questing amblyomma mixtum and haemaphysalis juxtakochi (acari: ixodidae) infected with candidatus "rickettsia amblyommii" from the natural environment in panama canal basin, panama.this work emphasizes the detection of candidatus "rickettsia amblyommii" in questing haemaphysalis juxtakochi and amblyomma mixtum. from february 2009 to december 2012, questing ticks were collected from the vegetation and leaf-litter of four protected forests and two grassy areas around the panama canal basin. dna was extracted from amblyomma mixtum, amblyomma naponense, amblyomma oblongoguttatum, amblyomma pecarium, amblyomma tapirellum, haemaphysalis juxtakochi, and unidentified immature ambl ...201526865823
first molecular evidence of coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in cuba.coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of q fever. in order to explore the occurrence of c. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a cuban occidental community. the species most commonly recovered were amblyomma mixtum (67%), rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and dermacentor nitens (6%). specific is1111 pcr and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of c. burnetii dna in a. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. these findings, for first tim ...201626372520
distribution of spotted fever group rickettsiae in hard ticks (ixodida: ixodidae) from panamanian urban and rural environments (2007-2013).tick-borne rickettsiosis is an important emerging disease in panama; to date, there have been 12 confirmed cases, including eight fatalities. to evaluate the distribution of rickettsiae in panamanian ticks, we collected questing and on-host ticks in urban and rural towns in elevations varying between 0 and 2300 m. a total of 63 sites (13 urban and 50 rural towns) were used to develop models of spatial distributions. we found the following tick species: rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (present in 5 ...201627068930
amblyomma mixtum koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae): first record confirmation in colombia using morphological and molecular analyses.up to some years ago, the taxon amblyomma cajennense represented a single tick species in the new world, from southern united states to northern argentina. recent studies, based on genetic, reproductive and morphological data reorganized this taxon into a complex of the following 6 valid species: a. cajennense sensu stricto, amblyomma mixtum, amblyomma sculptum, amblyomma interandinum, amblyomma tonelliae, and amblyomma patinoi. according to this classification, the a. cajennense complex is curr ...201627062448
the geographic distribution and ecological preferences of the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis (say), in the u.s.a.equine piroplasmosis (ep), caused by two parasitic organisms, theileria equi and babesia caballi, is a tick-borne disease of recent concern in horses in the u.s.a. outbreaks of ep have been detected in florida, missouri, kansas and texas. in 2009, ep transmission in texas occurred through the adults of two tick species, amblyomma mixtum [formerly known as amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787)] koch (ixodida: ixodidae) and dermacentor variabilis (say) (ixodida: ixodidae), the american dog tick ( ...201525684582
contributions to the knowledge of hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) in colombia.the known tick fauna of colombia includes 58 species (15 argasidae and 43 ixodidae). to add to the knowledge of the biology of ticks in colombia, hard ticks (ixodidae) were collected from domestic animals or vegetation during 2014-2016 in 10 of colombia's departments. ticks were identified to species through morphological examinations. taxonomic identification was confirmed for some specimens by molecular methods, including phylogenetic analyses inferred from three tick genes (cytochrome c oxida ...201829055642
life cycle of amblyomma mixtum (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing different hosts under laboratory conditions.amblyomma mixtum is a tick species in the amblyomma cajennense complex. the known geographic range of a. mixtum extends from texas in the usa to western ecuador and some islands in the caribbean. amblyomma mixtum is a vector of disease agents of veterinary and public health importance. the objective of this study was to describe the life cycle of a. mixtum under laboratory conditions. bovines, rabbits and sheep were infested with larvae, nymphs, and adult ticks under controlled conditions to ass ...201728889342
diurnal questing behavior of amblyomma mixtum (acari: ixodidae).the diurnal questing behavior of amblyomma mixtum koch was monitored in the laboratory while held on a 12:12 diurnal cycle, and outdoors, using actographic chambers to determine the daily incidences of questing for a host. nymphs and adults increased their questing activity during the morning. adult activity peaked in the morning and continued until afternoon, whereas nymphal activity peaked in the afternoon. nymphs and adults returned to the bottom of the chambers at night. the questing pattern ...201526063403
ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in yucatan, mexico.domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their obligate blood-feeding habit. it is estimated that in mexico there are around 100 tick species belonging to the ixodidae and argasidae families. information is lacking on tick species that affect human ...201626790745
hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) of livestock in nicaragua, with notes about distribution.we document the species of ticks that parasitize livestock in nicaragua. the study was based on tick collection on cattle and horses from 437 farms in nine departments. of 4841 animals examined (4481 cows and 360 horses), 3299 were parasitized, which represent 68 % of the bovines and 67 % of the equines in study: 59 cows and 25 horses were parasitized by more than one species. in addition, 280 specimens of the entomological museum in león were examined. the ticks found on cattle were rhipicephal ...201627392740
first report of "candidatus rickettsia amblyommii" in west coast of mexico.we report the first case of "candidatus rickettsia amblyommii" detected in amblyomma mixtum ticks on humans on the west coast of mexico. this is the most western record of "ca. r. amblyommii" in the western hemisphere, representing the first record for the western coast of the americas. even if the record is far from the previously known locations for the species it does not represent a new record regarding temperature, precipitation and topographic parameters. since "ca. r. amblyommii" antibodi ...201627616774
immunological control of ticks and tick-borne diseases that impact cattle health and production.the cattle industry is one of the most important agroeconomic activities in mexico. the national herd is estimated to include approximately 33.5. million head of cattle. ticks and tick-borne diseases are principal factors with a negative impact on cattle health and production. the most economically important tick species parasitizing cattle in mexico are rhipicephalus microplus, r. annulatus, and amblyomma mixtum. parasitism by ticks affects cattle health and production directly. morbidity and m ...201829293449
prevalence, intensity and population dynamics of hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) on sheep in the humid tropics of mexico.hard ticks are a perennial problem in livestock systems throughout mexico. no data are currently available on tick prevalence, infestation intensity and population dynamics for sheep in the humid tropics of mexico. blackbelly sheep (n = 30) in tabasco state, mexico, were examined every 3 weeks for 1 year, and all ixodidae ticks were counted and removed for analysis. tick species were identified, infestation prevalence and intensity calculated per animal, and infestation per body zone determined. ...201729255964
rickettsial infections in ticks from reptiles, birds and humans in honduras.ticks were collected from captive reptiles, wild birds, and incidentally from humans at two locations in honduras and part of these were tested for the presence of rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction. the following species of ticks were found: amblyomma dissimile on iguanidae reptiles, amblyomma longirostre and amblyomma nodosum on birds, and amblyomma mixtum (amblyomma cajennense complex) on humans. a. dissimile was infected with rickettsia sp. strain colombianensi. both a. longirostre a ...201526159797
detection of rickettsiae in fleas and ticks from areas of costa rica with history of spotted fever group rickettsioses.outbreaks of spotted fevers have been reported in costa rica since the 1950s, although vectors responsible for transmission to humans have not been directly identified. in this study, species of rickettsia were detected in ectoparasites from costa rica, mostly from five study sites where cases of spotted fevers have been reported. ticks and fleas were collected using drag cloths or directly from domestic and wild animals and pooled according to species, host, and location. pools were analyzed in ...201627592065
reassessment of the taxonomic status of amblyomma cajennense () with the description of three new species, amblyomma tonelliae n. sp., amblyomma interandinum n. sp. and amblyomma patinoi n. sp., and reinstatement of amblyomma mixtum, and amblyomma sculptum (ixodida: ixodidae).a reassessment of the taxonomic status of amblyomma cajennense based on the morphological analyses of ticks from the whole distribution area of the species resulted in the redescription of a. cajennense, the validation of 2 species which had been reduced to synonymy in the past, amblyomma mixtum and amblyomma sculptum, and the description and definition of 3 new species, amblyomma tonelliae n. sp., amblyomma interandinum n. sp., and amblyomma patinoi n. sp. this study provides descriptions and r ...201424556273
divergent environmental preferences and areas of sympatry of tick species in the amblyomma cajennense complex (ixodidae).four species of neotropical ticks, amblyomma mixtum, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma tonelliae and amblyomma sculptum (formerly included in the catch-all name a. cajennense), have an allopatric distribution in much of their range, with areas of parapatry for at least two of them. we inferred the abiotic niches of these organisms using coefficients of a harmonic regression of the temperature and the normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi, reflecting plant stress) from remotely sensed data f ...201425236961
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