waterbird susceptibility to avian cholera at hayward marsh, california, usa.we characterized past avian cholera outbreaks in waterbirds at hayward marsh, california, us. in 2013, we surveyed populations and determined the presence of disease using several diagnostic methods, including behavioral and physical observations, field necropsy, and bacterial culture. we compiled this information with data from previous outbreaks from 1990-2012 to compare waterbird abundance to various measures of mortality, including percentage of mortality and percentage of difference between ...201627258407
salt toxicosis in ruddy ducks that winter on an agricultural evaporation basin in california.agricultural evaporation basins are used as a means to dispose of highly saline underground-tile-drainage water in the san joaquin valley (california, usa). the hypersaline water conditions encourage high aquatic invertebrate production, primarily brine shrimp (artemia franciscana), which attract birds to these sites. cool winter temperatures (< 4 c) and hypersaline water conditions (> 70,000 mumhos/cm) resulted in feather salt encrustation and salt toxicosis in ruddy ducks (oxyura jamaicensis). ...200211838203
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