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seroprevalence of three paramyxoviruses; hendra virus, tioman virus, cedar virus and a rhabdovirus, australian bat lyssavirus, in a range expanding fruit bat, the grey-headed flying fox (pteropus poliocephalus).habitat-mediated global change is driving shifts in species' distributions which can alter the spatial risks associated with emerging zoonotic pathogens. many emerging infectious pathogens are transmitted by highly mobile species, including bats, which can act as spill-over hosts for pathogenic viruses. over three years, we investigated the seroepidemiology of paramyxoviruses and australian bat lyssavirus in a range-expanding fruit bat, the grey-headed flying fox (pteropus poliocephalus), in a n ...202032374743
differential innate immune responses elicited by nipah virus and cedar virus correlate with disparate in vivo pathogenesis in hamsters.syrian hamsters (mesocricetus auratus) are a pathogenesis model for the nipah virus (niv), and we sought to determine if they are also susceptible to the cedar virus (cedpv). following intranasal inoculation with cedpv, virus replication occurred in the lungs and spleens of infected hamsters, a neutralizing antibody was produced in some hamsters within 8 days post-challenge, and no conspicuous signs of disease occurred. cedpv replicated to a similar magnitude as niv-bangladesh in type i ifn-defi ...201930909389
distinct cell transcriptomic landscapes upon henipavirus infections.hendra virus (hev) and cedar virus (cedv) are henipaviruses, which fall into the paramyxoviridae family of single-stranded, negative-sense rna viruses. hev is classified as a biosafety level-4 (bsl-4) agent, as it is highly pathogenic and is often fatal to humans. to date, no hev prevention or treatment methods for human are available. in contrast, previous experimental infection studies have suggested that cedv is non-pathogenic. flying foxes (pteropid bats) in australia are the natural reservo ...202032508793
analysis of nipah virus codon usage and adaptation to hosts.a recent outbreak of nipah virus (niv) in india has caused 17 deaths in people living in districts of kerala state. its zoonotic nature, as well as high rate of human-to-human transmission, has led researchers worldwide to work toward understanding the different aspects of the niv. we performed a codon usage analysis, based on publicly available nucleotide sequences of niv and its host adaptation, along with other members of the henipavirus genus in ten hosts. niv genome encodes nine open readin ...201931156564
a novel field-deployable method for sequencing and analyses of henipavirus genomes from complex samples on the minion platform.viruses in the genus henipavirus encompass 2 highly pathogenic emerging zoonotic pathogens, hendra virus (hev) and nipah virus (niv). despite the impact on human health, there is currently limited full-genome sequence information available for henipaviruses. this lack of full-length genomes hampers our ability to understand the molecular drivers of henipavirus emergence. furthermore, rapidly deployable viral genome sequencing can be an integral part of outbreak response and epidemiological inves ...202031784761
importance of endocytosis for the biological activity of cedar virus fusion protein.endocytosis plays a particular role in the proteolytic activation of highly pathogenic henipaviruses hendra (hev) and nipah virus (niv) fusion (f) protein precursors. these proteins require endocytic uptake from the cell surface to be cleaved by cellular proteases within the endosomal compartment, followed by recycling to the plasma membrane for incorporation into budding virions or mediation of cell-cell fusion. this internalization largely depends on a tyrosine-based consensus motif for endocy ...202032911832
cedar virus: a novel henipavirus isolated from australian bats.the genus henipavirus in the family paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, hendra virus (hev) and nipah virus (niv) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, cedar virus (cedpv), which shares signif ...201222879820
isolation of multiple novel paramyxoviruses from pteropid bat urine.bats have been found to harbour a number of new emerging viruses with zoonotic potential, and there has been a great deal of interest in identifying novel bat pathogens to determine the risk to human and animal health. many groups have identified novel viruses in bats by detection of viral nucleic acid; however, virus isolation is still a challenge, and there are few reports of viral isolates from bats. in recent years, our group has developed optimized procedures for virus isolation from bat ur ...201525228492
the non-pathogenic henipavirus cedar paramyxovirus phosphoprotein has a compromised ability to target stat1 and stat2.immune evasion by the lethal henipaviruses, hendra (hev) and nipah virus, is mediated by its interferon (ifn) antagonist p gene products, phosphoprotein (p), and the related v and w proteins, which can target the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (stat1) and stat2 proteins to inhibit ifn/stat signaling. however, it is not clear if the recently identified non-pathogenic henipavirus, cedar paramyxovirus (cedpv), is also able to antagonize the stat proteins. we performed comparativ ...201526526590
hendra virus infection dynamics in the grey-headed flying fox (pteropus poliocephalus) at the southern-most extent of its range: further evidence this species does not readily transmit the virus to horses.hendra virus (hev) is an important emergent virus in australia known to infect horses and humans in certain regions of the east coast. whilst pteropid bats ("flying foxes") are considered the natural reservoir of hev, which of the four mainland species is the principal reservoir has been a source of ongoing debate, particularly as shared roosting is common. to help resolve this, we sampled a colony consisting of just one of these species, the grey-headed flying fox, (pteropus poliocephalus), at ...201627304985
nuclear localization and secretion competence is conserved amongst henipavirus matrix proteins.viruses of the genus henipavirus of the family paramyxoviridae are zoonotic pathogens, which have emerged in south east asia, australia and africa. nipah virus (niv) and hendra virus (hev) are highly virulent pathogens transmitted from bats to animals and humans, whilst the henipavirus cedar virus (cedv) seems to be non-pathogenic in infection studies. the full replication cycle of the paramyxoviridae occurs in the host cell's cytoplasm where viral assembly is orchestrated by the matrix (m) prot ...201728056216
structural and functional analyses reveal promiscuous and species specific use of ephrin receptors by cedar virus.cedar virus (cedv) is a bat-borne henipavirus related to nipah virus (niv) and hendra virus (hev), zoonotic agents of fatal human disease. cedv receptor-binding protein (g) shares only ∼30% sequence identity with those of niv and hev, although they can all use ephrin-b2 as an entry receptor. we demonstrate that cedv also enters cells through additional b- and a-class ephrins (ephrin-b1, ephrin-a2, and ephrin-a5) and report the crystal structure of the cedv g ectodomain alone and in complex with ...201931548390
rescue and characterization of recombinant cedar virus, a non-pathogenic henipavirus species.hendra virus and nipah virus are zoonotic viruses that have caused severe to fatal disease in livestock and human populations. the isolation of cedar virus, a non-pathogenic virus species in the genus henipavirus, closely-related to the highly pathogenic hendra virus and nipah virus offers an opportunity to investigate differences in pathogenesis and receptor tropism among these viruses.201829587789
a key region of molecular specificity orchestrates unique ephrin-b1 utilization by cedar virus.the emergent zoonotic henipaviruses, hendra, and nipah are responsible for frequent and fatal disease outbreaks in domestic animals and humans. specificity of henipavirus attachment glycoproteins (g) for highly species-conserved ephrin ligands underpins their broad host range and is associated with systemic and neurological disease pathologies. here, we demonstrate that cedar virus (cedv)-a related henipavirus that is ostensibly nonpathogenic-possesses an idiosyncratic entry receptor repertoire ...202031862858
henipavirus infections: lessons from animal models.the henipavirus genus contains two highly lethal viruses, the hendra and nipah viruses and one, recently discovered, apparently nonpathogenic member; cedar virus. these three, negative-sense single-stranded rna viruses, are hosted by fruit bats and use ephrinb2 receptors for entry into cells. the hendra and nipah viruses are zoonotic pathogens that emerged in the middle of 90s and have caused severe, and often fatal, neurologic and/or respiratory diseases in both humans and different animals; in ...201325437037
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