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isolation of francisella tularensis from mites haemogamasus nidi and laelaps hilaris in western slovakia.isolating of f. tularensis from gamasid mites h. nidi parasitizing on the bank vole (cl. glareolus) and l. hilaris on the common vole (m. arvalis) are reported. the epidemiological significance of this finding is discussed.1979388944
comparative studies on susceptibility of the mouse (mus musculus) and the vole (microtus arvalis) to listeria monocytogenes and erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.the susceptibility of mice and voles to intraperitoneal and subcutan injection of virulent strains has been tested comparatively on 261 mice and 120 voles. using various germ-doses, 50 per cent lethality has been established. listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a killed mice in doses of 120,000 and 1.5 x 10(6) germs when injected intraperitoneally and subcutaneously and voles in doses of 1800 and 12,000 germs, respectively. thus voles proved 100 to 120 times more susceptible than mice. erysipeloth ...19892517160
[rise in the epizootic activity of a natural focus of steppe-type tularemia in stavropol territory and its epidemic consequences].one of recurrent autumn and winter rises in the epizootic activity of the steppe-type focus of tularemia in the stavropol territory is described. during the tularemia epizooty of 1981-1982 the population of common voles (microtus arvalis) was very numerous, while the population of house mice (mus musculus) was comparatively scarce. francisella tularensis strains were isolated from different species of rodents (microtus arvalis, mus musculus, apodemus sylvanicus, rattus norvegicus, lepus, etc.), ...19853158139
[possible atypical course of tularemia (persistence) in the common vole microtus arvalis pall].the possibility of the atypical course of tularemia with the prolonged persistence of francisella tularensis in common voles (m. arvalis), the twin species of east european voles (m. rossiaemeridionalis), was studied. experiments were made on 33 animals grown in the laboratory. f. tularensis strain 165 was used. the animals were infected by feeding them according to the previously developed scheme. 7 out of 33 voles showed the atypical course of tularemia: in 3 voles the disease took a prolonged ...19873296576
[detection of the tularemia zoonosis in the territory of the kartlian plain].the natural focus of tularemia was found to cover the whole territory of the kartlian plain. epizooty occurred mainly among common voles with the involvement of insectivorous voles. hard ticks, gamasids and fleas infected with francisella tularensis were detected. rodents highly sensitive to tularemia can be affected by this infection. water rats were not involved into the enzootic process. further studies are necessary for the final solution of this problem.19836225274
[experimental latent tularemia in common voles].common voles (microtus subarvalis) were infected with tularemia by feeding them with the corpses of the animals which had been infected with francisella tularensis strain having somewhat decreased virulence. this resulted in nonlethal infection in 14 out of 433 voles used in the experiment. a considerable part of the animals having had the infection developed bacterial carriership (11 out of 13 animals) with bacteriuria (8 out of 11 animals) lasting up to 2 months. the persistence of francisella ...19827043979
mixed natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in west slovakia.total of 923 small mammals of 7 species were collected in locality záhorská ves, west slovakia, in 1990-1992. among examined small mammal species it was clethrionomys glareolus (48.7% of total, 17.5% positive for tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus antibodies), apodemus flavicollis (29.7% of total, 17.5% positive), a. sylvaticus (11.3% of total, 16.3% positive), and microtus arvalis (6.2% of total, 10.5% positive). the most abundant tick species (larval and nymphal stages) on small mammals was i ...19957676942
importance of surveillance of tularemia natural foci in the known endemic area of central europe, 1991-1997.marked activation of natural foci of tularemia in the known endemic area of central europe, comprising the borderland of slovakia, austria and the czech republic, led to an epidemic outbreak in western slovakia and an increase in the number of human tularemia cases in the adjoining regions of northeastern austria and southern moravia from 1995 to 1997. the aim of this paper was to present the results of a longitudinal study on the prevalence of infection with francisella tularensis in small mamm ...200111467089
prevalence of coinfection with francisella tularensis in reservoir animals of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.studies on lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne zoonoses in the austrian and slovakian borderland, a region endemic for tularemia, revealed a relatively high prevalence of infection with borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and francisella tularensis in small terrestrial mammals, as well as in the ticks, during a one-year survey. the occurrence of coinfection with the agents of lyme borreliosis and tularemia was assessed in different species of rodents.200212422587
tularemia induces different biochemical responses in balb/c mice and common voles.both balb/c mice and common voles (microtus arvalis) are considered highly susceptible to tularemia. however, the common vole is reported to harbour francisella tularensis in european habitats as well as to survive longer with chronic shedding of the bacterium. the purpose of the present study was to compare the response of these two rodents to a wild francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain infection.200919558687
possible interaction between a rodenticide treatment and a pathogen in common vole (microtus arvalis) during a population peak.a common vole (microtus arvalis) population peak in northern spain in 2007 was treated with large scale application of chlorophacinone, an anticoagulant rodenticide of the indandione family. voles found dead and trapped alive were collected in treated and untreated areas. residues of chlorophacinone were analyzed in liver of voles by hplc-uv. also, the presence of the pathogen francisella tularensis was analyzed by pcr in samples of vole spleen. chlorophacinone (82-3800 ng/g; wet weight liver) w ...200919863999
assessment of low-molecular-weight antioxidants in francisella tularensis infected hosts: comparison of two rodents with different susceptibility to tularemia.bacterium francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia disease. it is a zoonosis accompanied with high mortality when untreated. small rodents and hares, in particular, are natural reservoirs of tularemia. despite physiological similarity of common hosts, tularemia exerts different mortality rates. the pathogenesis of tularemia is still not fully understood. the main pathway is associated with proliferation in macrophages after activation by reactive oxygen species in phagosomes.200920027169
investigation of the ecology of francisella tularensis during an inter-epizootic period.abstract a 1-year study of the ecological cycle of francisella tularensis was performed in an enzootic area during an inter-epizootic period. the study was based on multiple sampling of all major constituents of the disease cycle. seroprevalence of tularemia in the european brown hare (lepus europaeus) population was 5.1% (10/197) with low antibody titers (1/10 and 1/20), and f. tularensis ssp. holarctica was isolated from four hares. f. tularensis was not detected in the 38 common voles (microt ...201021142970
environmental monitoring and surveillance of rodents and vectors for francisella tularensis following outbreaks of human tularemia in georgia.tularemia is a re-emerging bacterial zoonosis, broadly distributed across the northern hemisphere. in georgia, there is a history of human tularemia outbreaks dating back to the 1940s. in response to outbreaks, health officials initiated long-term field surveillance and environmental monitoring. the objective of our study was to obtain information from 57 years of field surveys to identify species that play a role in the occurrence francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica in the environment in g ...201526394283
molecular survey of zoonotic agents in rodents and other small mammals in croatia.croatia is a focus for many rodent-borne zoonosis. here, we report a survey of 242 rodents and small mammals, including 43 myodes glareolus, 131 apodemus flavicollis, 53 apodemus agrarius, three apodemus sylvaticus, six sorex araneus, four microtus arvalis, one microtus agrestis, and one muscardinus avellanarius, collected at eight sites in croatia over an 8-year period. multiplex masstag polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used for detection of borrelia, rickettsia, bartonella, babesia, ehrlich ...201626711522
harmonizing methods for wildlife abundance estimation and pathogen detection in europe-a questionnaire survey on three selected host-pathogen combinations.the need for wildlife health surveillance as part of disease control in wildlife, domestic animals and humans on the global level is widely recognized. however, the objectives, methods and intensity of existing wildlife health surveillance programs vary greatly among european countries, resulting in a patchwork of data that are difficult to merge and compare. this survey aimed at evaluating the need and potential for data harmonization in wildlife health in europe. the specific objective was to ...201728202055
tularemia outbreaks and common vole (microtus arvalis) irruptive population dynamics in northwestern spain, 1997-2014.during the last decades, large tularemia outbreaks in humans have coincided in time and space with population outbreaks of common voles in northwestern spain, leading us to hypothesize that this rodent species acts as a key spillover agent of francisella tularensis in the region. here, we evaluate for the first time a potential link between irruptive vole numbers and human tularemia outbreaks in spain. we compiled vole abundance estimates obtained through live-trapping monitoring studies and off ...201526333034
density-dependent prevalence of francisella tularensis in fluctuating vole populations, northwestern spain.tularemia in humans in northwestern spain is associated with increases in vole populations. prevalence of infection with francisella tularensis in common voles increased to 33% during a vole population fluctuation. this finding confirms that voles are spillover agents for zoonotic outbreaks. ecologic interactions associated with tularemia prevention should be considered.201728726608
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