Publications

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mercury concentrations in muscle, brain and bone of western alaskan waterfowl.total mercury (thg), which includes both inorganic (hg(2+)) and methylmercury (mehg) species, has been reported for seabirds in the north pacific and alaska. for the yup'ik and aleut people of alaska, waterfowl are a small but important seasonal component of the diet, but many alaskan species have not been studied extensively for the presence of mercury. birds are good subjects for examination of mercury concentrations because they feed at different trophic levels, they can be long-lived, and ma ...200516076480
influenza a viruses in wild birds of the pacific flyway, 2005-2008.avian influenza viruses (aivs) pose a significant threat to public health, and viral subtypes circulating in natural avian reservoirs can contribute to the emergence of pathogenic influenza viruses in humans. we investigated the prevalence and distribution of aivs in 8826 migratory and resident wild birds in north america along the pacific flyway, which is a major north-south migration pathway that overlaps with four other flyways in alaska providing opportunities for mixing of eurasian and amer ...201020059316
mx gene diversity and influenza association among five wild dabbling duck species (anas spp.) in alaska.mx (myxovirus-resistant) proteins are induced by interferon and inhibit viral replication as part of the innate immune response to viral infection in many vertebrates. influenza a virus appears to be especially susceptible to mx antiviral effects. we characterized exon 13 and the 3' utr of the mx gene in wild ducks, the natural reservoir of influenza virus and explored its potential relevance to influenza infection. we observed a wide range of intra- and interspecies variations. total nucleotide ...201020621205
cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective.abstract the spread of avian influenza viruses (aiv) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of aiv between breeding and wintering areas. this cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few aiv studies that present cross-seasonal information. a flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of aiv over l ...201121995264
interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among alaska dabbling ducks.the reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact lpai genomes among species and locations. to examine persistence of entire lpai genome constellations in alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome lpai viruses isolated across 4 years from five species of duck: northern pintail (anas acuta), mallard (anas platyrhynchos), american green-winged teal (anas ...201121964597
genetic structure of pacific flyway avian influenza viruses is shaped by geographic location, host species, and sampling period.the eight gene segments of avian influenza virus (aiv) reassort frequently and rapidly to generate novel genotypes and subtypes that are transmissible to a broad range of hosts. there is evidence that aiv can have a restricted host range and can segregate in space and time. host-virus relationships at the species, geographic, and spatial scales have not been fully defined for aiv populations of the pacific flyway, particularly among the diverse waterfowl that occupy the flyway in alaska and cali ...201222222690
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