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spongiform encephalopathies in cervidae.the known host range of naturally-occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has expanded in recent years to include wild ruminants. chronic wasting disease (cwd) occurs in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado and wyoming, united states of america. these species belong to the family cervidae. cases have occurred primarily in captive animals but a few affected free-ranging animals have been identified. clinical disease in bo ...19921617203
neuropathology of chronic wasting disease of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).the pathology of the central nervous system of nine mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and six elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, a spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer and elk, was studied by light microscopy. lesions were similar in both species and were characterized by spongiform transformation of gray matter, intracytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, neuronal degeneration and loss, astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, occurrence of amyloid plaques, and absence of si ...19938442326
sequencing analysis of prion genes from red deer and camel.an abnormal isoform of the prion protein (prp) appears to be the agent responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse). the normal isoform of prp is host-encoded and expressed in the central nervous system. the recent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) epidemic in the uk and the incidence of prion-related diseases in other animals could indicate that ruminants are highly susceptible to infection via ingestion of prion-contaminated food. sequence analysis of prp gene open read ...19979358067
prp genotypes of captive and free-ranging rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.the prp gene encodes the putative causative agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), a heterogeneous group of fatal, neurodegenerative disorders including human creutzfeldt-jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, ovine scrapie and chronic wasting disease (cwd) of north american deer and elk. polymorphisms in the prp gene are associated with variations in relative susceptibility, pathological lesion patterns, incubation times and clinical course of tses of humans, m ...199910573173
chronic wasting disease in deer and elk in north america.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has emerged as an important disease of wildlife in north america. the disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) or prion diseases, which naturally affect only a few species. of the tses, cwd is the only one found in free-ranging species. however, interest in cwd has recently grown, by association with the better-known tses such as variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease of humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. knowledge of t ...200211974617
chronic wasting disease of cervids.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has recently emerged in north america as an important prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervids (species in the deer family). cwd is the only recognized transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting free-ranging species. three cervid species, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), are the only known natural hosts of cwd. endemic cwd is well established in southern wyomin ...200415148993
chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). the natural history of cwd is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. cwd has many features in common with scrapie, including early widespread distribution of disease ...200516145200
experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse), a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse), primarily affects cattle. transmission is via concentrate feed rations contaminated with infected meat and bone meal (mbm). in addition to cattle, other food animal species are susceptible to bse and also pose a potential threat to human health as consumption of infected meat products is the cause of variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease in humans, which is invariably fatal. in the uk, farmed and ...200818507844
disease-specific motifs can be identified in circulating nucleic acids from live elk and cattle infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.to gain insight into the disease progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse), we searched for disease-specific patterns in circulating nucleic acids (cna) in elk and cattle. in a 25-month time-course experiment, cnas were isolated from blood samples of 24 elk (cervus elaphus) orally challenged with chronic wasting disease (cwd) infectious material. in a separate experiment, blood-sample cnas from 29 experimental cattle (bos taurus) 40 months post-inoculation with clinical bovi ...200919059996
immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of bse and cwd in experimentally infected european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).the cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) epidemic in the united kingdom (uk) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. although there are no reported cases to date of natural bse in european deer, bse has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. moreo ...200919635142
rapid detection of cwd prp: comparison of tests designed for the detection of bse or scrapie.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) mainly affecting cervids in north america. the accumulation of an abnormal form of host-encoded prion protein (prp(cwd) ) in the cns and lymphoid tissues is characteristic of the disease and known to be caused by pathogenic prion proteins (prp(res) ), which are thought to be transmitted mainly by contact with body fluids, such like saliva. species known to be naturally infected by cwd include rocky mountain elk (cer ...201122212828
assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice overexpressing deer prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.several transgenic mouse models have been developed which facilitate the transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) of cervids and allow prion strain discrimination. the present study was designed to assess the susceptibility of the prototypic mouse line, tg(cerprp)1536(+/-), to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) prions, which have the ability to overcome species barriers. tg(cerprp)1536(+/-) mice challenged with red deer-adapted bse resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and bse from catt ...201424257620
susceptibility of european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) to alimentary challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) are susceptible to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, when challenged intracerebrally but their susceptibility to alimentary challenge, the presumed natural route of transmission, is unknown. to determine this, eighteen deer were challenged via stomach tube with a large dose of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent and clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, presence and dist ...201525615837
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