladv-1) has been associated with hepatitis and enteritis in several wild and captive populations of diverse pinniped species. currently available tests have been limited to pan-adenoviral polymerase chain reaction (pcr) followed by sequencing. we present the development of a quantitative probe-hybridization pcr (qpcr) assay for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of this virus in california sea lions ( zalophus californianus) and other pinnipeds. this ass ...201728166696
detecting signals of chronic shedding to explain pathogen persistence: leptospira interrogans in california sea lions.identifying mechanisms driving pathogen persistence is a vital component of wildlife disease ecology and control. asymptomatic, chronically infected individuals are an oft-cited potential reservoir of infection, but demonstrations of the importance of chronic shedding to pathogen persistence at the population-level remain scarce. studying chronic shedding using commonly collected disease data is hampered by numerous challenges, including short-term surveillance that focuses on single epidemics a ...201728207932
isolation of leptospira from a phocid: acute renal failure and mortality from leptospirosis in rehabilitated northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), california, usa.during rehabilitation, acute renal failure due to leptospirosis occurred in eight male northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) that stranded along the central california coast in 2011. characteristic histologic lesions including renal tubular degeneration, necrosis, and mineralization, and mild lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis were noted in the six animals examined. immunohistochemistry, bacterial culture, and pcr were positive in 2/3, 2/3, and 3/4 seals, respectively, and 6/8 ...201424807176
asymptomatic and chronic carriage of leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in california sea lions (zalophus californianus).since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of california sea lions (zalophus californianus) along the pacific coast of north america. yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the months of july and december, with major epizootics occurring every 3-5 years. genetic and serological data suggest that leptospira interrogans serovar pomona is the infecting serovar and is enzootic i ...201323419822
coccidioidomycosis and other systemic mycoses of marine mammals stranding along the central california, usa coast: 1998-2012.a wide range of systemic mycoses have been reported from captive and wild marine mammals from north america. examples include regionally endemic pathogens such as coccidioides and blastomyces spp., and novel pathogens like cryptococcus gattii, which appear may have been introduced to north america by humans. stranding and necropsy data were analyzed from three marine mammal stranding and response facilities on the central california coast to assess the prevalence, host demographics, and lesion d ...201525647598
using molecular epidemiology to track toxoplasma gondii from terrestrial carnivores to marine hosts: implications for public health and conservation.environmental transmission of the zoonotic parasite toxoplasma gondii, which is shed only by felids, poses risks to human and animal health in temperate and tropical ecosystems. atypical t. gondii genotypes have been linked to severe disease in people and the threatened population of california sea otters. to investigate land-to-sea parasite transmission, we screened 373 carnivores (feral domestic cats, mountain lions, bobcats, foxes, and coyotes) for t. gondii infection and examined the distrib ...201424874796
toxoplasma gondii, source to sea: higher contribution of domestic felids to terrestrial parasite loading despite lower infection prevalence.environmental transmission of toxoplasma gondii, a global zoonotic parasite, adversely impacts human and animal health. toxoplasma is a significant cause of mortality in threatened southern sea otters, which serve as sentinels for disease threats to people and animals in coastal environments. as wild and domestic felids are the only recognized hosts capable of shedding toxoplasma oocysts into the environment, otter infection suggests land-to-sea pathogen transmission. to assess relative contribu ...201324048652
the clavicles of smilodon fatalis and panthera atrox (mammalia: felidae) from rancho la brea, los angeles, california.the rancho la brea collections at the george c. page museum in los angeles, california, contain the largest single inventory of smilodon fatalis remains representing virtually every bone in the skeleton. eighteen clavicles of two distinctive shapes have been recovered from historical and recent excavations at rancho la brea. in this study, we identify these specimens to species through comparison of their morphology and morphological variability with clavicles found in modern felids. this study ...201222592918
findings in pinnipeds stranded along the central and northern california coast, 1984-1990.personnel at the marine mammal center (the center) treated 1,446 stranded marine mammals recovered from the central and northern california (usa) coast from 1984 through 1990, including california sea lions (zalophus californianus), northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi), northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus), steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus), and guadalupe fur seals (arctocephalus townsendi). the primary disease findings in st ...19938355344
estimation of male gene flow from measures of nuclear and female genetic approach is provided to estimate male gene flow and the ratio of male to female gene flow, given that there are estimates of diploid, nuclear gene flow and haploid, female gene flow. this approach can be applied to estimates of differentiation (f st ) from biparentally and maternally inherited markers, assuming the equilibrium island model and equal effective numbers of males and females. corrections to formulas used previously for california sea lions (gonzález-suárez m, flatz r, aurioles-ga ...201323894193
sesavirus: prototype of a new parvovirus genus in feces of a sea lion.we describe the nearly complete genome of a highly divergent parvovirus, we tentatively name sesavirus, from the feces of a california sea lion pup (zalophus californianus) suffering from malnutrition and pneumonia. the 5,049-base-long genome contained two major orfs encoding a 553-aa nonstructural protein and a 965-aa structural protein which shared closest amino acid identities of 25 and 28 %, respectively, with members of the copiparvovirus genus known to infect pigs and cows. given the low d ...201525272961
ecological, morphological, and molecular studies of acanthocheilonema odendhali (nematoda: filarioidea) in northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) on st. paul island, alaska.studies of northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus linnaeus, 1758) infection by the filariid nematode acanthocheilonema odendhali were carried out in 2011-2012 on st. paul island, pribilof archipelago, alaska. skins of 502 humanely harvested northern fur seals from haul-out areas of five rookeries, polovina (n = 122), morjovi (n = 54), zapadni (n = 72), lukanin (n = 109), and gorbatch (n = 145), were examined. a. odendhali was found in 18% of northern fur seals. the prevalence of infection ranged ...201323760875
current prevalence of adult uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) and california sea lion (zalophus californianus) pups on san miguel island, california, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.a prevalence survey for hookworms (uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) and california sea lion (zalophus californianus) pups on san miguel island, ca, in 2000. intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in july. these parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. the number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. a direct relationship was evid ...200111390084
comparative biology of uncinaria spp. in the california sea lion (zalophus californianus) and the northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) in california.studies on several aspects of the life cycle of hookworms (uncinaria spp.) in the california sea lion (zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) were conducted on material collected on san miguel island (smi), california and at the marine mammal center, sausalito, california in 1997, 1998, and 1999. examination of z. californianus intestines for adult hookworms and feces for eggs revealed that longevity of these parasites in pups is about 6-8 mo, and infections are prob ...200011191915
molecular and morphometric evidence for separate species of uncinaria (nematoda: ancylostomatidae) in california sea lions and northern fur seals: hypothesis testing supplants verification.california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) are each believed to host distinct hookworm species (uncinaria spp.). however, a recent morphometric analysis suggested that a single species parasitizes multiple pinniped hosts, and that the observed differences are host-induced. to explore the systematics of these hookworms and test these competing hypotheses, we obtained nucleotide sequences of nuclear ribosomal dna (d2/d3 28s, d18/d19 28s, and internal ...200011128487
uncinariasis in northern fur seal and california sea lion pups from california.northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) (n = 25) and california sea lion (zalophus californianus) (n = 53) pups, found dead on rookeries on san miguel island (california, usa), were examined for adult uncinaria spp. prevalence of these nematodes was 96% in fur seal pups and 100% in sea lion pups. mean intensity of uncinaria spp. per infected pup was 643 in fur seals and 1,284 in sea lions. eggs of uncinaria spp. from dead sea lion pups underwent embryonation in an incubator; development to the f ...19979391970
ddt exposure of zebrafish embryos enhances seizure susceptibility: relationship to fetal p,p'-dde burden and domoic acid exposure of california sea lions.california sea lions have a large body burden of organochlorine pesticides, and over the last decade they have also been subject to domoic acid poisoning. domoic acid poisoning, previously recognized in adult animals, is now viewed as a major cause of prenatal mortality. the appearance of a chronic juvenile domoic acid disease in the sea lions, characterized by behavioral abnormalities and epilepsy, is consistent with early life poisoning and may be potentiated by organochlorine burden.200919165389
association of an unusual marine mammal mortality event with pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms along the southern california coastline.during 2002, 2,239 marine mammals stranded in southern california. this unusual marine mammal stranding event was clustered from april to june and consisted primarily of california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and long-beaked common dolphins (delphinus capensis) with severe neurologic signs. intoxication with domoic acid (da), a marine neurotoxin produced during seasonal blooms of pseudo-nitzschia spp., was suspected. definitively linking harmful algal blooms to large-scale marine mammal m ...200919204340
calicivirus antibodies in california gray whales (eschrichtius robustus) and steller sea lions (eumetopias jupatus). 19744441258
mortality related to spotted ratfish (hydrolagus colliei) in pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina) in washington state.tissue perforation and penetration by dorsal fin spines of spotted ratfish (hydrolagus colliei) were responsible for the death of seven harbor seals (phoca vitulina) in washington state (usa) between 2006 and 2011. in six animals, necropsy revealed spines or spine parts that had perforated the esophagus or stomach and migrated into vital tissues, resulting in hemothorax, pneumothorax, pleuritis, and peritonitis. in a seventh case, a ratfish spine was recovered from the mouth of a harbor seal eut ...201223060509
novel gammaherpesviruses in north american domestic cats, bobcats, and pumas: identification, prevalence, and risk factors.gammaherpesviruses (ghvs) are a diverse and rapidly expanding group of viruses associated with a variety of disease conditions in humans and animals. to identify felid ghvs, we screened domestic cat (felis catus), bobcat (lynx rufus), and puma (puma concolor) blood cell dna samples from california, colorado, and florida using a degenerate pan-ghv pcr. additional pan-ghv and long-distance pcrs were used to sequence a contiguous 3.4-kb region of each putative virus species, including partial glyco ...201424453374
development and validation of a fecal pcr assay for notoedres cati and application to notoedric mange cases in bobcats (lynx rufus) in northern california, usa.notoedric mange in felids is a devastating disease caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to the mite notoedres cati. the burrowing of the mite causes intense pruritis resulting in self-mutilation, secondary bacterial infection, and often death of affected felids if left untreated. our understanding of how notoedric mange is maintained in felid populations, and the true geographic extent of infestations, has been hampered because wild felids are elusive and, thus, traditional diagnostic methods a ...201323568905
description of uncinaria lyonsi n. sp. (nematoda: ancylostomatidae) from the california sea lion zalophus californianus lesson (carnivora: otariidae).a new species of hookworm, uncinaria lyonsi n. sp., is described based on morphological studies of the nematodes collected by dr. e. t. lyons from the california sea lion zalophus californianus (lesson) on san miguel island, california, usa. the new species is morphologically similar to three other species of the genus uncinaria frölich, 1789 parasitising pinnipeds, u. lucasi stiles, 1901, u. hamiltoni baylis, 1933 and u. sanguinis marcus, higgins, šlapeta & gray, 2014, in the body dimensions, t ...201525655115
class ii multiformity generated by variable mhc- drb region configurations in the california sea lion ( zalophus californianus).in light of the immunological importance of molecules encoded within the major histocompatibility complex ( mhc), there are numerous studies examining the variability of these genes in wildlife populations. an underlying assumption in many of these studies is that mhc diversity invariably arises from a high level of allelic variation at a single gene locus, leading to widespread descriptions of thriving species with apparently limited mhc polymorphism. indeed, in a previous study we failed to fi ...200414997355
entanglements of marine mammals and seabirds in central california and the north-west coast of the united states 2001-2005.entanglement records for seabirds and marine mammals were investigated for the period 2001-2005. the entanglement records were extracted from databases maintained by seven organizations operating along the west coast of the united states of america. their programmes included beach monitoring surveys, rescue and rehabilitation and regional pinniped censuses. records of 454 entanglements were documented in live animals and in carcasses for 31 bird species and nine marine mammal species. the most f ...200919344921
individual and population level resource selection patterns of mountain lions preying on mule deer along an urban-wildland gradient.understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. however, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. we quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to ur ...201627411098
organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in california sea lions.concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), ddts, chlordanes, hchs, hexachlorobenzene (hcb), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (tcpme), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (tcpmoh) were measured in the blubber of california sea lions (zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. ddts were the most predominant contaminants, followed by pcbs, chlordanes, tcpme, hchs, tcpmoh, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. concentrations of pcbs and ddts varied from a few microg/g to s ...200415261406
the distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of north american pacific coast of the chemical breakdown products of nonylphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol (4-np), accumulates in organisms and is of concern as an environmental pollutant due to its endocrine disrupting effects. we measured 4-np levels in the seawater, sediment, and twelve organisms within the california estuary, morro bay, and examined biomagnification of 4-np using stable isotope abundances (δ(15)n and δ(13)c) to quantify trophic position. 4-np concentrations in organisms from morro bay included 25000± ...201222257992
indirect effects of conservation policies on the coupled human-natural ecosystem of the upper gulf of california.high bycatch of non-target species and species of conservation concern often drives the implementation of fisheries policies. however, species- or fishery-specific policies may lead to indirect consequences, positive or negative, for other species or fisheries. we use an atlantis ecosystem model of the northern gulf of california to evaluate the effects of fisheries policies directed at reducing bycatch of vaquita (phocoena sinus) on other species of conservation concern, priority target species ...201323691155
hypervirulent klebsiella pneumoniae in california sea lions ( zalophus californianus): pathologic findings in natural infections.tissues of stranded california sea lions ( zalophus californianus) naturally infected with a hyperviruluent strain of klebsiella pneumoniae were examined by histopathology and immunohistochemistry against the k. pneumoniae k2 capsular antigen. in 7 of 8 animals, there was severe purulent bronchopneumonia, sometimes complicated by fibrinonecrotizing pleuritis with pyothorax. in affected areas of lung, large numbers of degenerate neutrophils and macrophages were admixed with rare large extracellul ...201728494709
prevalence and characterization of salmonella shed by captive and free-range california sea lions (zalophus californianus) from a rehabilitation center and three state reserves along the california coast.salmonella is a genus of zoonotic bacteria that can infect a variety of animals, and may cause gastrointestinal disease in marine mammals. many of the same salmonella serotypes are shed by california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and humans, which poses transmission questions and public health concerns. in this study, 454 fecal samples from three free-ranging california sea lion populations along the california coast and from animals undergoing rehabilitation at the marine mammal center, sa ...201425314819
organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and butyltin compounds in blubber and livers of stranded california sea lions, elephant seals, and harbor seals from coastal california, usa.concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), ddts (p,p'-dde, p,p'-ddd, p,p'-ddt), chlordanes (chls; cis-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (hchs), hexachlorobenzene (hcb), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (tcpme), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (tcpmoh), and mono- (mbt), di-(dbt), and tri-butyltin (tbt) were determined in blubber and livers of 15 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 6 northern elephant seals (mirounga augustirost ...200111385594
polybrominated diphenyl ethers in pinnipeds stranded along the southern california coast.little to no information exists for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) in marine mammals frequenting the highly urbanized southern california (usa) coast. fourteen pbde congeners were determined by gc-ecni-ms in blubber of pinnipeds stranded locally between 1994 and 2006. total pbde concentrations (sigmapbde) in california sea lion (n = 63) ranged from 0.04 to 33.7 microg/g wet weight (mean: 5.24 microg/g). to our knowledge, these are the highest reported pbde levels in marine mammals to dat ...200919487060
contaminants still high in top-level carnivores in the southern california bight: levels of ddt and pcbs in resident and transient pinnipeds.highly industrialized areas, such as the southern california bight, often have high levels of contaminants in marine sediments, which can cause chronic exposure to organisms long after their use has ceased. tddt and tpcb were analyzed in the blubber of 145 stranded pinnipeds that died at local marine mammal centers between 1994 and 2006. resident species (california sea lion and pacific harbor seal) had significantly higher concentrations of tddt and tpcb than the transient species (northern ele ...200818835609
urate nephrolithiasis in a northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) and a california sea lion (zalophus californianus).nephrolithiasis has rarely been reported in marine mammals. during 2004 and 2005, two cases of nephrolithiasis were diagnosed during routine necropsy examination, one in a northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) and one in a california sea lion (zalophus californianus). nephroliths were found throughout both kidneys during necropsy examination, varying in size from 1-10 mm in diameter in the northern elephant seal and from 1-15 mm in diameter in the california sea lion. necropsy and his ...200717469285
first findings of cryptosporidium and giardia in california sea lions (zalophus californianus).we report the detection and identification of cryptosporidium and giardia from 1 of 3 species of pinnipeds. fecal samples were collected from pacific harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardsi), northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris), and california sea lion (zalophus californianus) in the northern california coastal area. by means of fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies, cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 3 samples from california sea lions, 1 of which also contained giardia c ...200010864244
initial validation of blubber cortisol and progesterone as indicators of stress response and maturity in an otariid; the california sea lion (zalophus californianus).chronic stress can have detrimental effects on an individual's health and reproductive success. the use of cortisol quantification as an indicator of stress in free-ranging cetaceans and phocids is increasing but no studies have applied this technique on blubber in otariids. we measured cortisol concentrations in blubber samples obtained from california sea lions, zalophus californianus, stranded in san diego county and those incidentally killed in the california drift gillnet fishery. we also m ...201728690049
climatic anomaly affects the immune competence of california sea lions.the past decades have been characterized by a growing number of climatic anomalies. as these anomalies tend to occur suddenly and unexpectedly, it is often difficult to procure empirical evidence of their effects on natural populations. we analysed how the recent sea surface temperature (sst) anomaly in the northeastern pacific ocean affects body condition, nutritional status, and immune competence of california sea lion pups. we found that pup body condition and blood glucose levels of the pups ...201728658317
olfactory enrichment in california sea lions (zalophus californianus): an effective tool for captive welfare?in the wild, california sea lions (zalophus californianus) are exposed to a wide variety of sensory information, which cannot be replicated in captive environments. therefore, unique procedures are necessary for maintaining physiological and psychological health in nonhuman animals in captivity. the effects of introducing natural scents to captive enclosures have been investigated in a variety of species, yet they have not been examined in marine mammals. this project explored the behavioral eff ...201727827545
interactions between demography, genetics, and landscape connectivity increase extinction probability for a small population of large carnivores in a major metropolitan area.the extinction vortex is a theoretical model describing the process by which extinction risk is elevated in small, isolated populations owing to interactions between environmental, demographic, and genetic factors. however, empirical demonstrations of these interactions have been elusive. we modelled the dynamics of a small mountain lion population isolated by anthropogenic barriers in greater los angeles, california, to evaluate the influence of demographic, genetic, and landscape factors on ex ...201627581877
pathogenic leptospira serovars in free-living sea lions in the gulf of california and along the baja california coast of mexico.the california sea lion ( zalophus californianus ), a permanent inhabitant of the gulf of california in mexico, is susceptible to pathogenic leptospira spp. infection, which can result in hepatic and renal damage and may lead to renal failure and death. during summer 2013, we used the microscopic agglutination test (mat) to investigate the prevalence of anti-leptospira antibodies in blood of clinically healthy sea lion pups from seven rookery islands on the pacific coast of baja california (paci ...201626967136
california sea lion (zalophus californianus) and harbor seal (phoca vitulina richardii) bites and contact abrasions in open-water swimmers: a series of 11 review cases of bites and contact abrasions in open-water swimmers from california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii).201526507612
the use of surrogate data in demographic population viability analysis: a case study of california sea lions.reliable data necessary to parameterize population models are seldom available for imperiled species. as an alternative, data from populations of the same species or from ecologically similar species have been used to construct models. in this study, we evaluated the use of demographic data collected at one california sea lion colony (los islotes) to predict the population dynamics of the same species from two other colonies (san jorge and granito) in the gulf of california, mexico, for which de ...201526413746
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