nodular suppurative cutaneous cellulitis in a galapagos sea lion.necropsy was performed on a sea lion (zalophus californianus wollebaeki), sacrificed in an advanced (pre-terminal) stage of disease, possibly represenatative of the galapagos epizootic of 1970-71. predominant features of the disease were nonumbilicated multiple suppurative cutaneous nodules, debilitation and loss of motor power. histopathological studies of the skin lesions disclosed suppurative cellulitis, with leucocytic invasion extending, in some instances, to all layers of the epidermis. ps ...1975807749
beyond habitat requirements: individual fine-scale site fidelity in a colony of the galapagos sea lion (zalophus wollebaeki) creates conditions for social fidelity has been widely discussed, but rarely been related explicitly to a species' social context. this is surprising, as fine-scale site fidelity constitutes an important structural component in animal societies by setting limits to an individual's social interaction space. the study of fine-scale site fidelity is complicated by the fact that it is inextricably linked to patterns of habitat use. we here document fine-scale site fidelity in the galapagos sea lion (zalophus wollebaeki) str ...200717505851
rotavirus infections in galapagos sea a rotaviruses infect and cause diarrhea in the young of a broad range of terrestrial mammals, but it is unknown, to our knowledge, whether they infect marine mammals. during february and march of 2002 and 2003, we collected 125 serum samples and 18 rectal swab samples from galapagos sea lion pups (gsl, zalophus wollebaeki), and 22 serum samples from galapagos fur seal pups (gfs, arctocephalus galapagoensis) from nine islands of the galapagos archipelago, ecuador. sera were tested for antib ...200919617482
ddt in endangered galapagos sea lions (zalophus wollebaeki).we characterize for the first time the presence of ddt and its metabolites in tropical galapagos sea lions (zalophus wolleabeki). ?ddt concentrations in galapagos sea lion pups sampled in 2005 and 2008 ranged from 16 to 3070 µg/kg lipid. concentrations of ?ddt in pups in 2008 averaged 525 µg/kg lipid and were 1.9 times higher than that (281 µg/kg lipid) detected in pups in 2005. these concentrations are lower than those reported in many pinnipeds elsewhere, comparable to those in hawaiian monk s ...201121353257
immobilisation of free-ranging galapagos sea lions (zalophus californianus wollebaeki).nine free-ranging galápagos sea lions were immobilised for marking, using a combination of ketamine (3 to 5 mg per kg) and xylazine (0.5 to 1.0 mg per kg). the degree of effect depended largely on the animals' behavioural and physiological state before immobilisation (after parturition, high arousal, subject to aggression, etc.) all nine animals survived. overheating in the immobilised state may quickly result in heart and circulatory failures.2004516341
pup mortality and evidence for pathogen exposure in galapagos sea lions (zalophus wollebaeki) on san cristobal island, galapagos, ecuador.the galapagos sea lion ( zalophus wollebaeki ), an endangered species, experiences high pup mortality (up to 100%) in years when el niño events reduce food supply in the galapagos islands. mortality of pups in non-el niño years is estimated to be 5% in undisturbed colonies. from 2009 to 2012 we observed high pup mortality (up to 66%) in colonies close to the galapagos capital, puerto baquerizo moreno, where contact with humans, domestic animals, and rats is frequent. gross postmortem findings fr ...201728318380
same size--same niche? foraging niche separation between sympatric juvenile galapagos sea lions and adult galapagos fur seals.1. in vertebrates, patterns of resource utilization change throughout development according to age- and or size-specific abilities and requirements. thus, interspecific competition affects different age classes differently. 2. adults of sympatric species often show distinct foraging niche segregation, but juvenile resource use might overlap with adult competitors of similar body size. resultant negative effects on juveniles can have important consequences for population dynamics, yet such intera ...201323351022
stable isotopes reveal long-term fidelity to foraging grounds in the galapagos sea lion (zalophus wollebaeki).most otariids have colony-specific foraging areas during the breeding season, when they behave as central place foragers. however, they may disperse over broad areas after the breeding season and individuals from different colonies may share foraging grounds at that time. here, stable isotope ratios in the skull bone of adult galapagos sea lions (zalophus wollebaeki) were used to assess the long-term fidelity of both sexes to foraging grounds across the different regions of the galapagos archipe ...201626808381
context-dependent associations between heterozygosity and immune variation in a wild carnivore.a multitude of correlations between heterozygosity and fitness proxies associated with disease have been reported from wild populations, but the genetic basis of these associations is unresolved. we used a longitudinal dataset on wild galapagos sea lions (zalophus wollebaeki) to develop a relatively new perspective on this problem, by testing for associations between heterozygosity and immune variation across age classes and between ecological contexts.201526537228
competition influence in the segregation of the trophic niche of otariids: a case study using isotopic bayesian mixing models in galapagos pinnipeds.the feeding success of predators is associated with the competition level for resources, and, thus, sympatric species are exposed to a potential trophic overlap. isotopic bayesian mixing models should provide a better understanding of the contribution of preys to the diet of predators and the feeding behavior of a species over time.201425366402
immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal.within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. however, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. the endangered galapagos sea lion (zalophus wollebaeki) is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic ani ...201323840603
mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the galapagos sea many mammals, early survival differs between the sexes, with males proving the more fragile sex ["fragile male (fm) hypothesis"], especially in sexually dimorphic species where males are the larger sex. male-biased allocation (mba) by females may offset this difference. here, we evaluate support for the fm and mba hypotheses using a dataset on galapagos sea lions (zalophus wollebaeki). we statistically model sex-specific survival as it depends on body mass and environmental conditions (sea su ...201323053230
ddt strikes back: galapagos sea lions face increasing health risks. 201121809785
polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in galapagos sea lions (zalophus wollebaeki).concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (pcdfs) were measured in muscle-blubber biopsy samples from 21 galapagos sea lion (zalophus wollebaeki) pups that were live captured in the galapagos islands (ecuador) using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. only traces of pbdes were detected in one male pup, whereas pcdds and pcdfs were not detected in any sa ...200919499971
sea lions massacred in galapagos for sex organs. 200111473276
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