relative quantification of chrysanthemum yellows (16sr i) phytoplasma in its plant and insect host using real-time polymerase chain reaction.a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method for the quantification of chrysanthemum yellows (cy) phytoplasma dna in its plant (chrysanthemum carinatum) and insect (macrosteles quadripunctulatus) host is described. the quantity of cy dna was measured in each run relative to the amount of host dna in the sample. primers and a taqman probe for the specific pcr amplification of phytoplasma dna were designed on a cloned cy-specific ribosomal fragment. primers and taqman probes were also design ...200515920281
interrelationships between "candidatus phytoplasma asteris" and its leafhopper vectors (homoptera: cicadellidae).the titer of chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma (cyp, "candidatus phytoplasma asteris") in the three vector species euscelis incisus kirschbaum, euscelidius variegatus kirschbaum, and macrosteles quadripunctulatus kirschbaum (homoptera: cicadellidae) was measured after controlled acquisition from infected chrysanthemum carinatum (schousboe) (daisy) plants. phytoplasma dna was quantified in relation to insect dna (genome units [gu] of phytoplasma dna per ng of insect dna) by using a quantitative r ...200717972626
characterization of putative membrane protein genes of the 'candidatus phytoplasma asteris', chrysanthemum yellows characterize potentially important surface-exposed proteins of the phytoplasma causing chrysanthemum yellows (cy), new primers were designed based on the conserved regions of 3 membrane protein genes of the completely sequenced onion yellows and aster yellows witches' broom phytoplasmas and were used to amplify cy dna. the cy genes secy, amp, and arti, encoding the protein translocase subunit secy, the antigenic membrane protein amp and the arginine transporter arti, respectively, were cloned ...200818449218
decreasing global transcript levels over time suggest that phytoplasma cells enter stationary phase during plant and insect highlight different transcriptional behaviors of the phytoplasma in the plant and animal host, expression of 14 genes of "candidatus phytoplasma asteris," chrysanthemum yellows strain, was investigated at different times following the infection of a plant host (arabidopsis thaliana) and two insect vector species (macrosteles quadripunctulatus and euscelidius variegatus). target genes were selected among those encoding antigenic membrane proteins, membrane transporters, secreted proteins, and ...201525636844
selection of reference genes from two leafhopper species challenged by phytoplasma infection, for gene expression studies by rt-qpcr.phytoplasmas are phloem-limited phytopathogenic wall-less bacteria and represent a major threat to agriculture worldwide. they are transmitted in a persistent, propagative manner by phloem-sucking hemipteran insects. for gene expression studies based on mrna quantification by rt-qpcr, stability of housekeeping genes is crucial. the aim of this study was the identification of reference genes to study the effect of phytoplasma infection on gene expression of two leafhopper vector species. the iden ...201324119747
complete genome sequences of the obligate symbionts "candidatus sulcia muelleri" and "ca. nasuia deltocephalinicola" from the pestiferous leafhopper macrosteles quadripunctulatus (hemiptera: cicadellidae).two bacterial symbionts of the european pest leafhopper, macrosteles quadripunctulatus (hemiptera: cicadellidae), were fully sequenced. "candidatus sulcia muelleri" and "ca. nasuia deltocephalinicola" represent two of the smallest known bacterial genomes at 190 kb and 112 kb, respectively. genome sequences are nearly identical to strains reported from the closely related host species, m. quadrilineatus.201626798106
study of soybean leafhoppers fauna and an investigation on biology of dominant species empoasca decipienspaoli in karaj area.the fauna of soybean leafhoppers and the biology of dominant species were investigated in karaj during 1992-1994. for identification of species the male genitalia and other taxonomic characters were used. in order to find the duration and number of nymph stages, leaf cages were used on the plants. a thermograph was used to study the effect of temperature on nymphal stages in greenhouse. to study biology of e. decipiens in field four cages prepared and the trials has done inside them, and weekly ...200516628902
plant-mediated interspecific horizontal transmission of an intracellular symbiont in insects.intracellular reproductive manipulators, such as candidatus cardinium and wolbachia are vertically transmitted to progeny but rarely show co-speciation with the host. in sap-feeding insects, plant tissues have been proposed as alternative horizontal routes of interspecific transmission, but experimental evidence is limited. here we report results from experiments that show that cardinium is horizontally transmitted between different phloem sap-feeding insect species through plants. quantitative ...201526563507
role of the major antigenic membrane protein in phytoplasma transmission by two insect vector species.phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens (class mollicutes), transmitted by phloem feeding leafhoppers, planthoppers and psyllids in a persistent/propagative manner. transmission of phytoplasmas is under the control of behavioral, environmental and geographical factors, but molecular interactions between membrane proteins of phytoplasma and vectors may also be involved. the aim of the work was to provide experimental evidence that in vivo interaction between phytoplasma antigenic membrane prot ...201526424332
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