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ependymomas, malignant tumors of pancreatic islets, and osteosarcomas induced in hamsters by bk virus, a human papovavirus.bk virus (bkv), a human papovavirus, was inoculated iv into 3-week-old syrian golden hamsters. between 2 1/2 and 9 months after inoculation, 82% of the animals developed tumors. the induced neoplasms were ependymoma, carcinoma of the pancreatic islets, osteosarcoma, adenocarcinoma, angiosarcoma, angioma, lymphoma, and seminoma. hypersecretion of insulin, glucagon, c-peptide, and calcitonin was detected in tumors of pancreatic islets. bkv etiology of tumors was supported by the following evidence ...1978211243
transformation of african green monkey kidney cells with the rf strain of human papovavirus bkv. 1978206005
high incidence of ependymomas induced by bk virus, a human papovavirus: brief communication.ependymomas were produced in 44 of 50 syrian golden hamsters and in 9 of 31 outbred swiss mice inoculated intracerebrally with high-titer, purified bk virus (bkv). tumors contained a t-antigen that reacted with bkv-specific t-antibody in immunofluorescence and complement-fixation tests. a proportion of tumor-bearing animals had antibodies to bkv t-antigen in their sera. bkv could be rescued from two tumor cell lines by sendal virus-mediated fusion with vero cells. a low, or lack of, oncogenic ac ...1977198571
induction of papillary ependymomas and insulinomas in the syrian golden hamster by bk virus, a human papovavirus.newborn hamsters were inoculated intracerebrally with bk virus. between 3 and 6 months after inoculation, they developed papillary ependymoma (8 hamsters, 42%) or functional malignant islet cell tumors of the pancreas (insulinoma, 8 hamsters), or both (1 hamster). both tumors contained an antigen reactive to sv40 t-antibody, suggesting that at least a part of bk virus genomen has been integrated into the tumor cells. no infectious virus was detected in the extract of these tumors.1976191323
five dna tumor viruses undetectable in human retinoblastomas.retinoblastoma (rb) is a childhood eye cancer that arises when a retinal cell lacks a functional rb gene. recent data indicate the transforming proteins of adenovirus, papillomavirus, and the polyomaviruses bk and jc all can bind to the product of the rb gene. furthermore, adenovirus 12, jc virus, and simian virus 40 are able to induce rb-like tumors in rodents. in view of these findings, 50 human rbs were tested for the presence of five human dna tumor viruses: adenovirus 12, bk virus, jc virus ...19921559753
polynucleotide sequences common to the genomes of simian virus 40 and the human papovaviruses jc and bk. 1976183358
jc virus, a human polyomavirus associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: additional biological characteristics and antigenic relationships.jc virus, a human polyomavirus, failed to grow or produce cytopathic effects in any of a variety of cells tested other than primary human fetal glial (phfg) cells. cells tested included other primary human cells and glial cells from other animals. only a rare cell in inoculated insusceptible human cell cultures produced t or virion antigen. in phfg cell cultures jc virus produced subtle cytopathic effects, and the majority of progeny remained cell associated. only a few cells in the heterogenous ...1977191404
effect of beta-propiolactone on infectivity and haemagglutinin of the bk virus.the effect of beta-propiolactone (bpl) on the infectivity and haemagglutinating properties of bk virus was studied. no virus multiplication was observed when vero cell cultures were inoculated with virus treated with 0.1 per cent or higher concentration of bpl. on the other hand, treatment of bk virus with 0.1 per cent or lower concentration of bpl had no apparent effect on viral haemagglutinin. bpl at a concentration of 0.1 per cent could therefore be used to prepare bk virus haemagglutinin whi ...1975168727
nucleotide sequence of the dna replication origin for human papovavirus bkv: sequence and structural homology with sv40.dna and rna sequencing techniques were used to obtain the sequence surrounding the origin of dna replication for human papovavirus bkv. the structure is characterized by a true palindrome of 17 residues followed by two sets of symmetrical sequences and a stretch of 20 at residues. within the two symmetrical sequences is a segment containing a strong purine bias, 23 of 26 nucleotides. these structures are similar, if not identical, to those found in the region of the sv40 replication, origin. wit ...1978203403
virion polypeptide composition of the human papovavirus bk: comparison with simian virus 40 and polyoma virus.the polypeptide composition of labeled bk virus was compared with that of simian virus 40 (sv40) and polyoma virus by co-electrophoresis of disrupted virions in polyacrylamide gels containing approximately 73% of the capsid protein and had a molecular weight of 39,000. it was smaller than vp1 of sv40 and polyoma virus. the other polypeptides of bk virus were similar in molecular weight to those of sv40. a comparison of the proteins of bk virus and sv40 iodinated with chloramine t before and aft ...1975163921
characterization of human papovavirus bk dna.the dna of the bk virus (bkv) human papovavirus was found to be heterogeneous, consisting of at least four discrete species of dna. only the largest of these four species, bkv dna (i), which has a molecular weight calculated to be 96% that of simian virus 40 (sv40) dna, was infectious. homogeneous preparations of bkv dna were obtained, however, from virions purified after low multiplicity infections of human embryonic kidney cells. bkv dna (i) was shown to contain a single r-eco ri and four r-hi ...1975163342
new human papovaviruses. 197662371
comparative study of papovavirus dna: bkv(mm), bkv(wt) and sv40.extensive physical mapping revealed that approximately 90% of the genomes of bkv(prototype, wt) and bkv (mm strain) are identical or closely related. nucleotide sequences of the non-homologous regions and a large portion of the homologous regions have been determined for both genomes. the coding sequence of small t antigen of bkv(mm) is 216 nucleotides shorter than that of bkv(wt), even though no differences in biological function of the t antigen was observed. both genomes contain three similar ...1979228246
effect of the incubation temperature on the multiplication of bk virus, a human papovavirus. 1978225601
elevated expression of t-antigen in skin fibroblasts from individuals with cytogenetic anomalies infected in vitro with simian or human papovaviruses. 1977193118
antibodies to bk virus structural and tumor antigens in human sera from normal persons and from patients with various diseases, including neoplasia.sera from 1,279 patients with various diseases were examined for the presence of antibodies to bk virus (bkv) capsid antigens. the percentage of positive sera was comparable in all the diseases except rheumatoid arthritis and chronic nephropathies, where a slightly higher prevalence was found. sera from 952 patients with tumors were examined for the presence of antibodies to bkv tumor and capsid antigens in comparison with a matched control group of 501 blood donors. sera from 11 tumor patients ...1976184044
sarcoma in a hamster inoculated with bk virus, a human papovavirus.an undifferentiated sarcoma occurred in 1 of 52 hamsters inoculated when newborn with bk virus (bkv), a simian virus 40 (sv40)-related human papovavirus. it was transplantable and grew in tissue culture. sera of tumor-bearing hamsters were without antibodies reactive to bkv virion antigens in hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralizationtexts, but contained antibodies reactive in immunofluorescence (if) tests to sv40 t antigen in sv40-transformed cells and to antigens in cells acutely infected ...1975165302
preparation of monoclonal antibodies to jc virus and their use in the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy.seven monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to polyomavirus jc were produced, and one was selected for use in immunofluorescence (if) tests on brain material from patients with suspected progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (pml). the selected mab (5.12.2) reacted by if with jc-infected primary human foetal glial (phfg) cell cultures (titre 1/200,000) but not with bk-infected human embryo lung (hel) fibroblasts (titre less than 1/20). its haemagglutination-inhibition (hi) titre was high (greater th ...19911653819
oncogenic properties of human viruses. 1975170197
[new human polyomavirus: comparison of hemagglutination inhibition, elisa and complement fixation tests for bk virus serology].in this study, 110 sera samples taken from healthy persons were tested for bk virus antibodies by using hemagglutination inhibition (hi), elisa and complement fixation (cf) tests to detect the sensitivity, specificity and agreement of these tests. the results of each individual test was compared with others for sensitivity and specificity. specificity found to be 96% when hi and cf tests were compared. sensitivity also found to be 92.7% when cf and elisa tests were compared. agreement of hi and ...19911662333
constitutive expression of hiv-1 tat protein in human jurkat t cells using a bk virus vector.the production and characterization of jurkat cell lines that constitutively express functional human immune deficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) tat protein, using a bk virus plasmid expression vector and hiv-1 tat cdna, is described. an increased growth rate of these jurkat-tat cell lines as compared with control cell lines was observed.19902156043
[human seroepidemiology polyoma virus bk in umbria].a serological study on the antibody level against bk virus in healthy population and respiratory patients in umbria was performed. serum samples of 465 healthy people and 155 patients grouped by age, were tested using hai. 47% of all sera was positive. the epidemiological implications are discussed.1976191046
interspecies-, species- and type-specific t antigenic determinants of human papovaviruses (jc and bk) and of simian virus 40.immunofluorescence tests, absorption studies and quantitative analysis by a very sensitive 51cr microcomplement fixation (cf) technique were used to define the degree of relatedness between the tumor (t) antigens induced by human papovaviruses, strain jc and bk, with simian virus 40(sv40) and mouse polyoma virus (pyv). antisera against jcv, bkv, sv40 and pyv t were raised in tumor-bearing hamsters. the data obtained indicate that t antigens of jcv, bkv and sv40 possess various subspecificities w ...197772046
rapid detection of polyomavirus bk by a shell vial cell culture assay.polyomavirus bk (bkv) causes asymptomatic latent infection in the human host that is reactivated during periods of immune suppression. detection by conventional tube cell culture is difficult and time consuming because bkv exhibits slow growth with late (14 to 28 days) and subtle cytopathic effects. we developed a shell vial cell culture assay (sva) using a cross-reactive monoclonal antibody to the t antigen of simian virus 40 to detect bkv rapidly by indirect immunofluorescence. nuclear fluores ...19902166090
early regions of jc virus and bk virus induce distinct and tissue-specific tumors in transgenic mice.jc virus and bk virus are ubiquitous human viruses that share sequence and structural homology with simian virus 40. to characterize tissue-specific expression of these viruses and to establish model systems for the study of human viral-induced disease, transgenic mice containing early regions of each of the viruses were produced. the viral sequences induced tumors in a distinct and tissue-specific manner that was similar to their tissue tropism in humans. ten jc virus-containing founder mice we ...19862430282
trans-activation of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat sequence by dna viruses.to investigate whether dna viruses can augment gene expression of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), cotransfection experiments were carried out in which a recombinant plasmid containing the hiv long terminal repeat (ltr) linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene was transfected into cultured cells along with plasmids containing dna from various distinct classes of dna viruses. molecular clones containing jc virus, bk virus, lymphotropic papovavirus, bovine papilloma virus, ...19862432602
somatic cell hybrids producing antibodies specific for the tumor antigen of simian virus 40.we have produced somatic cell hybrids between mouse myeloma cells deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase imp: pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase; ec 2.4.2.8) and spleen cells derived from mice primed with either syngeneic or allogeneic cells transformed by simian virus 40. such hybrids produced antibodies specific for simian virus 40 tumor (t) antigen. only four of twelve independent hybrid cell cultures produced antibodies against simian virus 40 t antigen that crossreacted wi ...197879181
identification of hela cell nuclear factors that bind to and activate the early promoter of human polyomavirus bk in vitro.human polyomavirus bk (bkv), an oncogenic dna virus, differs from other papovaviruses in the organization of the regulatory region and in tissue tropism for kidney cells. the noncoding regulatory region of the viral genome in prototype strains includes three 68-base-pair (bp) repeats, each containing a number of potential regulatory elements. some of these signals are unique to human papovaviruses, and others are homologous to those identified in many viral and cellular genes. we evaluated the c ...19892550803
suppression of tumorigenicity and anchorage-independent growth of bk virus-transformed mouse cells by human chromosome 11.viral transformation models may be useful for detecting and mapping human tumor suppressor genes. bk virus (bkv), a human papovavirus, readily transforms rodent cells but is unable to transform human cells, suggesting that oncosuppressive functions expressed in human cells control bkv oncogenic activity. we have transferred human chromosome 11 to bkv-transformed mouse cells. all of the cell clones were suppressed in the tumorigenic phenotype and anchorage-independent growth, except one clone whi ...19921310642
human polyomavirus (bk) infection and ureteric stenosis in renal allograft recipients.human polyomavirus (bk) was detected in two renal allograft recipients as a result of routine examination of papanicolaou-stained smears of urinary sediment in the light microscope. infection with this recently identified virus was confirmed by virus isolation and electron microscopy. the cytological, histological, and ultrastructural changes due to the virus are described, and virus excretion is correlated with the clinical progress of the patients and the pathological findings. the transplant ...1978205555
the use of vidarabine in the treatment of human polyomavirus associated acute haemorrhagic cystitis.the human bk and jc polyomaviruses are known to be reactivated and excreted in the urine following bone marrow transplantation (bmt). a proportion of patients who excrete bk virus following bmt experience a haemorrhagic cystitis (hc), which may persist for many months. we report a case of human polyomavirus-associated hc, in whom treatment with vidarabine was associated with a dramatic response.19911651795
malignant transformation of hamster brain cells in vitro by human papovavirus bk.human papovavirus bk caused the malignant transformation in vitro of brain cells prepared from newborn hamsters. the transformed cells produced bk virus t antigen and grew as tumors after sc inoculation ito hamsters that developed antibodies to bk virus t antigen. the histopathology of the tumors revealed an undifferentiated glioma.1976176404
a naturally occurring deletion in the enhancer repeats of the human papovavirus bk optimizes early enhancer function at the expense of late promoter activity.the late promoter of the human papovavirus bk (prototype) is contained within the same region of dna as the early promoter enhancer. this region, consisting of a 68-50-68-bp repeat and the flanking region to the late side, contains elements important for both late promoter activity and enhancer function for the early transcription unit. we have studied the importance of the naturally occurring 18-bp deletion in the middle repeat by constructing three repeats containing every possible combination ...19892541546
inhibition of bk virus haemagglutination by gangliosides.the effect of gangliosides extracted from human group o rh+ erythrocytes on haemagglutination by bk virus was investigated. experiments were performed on both ganglioside mixtures and isolated fractions separated by column chromatography and characterized by thin-layer chromatography. these results were compared with those obtained with standard preparations of gangliosides, and the inhibiting activity was shown to be confined mainly to gangliosides with a rf lower than gm1. it was also observed ...19873029311
characteristics of different solid-phase immunoassay formats for the measurement of bk virus immunoglobulin m in sera of patients on renal dialysis or with kidney allografts.solid-phase immunoglobulin m (igm) antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (agceia) and antibody capture enzyme immunoassay (abceia) were developed for the diagnosis of bk virus (bkv) infections. of 37 serum samples from renal allograft recipients, 15 were positive for bkv igm antibody by either agceia, abceia, or antigen capture radioimmunoassay. false-positive igm results were observed in the agceia in the presence of high levels of bkv igg antibody (titers greater than or equal to 1:51,200), when ...19892549091
[new human polyomavirus; bk virus antibody levels in different age groups using the hemagglutination inhibition test].in this study, 1123 human sera samples obtained from healthy persons belonging to various age groups were tested in order to detect the distribution of antibody levels against the new human polyomavirus, bk. all sera samples were tested by hemagglutination inhibition (hi) test and 881 (78.5%) of those were found to be positive and 242 (21.5%) were negative. the percentage of positivity was 65.3% between the ages of 1 to 5 years, and over 80% in the group aged 6 years or older. furthermore, betwe ...19911660560
bk virus dna cloned directly from human urine confirms an archetypal structure for the transcriptional control region.a bk virus isolate cloned from the urine of an immunosuppressed patient was identified as the ww strain. fine mapping using four base-pair restriction enzymes identified a number of small deletions and insertions relative to prototype bk. the finding of a transcriptional control region with a structure similar to that of a previous isolate cloned in a similar way demonstrates that this is a reproducible finding and reinforces the hypothesis that the structure is the archetypal form, found when c ...19892541560
four major sequence elements of simian virus 40 large t antigen coordinate its specific and nonspecific dna binding.by mutational analysis, we have identified a motif critical to the proper recognition and binding of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (t antigen) to virus dna sequences at the origin of dna replication. this motif is tripartite and consists of two elements (termed a1 and b2) that are necessary for sequence-specific binding of the origin and a central element (b1) which is required for nonspecific dna-binding activity. certain amino acids in elements a1 (residues 152 to 155) and b2 (203 to 207 ...19902157865
bk virus terminates tolerance to dsdna and histone antigens in vivo.in order to characterize the immune response to bk virus, a human polyomavirus containing dsdna and host cell histones, we followed the appearance of antibodies in five outbred rabbits after intravenous inoculation with purified infectious bk virus without any adjuvant. the animals were followed for 15 weeks after the first inoculation and booster doses were given after four and eight weeks. antibodies were studied by elisa techniques with the bk virus particle, dsdna, ssdna or the individual hi ...19902159950
monoclonal antibody specific for bk virus large-t antigen allows discrimination among the different papovaviral large-t antigens.the human papovaviruses bk virus (bkv) and jc virus (jcv) both encode a large-tumor (t) antigen which are highly homologous to each other as well as to simian virus 40 (sv40) large-t antigen. this high conservation of amino acid sequence has resulted in overlapping antigenicity such that immunological differentiation of the large-t antigens from the three different viruses has been difficult. here we describe the generation and characterization of a new monoclonal antibody (bk-t.1) which is spec ...19911656370
regulatory dna sequence conserved in the course of bk virus evolution.within the genome of human polyomavirus bk (bkv), there exists a noncoding regulatory region toward the late region side of the origin of dna replication. in most bkv strains isolated by viral culture, this regulatory region contains tandem repeats varying in size. recently, however, several laboratories isolated new bkv strains (designated as archetypal strains) lacking such repeat sequences. to examine the genetic relationship between archetypal strains, a phylogenetic tree was constructed for ...19902176697
transcriptional trans-activating function of hepatitis b virus.the ability of hepatitis b virus (hbv) to stimulate the expression of a cellular gene was investigated by using a transient-expression system. a plasmid in which the expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene had been placed under the control of the dna sequences that regulate the expression of the human beta-interferon gene was constructed. in vero cells, cotransfection of the 2.7-kilobase bglii dna fragment of hbv together with the test plasmid containing the cat ...19872822953
induction of malignant subcutaneous sarcomas in hamsters by a recombinant dna containing bk virus early region and the activated human c-harvey-ras oncogene.malignant undifferentiated sarcomas were induced in 11 of 15 (73.3%) newborn syrian hamsters by s.c. inoculation of a recombinant dna (pbk/c-rasa) containing bk virus (bkv) early region gene and the activated human c-harvey-ras(c-ha-ras) oncogene derived from t24 bladder carcinoma. the two genes inoculated independently as well as a recombinant dna of bkv early region gene and normal human c-ha-ras proto-oncogene were not tumorigenic. tumor-derived cell lines propagated in culture were immortali ...19872824040
optimization of human papillomavirus genotype detection in cervical scrapes by a modified filter in situ hybridization test.optimal conditions for the screening of cervical scrapes for human papillomavirus (hpv) were investigated by using filter in situ hybridization. since integrated and episomal hpv can be found, cell lines containing viral dna in an integrated form (hpv in caski) or in an episomal state (bk virus-induced hamster tumor cells) were used for optimization experiments. an increase in sensitivity was achieved by alkaline denaturation and neutralization before the specimens were spotted onto the membrane ...19892536384
detection of bk virus igm antibodies by two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) and a hemagglutination inhibition method.we have used an antigen solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sp-elisa) and an igm antibody capture elisa (macelisa) for detecting igm antibodies to human polyomavirus bk (bkv). these tests were compared with the standard hemagglutination inhibition test (hai) of igm serum fractions following sucrose density gradient fractionation. the sp- and macelisa were not influenced by concomitant bkv-igg, but high levels of both bkv-igg and rheumatoid factor could cause false positive results by ...19852997386
a comparison of bkv, jcv, and sv 40 transcriptional enhancers in primate cells. application of the two-phase partition assay for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat).the activities of the transcriptional enhancers of the prototype human polyomaviruses, bkv (dun) and jcv (mad-1), were compared with that of the rhesus virus sv 40 in old world african green monkey kidney cells (cv-1) and in new world owl monkey kidney cells (omk). enhancer activities were tested in cat-expression plasmids. cat activity in transfected cell extracts were measured by the novel two-phase partition assay. the activities of the bkv and jcv enhancers were 45% and 20% that of sv 40, re ...19902171455
xrep, a plasmid-stimulating x chromosomal sequence bearing similarities to the bk virus replication origin and viral enhancers.the human x chromosome-linked fragment, "xrep," was sequenced because it exerts a positive effect on plasmid growth in both e. coli and saccharomyces cerevisiae. the sequence revealed three features similar to the human bk virus replication origin: xrep has a true palindrome, cctcc(t)3cctcc, which is similar to "true" palindrome-like sequences found at the replication origins of polyoma [cctc(t/c)10ctcc], bk [cctc(a/g)8cctcc] and sv40 [cctcc(a)6gcctcc] viruses. twenty nucleotides away from the t ...19863025813
nuclear factor 1 (nf-1) binding sites in the genomes of human oncoviruses: a hypothetic role for reintegrated cellular origins of replication in malignant transformation.we have found that genomes of human t cell leukemia-lymphoma virus type i (htlv-i), bk virus (bkv), and a hepatitis b virus (hbv) dna sequence integrated into dna of a hepatoma-derived cell line contain binding sites for nuclear factor 1 (nf-1), a cellular protein which binds to adenoviral and putative cellular origins of dna replication. we suggest that cellular origins of dna replication acquired by oncoviruses may play a role in malignant transformation after reintegration into the cellular g ...19882830475
bk virus infection in patients with aids.antibodies to the human papovavirus bk (bkv) were determined in a group of 25 homo- and bisexual males with aids, 24 men with aids-related complex (arc) and 18 healthy male homosexual controls from copenhagen. the aids patients had a significantly lower prevalence and level of anti-bkv antibodies tested by igg-elisa, hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests than the arc patients. about half of the anti-bkv antibody positive aids patients demonstrated primary infections or reactivatio ...19882840731
cooperation in oncogenesis between bk virus early region gene and the activated human c-harvey ras oncogene.rapidly growing, undifferentiated brain tumours were induced in newborn syrian hamsters by intracerebral inoculation of a recombinant dna (pbk/c-rasa) carrying the bk virus (bkv) early region gene and the activated human c-harvey-ras (c-ha-ras) oncogene. neither of the two genes inoculated alone nor recombinant dna of the bkv early region gene and the normal human c-ha-ras proto-oncogene were tumourigenic. tumour-derived cell lines propagated in culture were immortalized and had growth character ...19882844974
unidirectional deletion and linker scan analysis of the late promoter of the human papovavirus bk.we have previously shown that the late promoter of the human papovavirus bk (prototype) is contained within the three 68-bp repeats and a 66-bp region to the late side of the repeats which together constitute the early promoter enhancer. we have now carried out unidirectional deletion and linker scan analyses of these sequences to identify the major elements of the late promoter in human and monkey cells. several important sequence motifs involved in late promoter function are found throughout t ...19892538030
antibodies to viral and mammalian native dna in response to bk virus inoculation and subsequent immunization with calf thymus dna.recent studies have demonstrated that anti-dna antibodies share important genetical features with antibodies to exogenous antigens, suggesting that anti-dna antibody responses may be (auto-) antigen driven. we have earlier defined three out of five rabbits as anti-dsdna antibody responders based on reactivity with calf thymus (ct) dsdna after inoculation with the human dsdna virus bk. in the present study we demonstrate that all five animals that received bk virus inoculations produced antibodie ...19911648784
antibody-mediated enhancement of bk virus infection in human monocytes and a human macrophage-like cell line.we have monitored bk virus (bkv) antigen expression and multiplication in human monocytes and in a human macrophage (m luminal diameter)-like cell line (u937) in the presence or absence of dilution series of human or rabbit anti-bkv antisera. after infection with bkv alone, restricted expression (structural antigens and t-antigen) and multiplication was recorded in monocytes from some donors, while in u937 cells and monocytes from other donors, no signs of viral activity were detected. monocyte ...19882835425
a prospective study of human polyomavirus infection in pregnancy.urine samples from 1,235 pregnant women were examined by light microscopy for cytologic evidence of virus infection. smears of urine sediment from 40 women (3.2%) were observed to contain inclusion-bearing cells; polyomavirus infection was confirmed by virologic methods in 24 (60%). a polyomavirus was isolated from 12 women. five isolates were identified as jc virus and one as bk virus. another isolate designated as virus appeared to be unique. serologic studies on the 40 women were consistent w ...19806249869
presence of viral dna sequences in hamster tumors induced by bk virus, a human papovavirus.dna prepared from cell lines and transplanted tumors originating from five representative types of bkv-induced hamster tumors was examined for the presence of the bkv genome by analyzing dna/dna reassociation kinetics. bkv dna sequences were detected in all cases. there were only a few (1--4) copies of bkv dna per cell in one osteosarcoma and two ventricular tumors (one choroid plexus papilloma and one ependymoma), but there were multiple (up to 150) copies in one osteosarcoma, one ventricular t ...19806261096
morphological transformation by early region human polyomavirus bk dna of human fibroblasts with deletions in the short arm of one chromosome 11.human fibroblasts derived from four individuals with various deletions in the short arm of one chromosome 11 were susceptible to morphological transformation by early region bk virus dna, whereas diploid human fibroblasts were not. this difference in susceptibility to transformation by early region bk virus dna might be explained by a putative 'transformation suppressor' locus situated within the deleted region on the short arm of chromosome 11.19882828520
cell-mediated immune responses to bk virus in normal individuals.a lymphoproliferative assay was developed to study cell-mediated immunity (cmi) to bk virus (bkv), a human papovavirus, in healthy volunteer subjects. responses to ultraviolet-inactivated antigen prepared from bkv-infected fibroblasts were compared to those elicited against a mock antigen preparation and an unrelated control antigen (tetanus toxoid, tet). cmi to bkv and tet were contrasted with humoral immunity as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). specificity of the assay wa ...19852999323
neutralization test for bk virus: plaque reduction detected by immunoperoxidase staining.we developed an immunoperoxidase staining test to detect structural antigens of bk virus (bkv) in vero cell cultures. this test was used to examine the neutralizing activity of human and immunized animal sera. it was shown that sera positive for bkv antibodies measured by hemagglutination inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were able to prevent expression of bkv structural antigens in cell cultures. the correlation between titers in the hemagglutination inhibition test, ...19863016170
analysis of the early regulatory region of the human papovavirus bk.bkv is a human papovavirus which latently infects a majority of the world population and whose dna has been found in human tumor tissue. along with simian virus 40 (sv40) and jcv, it is one of several highly homologous polyomaviruses which display distinct host ranges, tissue tropisms, and transformation potentials. determination of these properties is thought to reside, in part, in the noncoding regulatory region of these viruses. we have studied the regulation of gene expression by the early p ...19873033888
transforming potential of dna of the human plc/prf/5 hepatoma cell line.dna of the human plc/prf/5 hepatoma cell line can induce the appearance of colonies on soft agar after transfection of bk-bk cells (balb/c mouse kidney cells partially transformed by bk virus). blot hybridization analyses indicate that the transformants contained the hepatitis b virus dna sequence. this sequence disappeared during serial passage of transformants. the amplification and rearrangement of the integrated bk virus genome appears to be specifically associated with transformation.19863038774
the early enhancer-promoter of bkv and host range for transformation.the early genes of the human papovavirus bkv and simian virus 40 (sv40) show a different host range for transformation. the early region of sv40 efficiently transforms human fibroblast cells, whereas the early region of bkv does not. interchanging noncoding enhancer-promoter sequences around the origin of replication between bkv and sv40 showed that the early enhancer-promoter sequences of bkv and sv40 could substitute for each other, as far as the induction of expression of tumor antigens and m ...19873038777
hemagglutination with simian papovavirus sa12.simian papovavirus sa12 agglutinated human, guinea pig, and chicken erythrocytes. sa12 hemagglutinin was most effectively released from debris of infected tissue culture cells at an alkaline ph.197829051
expression of the control elements of bk and sv40 viruses in human cells exhibiting different transformed phenotypes.transformation of primary human embryonic kidney (hek) cells as selected by either focus assay or growth in soft agar after their transfection with bk virus (bkv) dna alone or bkv dna plus the activated form of human ha-ras oncogene has been previously reported (a. pater and m. m. pater, j. virol. 58, 680-683 (1986]. in order to examine the expression of the regulatory elements of papovaviruses in each of the transformed phenotypes, chloramphenical acetyltransferase (cat) plasmids under the cont ...19882833026
use of hybridot assay to screen for bk and jc polyomaviruses in non-immunosuppressed patients.urine samples from 50 patients attending a genitourinary outpatient clinic and from 13 renal allograft recipients were investigated for evidence of infection with human bk and jc polyomaviruses using cytology and a new dna hybridot assay. forty four per cent of samples from the renal allograft recipients were positive by cytology and 75% by dna hybridisation, indicating that hybridot assay is more sensitive than cytological screening. bk and jc viral dna was found in 20% of the patients attendin ...19873040812
bk virus-plasmid expression vector that persists episomally in human cells and shuttles into escherichia coli.we describe a novel expression vector, pbk tk-1, that persists episomally in human cells that can be shuttled into bacteria. this vector includes sequences from bk virus (bkv), the thymidine kinase (tk) gene of herpes simplex virus type 1, and plasmid pml-1. tk+-transformed hela and 143 b cells contained predominantly full-length episomes. there were typically 20 to 40 (hela) and 75 to 120 143 b vector copies per cell, although some 143 b transformants contained hundreds. low-molecular-weight dn ...19846092918
detection of human papovaviruses bkv and jcv in urines by elisa.a double-antibody indirect elisa using a chromogenic substrate and a single-antibody sandwich direct elisa using chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates were developed for the detection of the human papovaviruses bkv and jcv. all three assays were comparable in their sensitivity. bkv was detected in urine from 12 of 63 (19%) highly immunocompromised patients and jcv in urine from 4 of 31 (12.9%) patients by the indirect method.19836304754
immunologic relatedness of papillomaviruses from different species.an antiserum prepared by immunization of a rabbit with sodium dodecyl sulfate-disrupted virions from a pool of plantar warts was cross-reactive with virus-positive papillomas of other animal species by both indirect immunofluorescence tests on frozen sections of wart tissues and peroxidase-antiperoxidase tests of sections of formalin-fixed tissues. the antiserum stained plantar warts, common warts, and skin lesions of epidermodysplasia verruciformis, all from humans; bovine fibropapilloma, exper ...19806153407
direct detection of the human papovavirus bk in urine of bone marrow transplant recipients: comparison of dna hybridization with elisa.urine specimens from bone marrow transplant (bmt) recipients and from controls were directly tested for bk virus (bkv) dna sequences by dot hybridization and for bkv antigen by a double-antibody indirect elisa. a total of 158 specimens from 55 bmt patients (57 collected prior to or at the time of transplantation and 101 in the posttransplant period) and single urines from 125 control subjects were examined by both methods. a molecularly cloned, 32p-labelled bkv probe was hybridized with urine se ...19852995566
persistence of dna sequences of bk virus and jc virus in normal human tissues and in diseased tissues.available evidence suggests that bk virus (bkv) and jc virus (jcv) persist in the kidneys of healthy individuals after primary infection and may reactivate when the host's immune response is impaired. data supporting this hypothesis are presented. a previous study had shown bkv to be present in the kidneys of eight (57%) of 14 subjects. in the present study, which extended the investigation to a total of 30 subjects, bkv dna was found in the renal tissues of 10 (33%) subjects, and jcv dna was fo ...19836302172
survey of human polyomavirus (jcv, bkv) infections in 139 patients with lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, or lymphoma.in 139 patients with breast or lung carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and hodgkin's or non-hodgkin's lymphoma, jc and bk virus serology (hemagglutination inhibition) and urinary polyomavirus excretion (cytology and immunofluorescence microscopy) were studied. overall, 18 of 70 patients with paired sera (26%) had titer increases against jc or bk virus, and 11 of 114 patients (10%) had evidence for urinary excretion. the infection rate was highest in patients with hodgkin's or non-hodgkin's lymphoma ...19836304768
papovavirus-related rna sequences in human neurogenic tumours.thirty-two human brain tumours were investigated for the presence of papovavirus-related rna sequences. radiolabelled viral dnas isolated from sv40, bkv, hdv, and bpv were hybridized in-situ on to tumour kryostat sections under conditions that detect complementary rna. sv40-related rna was detectable in 34% of all tumours tested but was not found in normal human brain tissue. sv40-positive tumours included 1/1 angiofibroma, 1/4 astrocytomas, 2/4 metastatic brain tumours, 1/1 melanoma, 3/7 mening ...19826278814
structure and function of the transcriptional control region of nonpassaged bk virus.we compared the nucleotide sequence in the transcriptional control region of bk virus isolates cloned directly from human urine (bk-ww) with that of prototype bk virus. bk-ww was found to have a 63-base-pair insertion and only one of the 68-base-pair enhancer repeat elements. in transient expression assays, bk-ww enhancer showed approximately one-half the activity given by the prototype enhancer.19873033304
monoclonal antibodies against simian virus 40 nuclear large t tumour antigen: epitope mapping, papova virus cross-reaction and cell surface staining.thirty six cloned hybridomas have been isolated which produce monoclonal antibodies directed against simian virus 40 (sv40) large t tumour antigen. they have been shown to recognize at least six different epitopes along the t antigen polypeptide according to their reaction with the various truncated forms of t antigen expressed by adenovirus-sv 40 hybrid viruses. sixteen antibodies cross-react with cells infected by the closely related human bk virus. only two antibodies, pab1604 and pab1614, di ...19846204863
strain differences and some serological observations on several isolates of human polyomaviruses.six new strains of bk polyomavirus are described and compared by serological reactions and restriction endonuclease digest patterns of their dna to bkv (prototype) and bkv (gs). one strain (pg) had a restriction endonuclease pattern similar to bkv (prototype) but with two ecori cleavage sites. four strains were similar to bkv (gs) and one strain (sb) appeared to be a variant of bkv, having a smaller defective genome. two mixed polyomavirus infections have been identified and a new human polyomav ...19836304748
rapid detection and identification of jc virus and bk virus in human urine by using immunofluorescence microscopy.an indirect immunofluorescence method was developed and used to detect urinary excretion of abnormal transitional cells infected with jc virus (jcv) or bk virus (bkv). this method was compared with urinary cytology, electron microscopy, viral culture, and viral serology in groups of immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients and normal controls. the indirect immunofluorescence method detected and identified jcv excretion in four persons, bkv excretion in one person, and both jcv and bkv excret ...19806244330
[antibody movement against bk and herpes viruses and cytomegalovirus in kidney transplants]. 19826320705
simian agent 12 is a bk virus-like papovavirus which replicates in monkey cells.we have begun to characterize the genomic structure and replication of the baboon papovavirus simian agent 12 (sa12). we have defined a wild-type clone of sa12 (sa12 wt100) by plaque purification from a heterogeneous stock. the functional map of sa12 wt100 can be aligned with those of the other primate papovaviruses by assigning one of the two ecori sites as 0/1.0 map units. the origin of bidirectional viral dna replication maps near 0.67 map units, consistent with the limits of sequences homolo ...19852985810
organization of viral genome in a t antigen-negative hamster tumor induced by human papovavirus bk.we analyzed by blot hybridization the state and structure of the viral dna in an exceptional bk virus-induced hamster tumor (choroid plexus papilloma vn-324) that contains about one copy of the bk virus genome per cell, but no intranuclear t antigen as assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. the bk viral dna was found to be integrated into cellular dna at a site in the middle of the early region of the viral genome (between 0.32 and 0.41 map units). the structure of the inserted viral dna shows ...19816264127
prevalence rate and age of acquisition of antibodies against jc virus and bk virus in human sera.a total of 480 serum samples from donors including 384 children up to 10 years of age were examined by the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test for the rates of prevalence and age of acquisition of hi antibodies against jc virus and bk virus. among 136 serum samples from various age groups, there were five (4%) with no detectable antibodies against bk or jc virus, 75 (55%) with antibodies against both viruses, 41 (30.1%) with antibodies against only bk virus and 26 (19%) with antibodies against ...19826300615
prospective study of the human polyomaviruses bk and jc and cytomegalovirus in renal transplant recipients.forty eight renal transplant recipients were investigated prospectively for evidence of infection with the polyomaviruses bk and jc and cytomegalovirus. an active polyomavirus infection was shown in 31 patients (65%) and cytomegalovirus in 30 (62.5%). half of the bk and jc virus infections occurred within the first three months after transplantation compared with 93% of the cytomegalovirus infections. very late polyomavirus infections two or more years after the transplant were also shown. cytol ...19846327777
high-titer sv40 replication in human fibroblast cell lines derived from patients with wiskott-aldrich syndrome.human fibroblast cell lines established from skin biopsies of patients with wiskott-aldrich syndrome (was), a sex-linked immunodeficiency disorder, were found to have unusually high sensitivity to sv40 infection. when examined by immunofluorescence, two of the cell lines showed almost 100% positive staining for tumor and viral antigens 4 days after infection, while the third cell line showed 75% positive cells for both antigens. marked cytopathic changes were seen in infected cultures and viral ...19836312684
bk viral enhancer element and a human cellular homolog.comparison of two closely related primate papovaviruses, simian virus 40 (sv40) and human bk virus (bkv), reveals that the only region of extensive divergence, the tandem sequences adjacent to the origins of dna replication, is responsible in sv40 for enhancing early gene expression. this study demonstrates a similar enhancer function for the analogous repeated region in bkv. the dissimilarity in sequence of the bkv and sv40 enhancer elements suggests that they may have been acquired since sv40 ...19836314501
dna sequence of human papovavirus bk. 19806244496
systemic gene therapy: biodistribution and long-term expression of a transgene in mice.we have investigated the in vivo efficacy of a systemic gene transfer method, which combines a liposomal delivery system (dls liposomes) with episomally replicative dna plasmids to effect long-term expression of a transgene in cells. a single i.v. injection of a plasmid dna vector containing the luciferase gene as a marker was administered with the dls liposomes in balb/c mice. the luciferase gene and its product were found in all mouse tissues tested as determined by pcr analysis and immunohist ...19957568209
bk virus infection of the human urinary tract.by screening consecutive autopsy cases with an antibody that recognizes human polyomaviruses, we found a case of malignant lymphoma in which the virus infection was confined to epithelia of the renal calyces, renal pelvis, ureter, and urinary bladder. the virus was confirmed as bk virus by a specific monoclonal antibody against bk virus t antigen, and numerous virus particles were identified by electron microscopy. the results showed that bk virus is a human urotheliotrophic virus.19938106863
a bk virus episomal vector for constitutive high expression of exogenous cdnas in human cells.a bk virus (bkv) episomal vector (prpneocmv) was constructed for expression of cdnas under control of the cytomegalovirus (cmv) immediate-early promoter. transfection of prpneocmv for expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene in several human cell lines showed that the cmv promoter is more efficient than the hiv-1 and rsv ltrs in directing gene expression from episomal vectors. in 293 human cells prpneocmv/cat is twenty times more active in cat expression than the well known ...19957710358
tumorigenicity of human bk papovavirus plaque isolates, wild-type and plaque morphology mutant, in hamsters.the polyoncogenic prototype human papovavirus bkv (gardner's strain) produced clear, small and large plaques. two small-plaque isolates (wt-500 and wt-502), as well as a large-plaque-forming isolate (wt-501), induced frequent brain tumors and occasional osteosarcomas (but no insulinomas) in hamsters. the large-plaque former (wt 501) was more tumorigenic than the two small-plaque mutant (pm-525), which had been rescued from hamster tumor cell lines and have small deletion near the origin of dna r ...19826284657
diagnosis of childhood bk virus cystitis by electron microscopy and pcr.a case of bk virus cystitis in a 5 year old boy is reported. this patient, who was not immunocompromised, had had acute cystitis for two weeks. many intracytoplasmic inclusions were observed in urinary sediment smears stained by the papanicolaou method. electron microscopic examination showed virus particles, presumed to be human polyomavirus, in the nuclei of the degenerated urothelial cells. a dna sequence of the bk virus was detected in 200-300 urothelial cells in papanicolaou stained smears ...19938408709
bk virus large t antigen: interactions with the retinoblastoma family of tumor suppressor proteins and effects on cellular growth control.bk virus (bkv) is a polyomavirus which infects a large percentage of the human population. it is a potent transforming agent and is tumorigenic in rodents. bkv dna has also been found in human brain, pancreatic islet, and urinary tract tumors, implicating this virus in neoplastic processes. bkv t antigen (tag) is highly homologous to simian virus 40 tag, particularly in regions required for mitogenic stimulation and binding to tumor suppressor proteins, the experiments presented in this report s ...19968642665
functional role of bk virus tumor antigens in transformation.we have examined the role of the human papovavirus bk virus (bkv) tumor (t) antigen(s) in the maintenance of transformation and have identified the domain of t antigen essential for transformation. bkv-transformed bhk 21 and nih 3t3 cells expressing antisense t-antigen rna lose their ability to grow in soft agar, indicating the need for the continued expression of t antigen for the maintenance of the transformed phenotype. experiments using translation termination linker insertion and deletion m ...19882846874
thymidine kinase of herpes virus as a vehicle for the isolation and characterization of unknown mammalian promoters and enhancers.we have previously reported that the promoter of the thymidine kinase (tk) gene of herpes virus (hsv) can be replaced with the early promoter of sv40. in the present study we report the construction of a tk- plasmid (tk-pml-bglii) in which the tk promoter has been removed and a new bglii site has been regenerated for the insertion of exogenous promoters in front of this nonexpressed gene. we have tested the feasibility of using this plasmid for the isolation of unknown promoters by inserting dna ...19846330263
morphological changes in urothelial cells replicating human polyomavirus bk. 19938110976
infection of human polyomaviruses jc and bk in peripheral blood leukocytes from immunocompetent individuals.widely disseminated infection with the human polyomaviruses jc and bk is followed by lifelong asymptomatic viral persistence that can be reactivated under prolonged immunosuppression to fatal cns and urogenital disease. in an attempt to understand the pathogenesis of polyomavirus diseases, we asked whether leukocytes are involved in polyomavirus infection in the immunocompetent host. peripheral blood leukocytes from 29 immunocompetent individuals and umbilical cord blood from 10 newborn children ...19948259683
the cdna cloning of the hamster homologue of the human l6 gene.the cdna cloning and sequencing of a syrian hamster gene that produces a surface antigen on cells transformed by the sv40 or bk virus are described. sequence analysis showed that this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily (tm4sf) and encodes the syrian hamster counterpart of the human and the murine l6 antigens. the amino-acid sequences are highly conserved, being 71% identical among three species.19968654959
multiple loci on human chromosome 11 control tumorigenicity of bk virus transformed cells.bk virus (bkv) is a human papovavirus that readily transforms rodent cells, but not human cells, to a neoplastic phenotype, suggesting that tumor-suppressor functions expressed in human cells control bkv oncogenicity. transfer of a normal human chromosome 11 to bkv-transformed mouse cells suppresses the malignant phenotype. in this report we map the regions of chromosome 11 involved in tumor suppression. transfer of chromosome 11 to the bkv-transformed hamster cell line hkbk produces monochromos ...19948157356
bk and jc viruses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons: prevalence, excretion, viremia, and viral regulatory regions.human polyomavirus bk (bkv) and jc (jcv) infections were examined in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). high frequencies of bkv (24%) and jcv viruria (16%) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). bkv viruria was not found in an immunocompetent control group, in contrast to a frequency of jcv viruria of 20%. the degree of hiv-induced immunodeficiency did not influence the prevalence of bkv viruria, in contrast to cytomegalovirus viruria, suggesting bkv re ...19948158020
oncogenic activity of the bk type of human papova virus in inbred rat strains.the oncogenicity of the human polyomavirus bk (bkv) was tested in newborn inbred rats. it was found that the tumor rate was negatively correlated with the levels of t antibody 3 months after inoculation and the frequency of animals with detectable t antibodies 1.5 months after inoculation. by contrast, no influence of viral hi titers on the tumor rates was found. thymectomy of animals resulted in most experiments in increased tumor rates. inoculation with bkv of animals later than 24 hours after ...19846331349
bk virus-induced osteosarcoma (os515) as a model of human osteosarcoma.bk virus was isolated by gardner et al in 1971 from the urine of an immunosuppressed patient with a kidney allograft. antibodies to this virus are ubiquitous in the general populations worldwide, but the oncogenic capacity of bkv in humans had not been reported. the virus transformed in vitro permissive human and non-permissive animal cells, and the transformed cells had the t antigen. intracerebral and intravenous inoculation of bkv in newborn hamsters induced malignant tumours (mainly ependymo ...19968712710
antibodies to dsdna are produced during primary bk virus infection in man, indicating that anti-dsdna antibodies may be related to virus replication in vivo.experimental immunizations with both the polyomavirus bk and with the isolated viral genomic dsdna regularly induce antibodies with a relative affinity for bk virus dsdna. in the present study we demonstrate that the anti-dsdna responses to bk virus in experimental animals also appear during natural bk virus infection in man. fifty-nine children were examined over time for serological signs of primary bk virus infection. of eight children found to undergo primary infection with bk virus, anti-bk ...19938211002
the jc and bk human polyoma viruses appear to be recent introductions to some south american indian tribes: there is no serological evidence of cross-reactivity with the simian polyoma virus sv40.in an effort to understand the unusual cytogenetic damage earlier encountered in the yanomama indians, plasma samples from 425 amerindians representing 14 tribes have been tested for hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to the human jc polyoma virus and from 369 amerinds from 13 tribes for hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to the human bk polyoma virus. there is for both viruses highly significant heterogeneity between tribes for the prevalence of serum antibody titers >/=1/40, the patter ...19989861002
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