expression of fowl adenovirus type 10 antigens in escherichia an attempt to construct a genetic map of the fowl adenovirus (fav) and to determine which viral proteins are natural immunogens in chickens and hence may be relevant to protective immunity we have constructed an expression library of fav type 10 dna. the genomic dna was partially digested with the restriction endonuclease sau3a, and this dna was inserted into the 3' terminal end of the beta-galactosidase gene in a plasmid vector. to date, approximately 600 clones have been identified that exp ...19902173247
growth of avian adeno-associated virus in chicken cells transfected with fowl adenovirus serotype 1 dna.using the chloroquine-modified calcium phosphate coprecipitation technique, fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (fav 1) dna transfects efficiently chicken cell cultures. infection of fav 1 dna transfected cells with helper dependent avian adeno-associated virus (aaav) results in the production of aaav progeny, being detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. these findings indicate that fav 1 dna introduced into the host cell promotes actively the growth of aaav.19902176225
an unusual case of inclusion body hepatitis in a cockerel.this report describes inclusion body hepatitis in a 12-week-old leghorn-type cockerel. the cockerel had come from a specific-pathogen-free flock and was reared in a positive-pressure isolator until 6 weeks old. grossly, the cockerel was jaundiced, and the liver was swollen and had small white foci throughout. histologically, there were foci of hepatic necrosis and basophilic inclusion bodies in the nuclei of numerous hepatocytes. a fowl adenovirus, isolated from the liver, was found to belong to ...19863015107
sequence homology between avian and human adenoviruses.studies of hybridization between fowl adenovirus type 1 (chicken embryo lethal orphan virus) dna and human adenovirus type 2 dna revealed two short but distinct regions which cross-hybridized under stringent conditions. one of the homologous regions was located between map positions 18.1 and 19.3 and did not correspond to any gene recognized so far. the second region mapped in the hexon gene between position 57 and 58.19826283148
isolation of fowl adenovirus from tendons and tendon sheaths of chickens with leg weakness. 19836314026
growth characteristics of fowl adenovirus type 8 in a chicken hepatoma cell line.fowl adenoviruses, many of which appear to be non-pathogenic, are ubiquitous in birds. in addition, the genome of these viruses is large, making them ideal candidates for construction as vectors for foreign genes. current methods to cultivate fowl adenoviruses use primary cell cultures derived from embryonated chicken eggs. in order to provide a more suitable culture method, the growth of fowl adenovirus type 8 (fadv-8) was investigated in ch-sah, a continuous hepatoma cell line. a one step grow ...19989763123
chicken anemia virus and fowl adenoviruses: association to induce the inclusion body hepatitis/ hydropericardium syndrome.the effects of a simultaneous and/or a subsequent coinfection with chicken anemia virus (cav) isolate 10343 and fowl adenovirus (fav) isolate 341 in specific-pathogen-free light chickens were evaluated. the simultaneous coinfection was conducted by the intramuscular route, whereas the subsequent coinfection trial considered favs administered orally. in trial 1, 20-day-old chickens simultaneously coinfected with cav (10343) and fav (341) intramuscularly (i.m.) showed 55% mortality and characteris ...200010737644
epizootic outbreaks of gizzard erosion associated with adenovirus infection in chickens.two outbreaks of gizzard erosion in slaughtered broiler chickens in japan were examined pathologically and microbiologically. the prevalences of such lesions were 9%-11% and 4%-50% in the affected flocks. affected chickens had no clinical signs. group i fowl adenovirus (fav) serotype 1 was isolated from gizzard lesions. histologically, gizzard mucosa were necrotic. intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in the enlarged nuclei of degenerating epithelial cells of the gizzard. the keratinoid layer ...200111332495
vertical induction of the inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome with fowl adenovirus and chicken anemia virus.the hypothesis that fowl adenovirus (fav) and chicken anemia virus (cav), transmitted vertically and simultaneously, induce the inclusion body hepatitis (ibh)/hydropericardium (hp) syndrome in progeny chickens was tested. thus, 35-wk-old light brown layer breeders, showing absence of antibodies against fav and variable titers against cav, were intramuscularly singly infected with the fav serotype 4 isolate 341 or dually infected with cav (isolate 10343) and fav. all hens (groups a [fav alone], b ...200111336070
pathogenicity of serotype 1 fowl adenovirus in commercial broiler chickens.the pathogenicity of a serotype 1 fowl adenovirus (fav-99zh), isolated from broiler chickens exhibiting gizzard erosion, was investigated in commercial broiler chickens. five-, 3-, and 1-wk-old commercial broiler chickens were inoculated with fav-99zh by both oral and ocular routes. in the 5-wk-old chickens (trial 1), none of which had the maternal antibody to fav-99zh, severe gizzard erosions were observed on days 5, 7, and 10 postinoculation (pi). among the 3-wk-old chickens (trial 2), which w ...200111785887
fowl adenovirus serotype 4 associated with outbreaks of infectious hydropericardium in haryana, india.during 1998, hydropericardium syndrome was observed among 3-to-6-wk-old broilers in 45 different flocks of haryana, india, with mortality ranging between 10% and 30%. fowl adenovirus (fav) was isolated from one of the affected flocks by chicken embryo liver cell culture. serum neutralization test and polymerase chain reaction assay coupled with restriction enzyme analysis confirmed that the isolated virus belonged to fav serotype 4. the disease was reproduced in 28-day-old broilers by subcutaneo ...200211922341
a recombinant fowl adenovirus expressing the s1 gene of infectious bronchitis virus protects against challenge with infectious bronchitis virus.the spike peplomer s1 subunit sequence from avian infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) vic s strain was expressed in a plasmid under the control of the fowl adenovirus (fav) major late promoter (mlp). two recombinants were constructed in fav serotype 8 (fav 8) by inserting the expression cassette between the snabi and xbai restriction enzyme sites (clone da3) or between the spei sites (clone ca6-20). expression of the s1 gene in the recombinants was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase cha ...200312798610
severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus.vaccines against infectious bronchitis of chickens (gallus gallus domesticus) have arguably been the most successful, and certainly the most widely used, of vaccines for diseases caused by coronaviruses, the others being against bovine, canine, feline and porcine coronaviruses. infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), together with the genetically related coronaviruses of turkey (meleagris gallopovo) and ring-necked pheasant (phasianus colchicus), is a group 3 coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syn ...200314676007
outbreaks of adenoviral gizzard erosion in slaughtered broiler chickens in japan.gizzard erosion in broiler chickens was investigated at 18 slaughterhouses in japan. the condition was observed in 13 of them, and adenoviral gizzard erosion (age) was diagnosed histologically, immunohistochemically and virologically in the eroded gizzards from nine of these 13. the antigen-positive intranuclear inclusion body of group 1 fowl adenovirus was observed in the epithelial cells of the affected gizzards, and fowl adenoviruses were isolated from the lesions. in two of the slaughterhous ...200314735993
antibody response and virus tissue distribution in chickens inoculated with wild-type and recombinant fowl adenoviruses.we demonstrated that the long tandemly repeated region (tr-2) is dispensable for in vitro replication of fowl adenovirus 9 (fadv-9). the tr-2-deleted recombinant fadv-9 expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein was further characterized for in vivo effects. groups of chickens were exposed to recombinant or wild-type fadv-9 by intramuscular injection, through the feed or drinking water and one group served as a negative control. the antibody (ab) response, evaluated by elisa and a plaque ...200314604569
pathogenicity by parenteral injection of fowl adenovirus isolated from gizzard erosion and resistance to reinfection in adenoviral gizzard erosion in chickens.the pathogenicity of a serotype-1 fowl adenovirus (fav-99zh), which causes adenoviral gizzard erosion by oral inoculation in chickens, was investigated in specific pathogen-free white leghorn chickens. in trial 1, 14 chickens were inoculated intravenously with the virus at 21 days of age and euthanatized for necropsy within 1-14 days of inoculation. gizzard erosion was grossly observed from day 7 postinoculation (pi), and histologically, fav-99zh antigen-positive, basophilic intranuclear inclusi ...200415347820
usefulness of polymerase chain reaction in early detection and tissue tropism of fowl adenovirus in experimentally infected chicken. 200415563109
adenoviral gizzard erosion in commercial broiler chickens.pathologic and immunohistochemical changes caused by group i of the fowl adenovirus (fav) serotype-1 99zh strain, isolated from broiler chickens exhibiting gizzard erosion, were investigated in commercial broiler chickens. one hundred twenty-two chickens were inoculated with the strain by both oral and ocular routes at 1, 3, or 5 weeks of age and euthanatized for necropsy within 4-18 days of inoculation. focal gizzard erosions were observed in the inoculated chickens of each age group. a histolo ...200312724571
nucleotide sequence analysis of the l1 loop variable region of hexon gene of fowl adenovirus 4 isolates from india.three fowl adenovirus 4 (fav4) isolates from chicken and one from quail, all from tamil nadu, india were analyzed. the l1 loop variable region of hexon gene of these isolates was amplified by pcr and sequenced. the nucleotide sequences (442 bp) and deduced amino acid sequences of the four isolates were compared with those of other isolates of fav4. the nucleotide sequences of the four isolates had a 98% homology with other indian isolates and a 96% homology with belgian and russian isolates. the ...200515929401
lack of interaction between avian leukosis virus subgroup j and fowl adenovirus (fav) in fav-antibody-positive chickens.unfounded field speculation has suggested that avian leukosis virus subgroup j (alv-j) predisposes young meat-type chickens to inclusion body hepatitis caused by fowl adenovirus (fav). to address this hypothesis, we infected 1-day-old grandparent meat-type chickens carrying maternal antibodies against fav with a field isolate of fav associated with inclusion body hepatitis in broilers, alv-j, or both fav and alv-j. we examined the effects of fav alone or in combination with alv-j on the basis of ...200212495060
prevention of inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome in progeny chickens by vaccination of breeders with fowl adenovirus and chicken anemia virus.the hypothesis that an effective protection of progeny chickens against inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome (ibh/hp) can be achieved by dual vaccination of breeders with fowl adenovirus (fav) serotype 4 and chicken anemia virus (cav) was tested. thus, 17-wk-old brown leghorn pullet groups were vaccinated by different schemes including single fav (inactivated), single cav (attenuated), fav and cav dually, or were not vaccinated (controls). subsequent progenies of these breeders wer ...200212243517
characterization of fowl adenovirus serotype-4 associated with hydropericardium syndrome in chicken.the polypeptides of three fowl adenovirus-4 (fav-4) field isolates of hydropericardium syndrome from various geographical areas of the country and the standard fav-1 (celo virus) were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analysed by protein immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies to fav-4 and fav-1. protein profile analysis of fav-4 isolates revealed similarity of all the eight polypeptides with molecular weight ranging from 20 to 107 kda but differed from ...200212053912
purification and characterization of the aetiological agent of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome from infected liver tissues of broiler chickens.hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome in broiler chickens is an acute, infectious disease characterized by high mortality, excess pericardial fluid and multifocal hepatic necrosis. the aetiological agent was purified to homogeneity from infected liver tissues from field outbreaks. electron-microscopic and serological confirmation of the virus were undertaken and the disease was reproduced experimentally in broiler chicks. the results indicated that an adenovirus, fowl adenovirus serotype 4, was al ...200211887423
development of sandwich elisa for the detection of fowl adenovirus 4 associated with hydropericardium syndrome in experimentally infected chicken.a sandwich elisa was standardized to detect fowl adenovirus (fav) group i antigen in various tissues, namely liver, spleen, bursa, thymus and kidneys of chicks experimentally infected with fowl adenovirus 4 (fav-4) isolated from cases of inclusion body hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (ibh-hps). the assay was found to be more sensitive and more specific in comparison to an agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test, as it could detect fav antigen below the titer of 20,000 tcid50/ml and below 1.14 m ...200111719988
pcr for the identification and differentiation of histomonas meleagridis, tetratrichomonas gallinarum and blastocystis the present investigation pcr assays were developed for the rapid detection and differentiation of two poultry flagellates: histomonas meleagridis and tetratrichomonas gallinarum as well as the protozoan microorganism: blastocystis spp. the nucleotide sequences of the small subunit ribosomal rnas were used for primer construction obtaining fragments which vary in size for each microorganism. the established pcrs were able to detect dna obtained from one microorganism of t. gallinarum and blas ...200616920265
characterization of monoclonal antibodies against fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (fav1) isolated from gizzard erosion.six clones of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to fowl adenovirus (fav) serotype 1 were produced. all mabs reacted positively by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. three mabs recognized the putative 100-kd hexon protein and reacted to serotype 1 specifically by western blot analysis but did not react to other fav serotypes (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8a). these mabs will be useful for immunodiagnosis of fav serotype 1 infection in chickens with gizzard erosion and in further research studies involving th ...200617039830
kinetic and biologic properties of recombinant chifn-gamma expressed via celo-virus this study, a replicative fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (celo) recombinant expressing chicken interferon-gamma (chifn-gamma) was constructed. in the engineered recombinant, the chifn-gamma gene was placed under the control of cytomegalovirus (cmv) promoter. the chifn-gamma expression cassette was inserted in the right end of the celo genome (d fragment), which was able to carry the largest insertion of foreign dna without affecting the replication functions of the vector. the recombinant chifn-g ...200717316138
experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens with serotype-1 fowl adenovirus isolated from a broiler chicken with gizzard erosions.gizzard lesions were formed in specific-pathogen-free (spf) white leghorn chickens inoculated with fowl adenovirus (fav). the virus, serotype 1 fav 99zh strain (fav-99zh), was originally isolated from the gizzard mucosa of commercial broiler chickens exhibiting gizzard erosion with intranuclear inclusion bodies. five-day-old and 53-day-old spf white leghorn chickens were inoculated with fav-99zh by both oral and ocular routes and then examined at necropsy on days 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 postinoc ...200111332481
structure of the c-terminal head domain of the fowl adenovirus type 1 long fiber.avian adenovirus celo (chicken embryo lethal orphan virus, fowl adenovirus type 1) incorporates two different homotrimeric fiber proteins extending from the same penton base: a long fiber (designated fiber 1) and a short fiber (designated fiber 2). the short fibers extend straight outwards from the viral vertices, whilst the long fibers emerge at an angle. in contrast to the short fiber, which binds an unknown avian receptor and has been shown to be essential to the invasiveness of this virus, t ...200717698649
the hydropericardium syndrome and inclusion body hepatitis in domestic fowl.hydropericardium syndrome, an emerging disease of poultry, has recently been detected in some countries of asia and america, particularly in broiler birds aged 3-6 weeks. the disease is characterized by its sudden occurrence with high mortality of up to 80% in broilers and low mortality of under 10% in layers, associated with hydropericardium. its course is of 7-15 days under natural conditions. the causative agent is probably fowl adenovirus serotype 4, belonging to group i aviadenovirus genus ...200010726299
fowl adenovirus (fadv) serotype 4 causes depletion of b and t cells in lymphoid organs in specific pathogen-free chickens following experimental the present investigation flow cytometric analysis and immunohistochemistry were applied together for the first time to gain new insights into the interaction between virulent fowl adenoviruses (fadv) and the immune system of chickens. as a model for virulent fadv infections a fadv-4 strain was used, known as the aetiological agent of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (hhs) in broilers sometimes also named angara disease. specified pathogen-free chickens (spf) were divided into three differ ...200817996948
growth analysis of adenoviruses isolated from pigeons in chicken cells and serological characterization of the isolates.the susceptibility of chicken embryo liver (cel) and chicken kidney (ck) cells to eight adenoviruses isolated from different pigeons were investigated. isolation and propagation was most successful in cel cells. the cytopathic effect, i.e. cell rounding and detachment of the cells was typical for adenoviruses. titres of up to 10(6.6) plaque-forming units/ml could be reached on cel cells. transferring cel-grown virus onto ck cells also resulted in a cytopathic effect but with much lower titres, w ...199818483986
delivery of avian cytokines by adenovirus vectors.a fowl adenovirus serotype 8 (fav-8) recombinant was constructed by inserting an expression cassette consisting of the fav major late promoter/splice leader sequences (mlp/sl), the chicken interferon-gamma (chifn-gamma) gene and sv40 polya into sites in the right hand end of the fav-8 genome. one recombinant (a3-13) was constructed by an insertion of chifn-gamma into a 1.3 kilobase pair (kbp) deletion which removed a putative open reading frame (orf) with identity to the celo (fav serotype 1) 36 ...200010717297
identification and characterization of an avian adenovirus isolated from a 'spiking mortality syndrome' field outbreak in broilers on the delmarva peninsula, usa.a fowl adenovirus isolated from a 'spiking mortality syndrome' field outbreak in broilers on the delmarva peninsula, usa, was identified by cross-neutralization tests and by restriction enzyme analysis using eight restriction enzymes as a strain of the fowl adenovirus serotype fav12. the isolate is nearly identical to strain uf71 though it shows substantially higher virulence in vivo than uf71. contrary to strains of other fowl adenovirus serotypes (except serotype fav1), the isolate caused high ...199518645825
characterization of fowl adenoviruses from outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome in chile.three fowl adenovirus (fav) isolates (341, 344, and 215) obtained during 1996-97 from field outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome (ibh/hps) affecting broilers and broiler breeders in chile were characterized by virus neutralization tests (vnts) and restriction enzyme analysis of a dna fragment. furthermore, the pathologic characteristics of one of these fav isolates (fav 341) was studied in experimentally infected chickens. the vnts conducted with isolates 341 and 344 a ...199910396639
aetiological examination of an outbreak of haemorrhagic syndrome in a broiler flock in japan.the aetiology of an outbreak of haemorrhagic syndrome (hs) in a commercial broiler flock was examined. at a rearing farm, 596 of 6376 chicks (9.3%) in a flock were culled with depression and increased mortality from 12 to 26 days of age, with a peak at 16 to 19 days of age. most of the affected chicks examined had haemorrhagic lesions of the muscles, atrophic changes of the lymphoid organs and aplastic bone marrow. chicken anaemia agent (caa) was isolated from the livers of all the 21 chicks exa ...198718766640
hexon based pcrs combined with restriction enzyme analysis for rapid detection and differentiation of fowl adenoviruses and egg drop syndrome virus.three different polymerase chain reactions (pcrs), two of them combined with restriction enzyme analysis (rea), were developed for detection and differentiation of all 12 fowl adenovirus (fav) serotypes and the egg drop syndrome (eds) virus. for primer construction fav1, fav10 and eds virus hexon proteins were aligned and conserved and variable regions were determined. two primer sets (h1/h2 and h3/h4) for single use were constructed which hybridize in three conserved regions of hexon genes. eac ...19989766892
fowl adenovirus recombinant expressing vp2 of infectious bursal disease virus induces protective immunity against bursal disease.the right hand end nde i fragment 3 (90.8-100 map units) of the fowl adenovirus serotype 10 (fav-10) was characterised so as to allow the location of an insertion site for recombinant vector construction. infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv) vp2 gene from the australian classical strain 002/73, under the control of the fav-10 major late promoter/leader sequence (mlp/ls) was inserted into a unique not i site that was generated at 99.5 map units. this recombinant virus was produced without delet ...19989645198
a region at the left end of the fowl adenovirus 9 genome that is non-essential in vitro has consequences in vivo.the regions at the left and right ends of fowl adenovirus (fadv) genomes are not well-characterized in comparison to those of human adenoviruses. using a series of deletion mutants, we analysed a 2.4 kb region near the left end of the fadv-9 genome (nt 400-2782) that contains packaging-signal motifs vi and vii and open reading frames (orfs) 0, 1, 1a, 1b, 1c and 2. viable viruses with specific deletions in this region had wild-type characteristics in vitro, as measured by cytopathic effect, plaqu ...201019759237
isolation and identification of a fowl adenovirus from wild black kites (milvus migrans).a fowl adenovirus was isolated from wild black kites (milvus migrans) that died around kashipur, uttarakhand, india. this virus isolate produced cytopathic effects in chicken embryo liver (cel) cells and reacted with fowl adenovirus 4 (fadv-4) antiserum in agar gel immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence tests. the virus isolate was neutralized by fadv-4 antiserum with a neutralization titer of 800. electron microscopy of infected cel cells showed the presence of hexagonal virion particles measur ...201020090043
isolation of fowl adenoviruses serotype 4 from pigeons with hepatic necrosis.nine homogenized livers were taken to isolate the causative agent of adenovirus type i and type ii infections in pigeons. the samples were passaged up to four times on primary chicken embryo hepatocytes. adenoviruses were isolated from all of the six type ii but none of the three type i infections. serologically the isolated adenoviruses were classified as fowl adenovirus (fav) serotype 4. restriction enzyme analysis of two isolates in comparison with fav4 reference strain kr5 confirmed the sero ...19989581348
characterization of fowl adenovirus serotype 4 isolated from chickens with hydropericardium syndrome based on analysis of the short fiber protein gene.the sequences of short fiber genes of the fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (fadv-4), including isolates from chickens with hydropericardium syndrome (hps), in japan, india, and pakistan were compared. by phylogenetic analysis based on complete nucleotide sequences of this gene, fadv-4 strains from hps (hps-fadv-4) in japan, india, and pakistan fell into a different cluster from fadv-4 strains not derived from hps. hydropericardium syndrome-fadv-4 isolates were differentiated from other fadv-4 strains ...201020224079
specific-pathogen-free chickens vaccinated with a live fadv-4 vaccine are fully protected against a severe challenge even in the absence of neutralizing adapting a very virulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (fadv-4) to a fibroblast cell line (qt35) instead of growing the virus in chicken embryo liver cells or chicken kidney cells, it was possible to attenuate the virus. birds infected with the attenuated virus (fadv-4/qt35) on the first day of life expressed no adverse clinical signs and no mortality. intramuscular challenge with the virulent virus grown on chicken embryo liver cells (fadv-4/cel) at 21 days of life induced high mortality in pre ...201020608537
the major late promoter and bipartite leader sequence of fowl adenovirus.the region of the fowl adenovirus serotype 10 (fav-10) genome containing the major late promoter (mlp) and leader sequences was determined and appropriate genomic fragments were cloned and sequenced. a tata box was identified and the location of the putative transcription start site was determined. by using synthetic primers from the transcription start site in conjunction with oligonucleotides from the coding regions of the penton base and hexon genes, cdna was produced from late mrna isolated ...19989572553
immunopathogenesis and physical maps of fowl adenovirus serotype 9.restriction endonuclease maps of the genome of fowl adenovirus (fav) serotype 9 have been constructed for the restriction endonucleases ndei, noti and xbai. the total size of the fav-9 genome was estimated to be 44.5 kb pairs, consistent with previous reports that fav genomes are approximately 10 kb larger than human adenovirus (hav). the pathogenicity of this virus in day-old chickens was intermediate between the pathogenicity of the non-pathogenic and the highly pathogenic favs.19968880992
immunological and molecular comparison of fowl adenovirus serotypes 4 and 10.some discussion has centered on whether fowl adenovirus (fav) serotypes 4 and 10 are distinct serotypes or in fact should be reclassified as a single serotype. we have undertaken a detailed characterisation of representatives of both serotypes in order to determine if types 4 and 10 should be grouped together or retained as distinct serotypes. examination at the genomic level has revealed considerable similarities and few differences between these 2 serotypes. dna cross-hybridization failed to d ...19957733822
comparison of the fibers of fowl adenovirus a serotype 1 isolates from chickens with gizzard erosions in europe and apathogenic reference strains.a total of 18 samples from 4 outbreaks of gizzard erosions in broiler chickens in europe were used in the current study. fowl adenoviruses were found in samples from all 4 outbreaks, and isolates were identified as fowl adenovirus a (fadv-a) serotype 1. as described earlier, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) analysis of the long fiber gene was conducted. however, all 18 samples showed the same pattern as apathogenic fadv-1 strains: ote and chicken embr ...201021088178
comparison of agar-gel precipitin responses among strains of fowl adenovirus using antigens prepared from chorioallantoic membranes and chicken kidney cell cultures.agar-gel precipitin responses obtained for serologically different strains of fowl adenovirus (fav) in tests using antigens prepared from fav-infected chorioallantoic membranes (cam antigen) and chicken kidney cell cultures (ckc antigen) were compared. findings showed that both types of antigens exhibited less sensitivity to heterologous than to homologous antisera and that quantitative differences in sensitivity were present between serotypes. cam antigens were more sensitive than ckc antigens ...19957492655
the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect igg antibodies to serotype-specific and group-specific antigens of fowl adenovirus serotypes 2, 3 and 4.a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been developed which can detect serotype and group-specific antibodies (igg) to fowl adenovirus serotypes 2, 3 and 4. the chickens produced principally type-specific antibodies after a single oral inoculation of virus which enabled that strain to be identified by the elisa. however, inoculation of an heterologous serotype, although inducing strain-specific antibodies to itself, also induced high levels of antibody to the group-specific an ...19836330150
characterization of two strains of fowl adenovirus type adenovirus isolated from the trachea of a chicken with respiratory disease was compared with an isolate obtained from the trachea of a clinically normal chicken. the isolates caused similar respiratory disease experimentally but differed in plaque morphology and fluorescent-antibody reactions in infected chick embryos.19816279068
two fiber genes of nearly equal lengths are a common and distinctive feature of fowl adenovirus c members.the complete genome or the genome region containing the two fiber genes of two reference strains and one field isolate representing both serotypes of fowl adenovirus c were sequenced. two fiber genes were revealed in the genomes of all three isolates. fiber-1 and fiber-2 genes of several fowl adenovirus c isolates were sequenced as well. both serotypes 4 and 10 have two fiber genes. the genome region containing the fiber gene was also sequenced for the reference strain of fowl adenovirus b. just ...201122133916
pathogenicity studies with a strain of fowl adenovirus serotype 8 (vri-33) in chickens.experiments were undertaken to study the pathogenesis of vri-33, a strain of fowl adenovirus serotype 8 isolated from the liver of a broiler chicken with inclusion body hepatitis. a 30% death rate resulted from oral infection of one-day-old specific pathogen free chickens with 10(6) plaque forming units of vri-33. chickens 10, 14, 21 and 28 days of age did not die following infection via natural routes but there were some motalities following infection via parenteral routes. immunodepression by ...19872838009
avian adenovirus isolated from pigeons affected with inclusion body hepatitis.avian adenoviruses were isolated from two pigeons affected with inclusion body hepatitis (ibh) by using chicken embryo liver cell cultures. one of the isolates, designated strain s-pl1, replicated in the cell nuclei forming intranuclear inclusion bodies, showed adenovirus-like morphology by electron microscopy, and cross-reacted serologically with strain sr-48 known as serotype 2 of fowl adenovirus. the strain s-pl1 killed day-old chicks by subcutaneous inoculation, and its 50% chicken lethal do ...19902161475
the viruses of wild pigeon droppings.birds are frequent sources of emerging human infectious diseases. viral particles were enriched from the feces of 51 wild urban pigeons (columba livia) from hong kong and hungary, their nucleic acids randomly amplified and then sequenced. we identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families circoviridae, parvoviridae, picornaviridae, reoviridae, adenovirus, astroviridae, and caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads), as well as plant and insect viruses likely o ...201324023772
cell mediated immune response of chicks following fowl adenovirus type-1 infection.cellular immune response of 6-week-old chickens infected with fowl adenovirus type-1 was evaluated by both in vivo and in vitro assay. in vitro assay, enumerating peripheral t lymphocyte by alphanaphthyl acetate esterase staining, revealed that cellular immunity appeared as early as 1 week post-infection and was maintained up to 5 weeks post-infection. in vivo assay by phytohaemagglutin skin test showed cellular immunity until 2 weeks post-infection. thereafter no immunity was observed by this a ...19911647932
effects of fowl adenovirus infection on the immune system of chickens.a virulent strain of serotype 8 fowl adenovirus (fav) was isolated from an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis (ibh) in broiler flocks. post-mortem changes included characteristic liver lesions with intranuclear inclusion bodies in the hepatocytes and severe lymphocytic depletion in the bursa, thymus and spleen. the packed cell volume was reduced by 50 per cent or more and varying amounts of cell depletion were observed in the bone marrow. typical ibh was reproduced in specific pathogen-free ch ...19921334981
the hydropericardium syndrome in poultry--a current scenario.inclusion-body hepatitis hydropericardium syndrome (ibh-hps) is an important, recently emerged, disease of poultry, particularly of 3- to 6-week-old broiler chicks, characterized by its sudden onset, with high mortality ranging from 20% to 70%, typical hydropericardium and enlarged mottled and friable livers, with intranuclear inclusion bodies in the hepatocytes. the causative agent is a non-enveloped icosahedral fowl adenovirus (fav) serotype 4, belonging to the adenovirus genus of the family a ...200414992243
isolation of chicken astrovirus from specific pathogen-free chicken embryonated eggs.astroviruses have been associated with enteric disorders in many animal species, including chickens. here, we describe the isolation, propagation, and pathological characteristics of chicken astrovirus (castv) in specific pathogen free (spf) chicken embryonated eggs (cee) from chickens with diarrhea and runting-stunting syndrome. the cee were inoculated via the yolk sac route. viral confirmation was carried out using pcr techniques and transmission electron microscopy negative staining with ammo ...201525805833
simultaneous typing of nine avian respiratory pathogens using a novel gexp analyzer-based multiplex pcr assay.a new, rapid, and high-throughput genomelab gene expression profiler (gexp) analyzer-based multiplex pcr method was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. the respiratory pathogens included in this study were avian influenza subtypes h5, h7, and h9, infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), newcastle disease virus (ndv), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv), mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), mycoplasma synoviae (ms) and haemophilus paragallinarum ...201425025815
molecular survey of enteric viruses in commercial chicken farms in korea with a history of enteritis.several enteric viruses have increasingly received attention as potential causative agents of runting-stunting syndrome (rss) in chickens. a molecular survey was performed to determine the presence of a broad range of enteric viruses, namely chicken astrovirus (castv), avian nephritis virus (anv), chicken parvovirus (chpv), infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), avian rotavirus (avrv), avian reovirus (arv), and fowl adenovirus (fadv), in intestinal samples derived from 34 commercial chicken flocks t ...201324135590
pathogenicity of serotype 8 fowl adenovirus isolated from gizzard erosions of slaughtered broiler chickens.the pathogenicity of serotype 8 fowl adenovirus (fav), isolated from gizzard erosions of slaughtered broiler chickens, was investigated. in experiment 1, 29 5-day-old specific-pathogen-free (spf) chickens were inoculated with the isolates of serotype 8 fav, m013 (group 1) or g0054 (group 2) strain, via an oral route. there were no clinical signs in any of chickens after inoculation, and mild gizzard erosions were observed macroscopically and microscopically in three inoculated chickens of group ...200415644608
application of cross-priming amplification (cpa) for detection of fowl adenovirus (fadv) strains.fowl adenoviruses (fadvs) are widely distributed among chickens. detection of fadvs is mainly accomplished by virus isolation, serological assays, various polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp). to increase the diagnostic capacity of currently applied techniques, cross-priming amplification (cpa) for the detection of the fadv hexon gene was developed. the single cpa assay was optimised to detect all serotypes 1-8a-8b-11 representing the species ...201525655263
comparison of the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern of the fiber gene and pathogenicity of serotype-1 fowl adenovirus isolates from gizzard erosions and from feces of clinically healthy chickens in japan.the fiber gene sequence and pathogenicity of the serotype-1 fowl adenovirus (fadv-1) isolated from gizzard erosions and from clinically normal chickens were compared among isolates. the fadv-99zh strain, which induced gizzard erosions, had a nucleotide sequence of the long fiber gene that was different from that of the ote strain, which did not induce gizzard erosions. the differences could be distinguished by use of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) a ...200616617696
avian adeno-associated virus (aaav) and fowl adenoviruses (fav): studies of viral interactions in chicken cell the growth kinetics of avian adeno-associated virus (aaav) in chicken cells demonstrate, the three serotypes of fowl adenovirus (fav), fav -1, -5 and -8, provide complete helper activity for the production of infectious aaav. under one step conditions, the growth cycle of aaav in primary chicken kidney cell (ckc) cultures is characterised by an eclipse phase of 8 hours and an exponential increase of the virus infectivity by 4 to 5 logs until 24 hours post-adsorption (p.a.). these growth chara ...198618766538
flock prevalence of exposure to avian adeno-associated virus, chicken anemia virus, fowl adenovirus, and infectious bursal disease virus among ontario broiler chicken flocks.samples from 231 randomly selected commercial broiler chicken flocks in ontario were tested at slaughter for exposure to chicken anemia virus (cav), fowl adenovirus (fadv), and infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv). fifteen blood samples per flock were collected and analyzed for the presence of antibodies against cav, fadv, and ibdv by elisa or agar gel immunodiffusion test. fifteen cecal tonsils and cloacal swabs per flock were analyzed for the presence of cav, fadv, and ibdv by pcr. the preva ...201424758116
gizzard erosion and ulceration syndrome in chickens and turkeys: a review of causal or predisposing factors.gizzard erosion and ulceration syndrome (geu) was described for the first time in the 1930s. the main focus of early studies was on nutritional deficiencies and peroxidation of highly polyunsaturated fatty acids as causative factors. during the 1970s and 1980s the focus was moved towards toxic substances in the feed. scott's review in 1985 concluded that overproduction of gastric acid induced by gizzerosine was a major cause of geu. during the last decades, serotype 1 of fowl adenovirus a and cl ...201323859215
molecular detection of avian pathogens in poultry red mite (dermanyssus gallinae) collected in chicken farms.poultry red mite (prm, dermanyssus gallinae) is a blood-sucking ectoparasite as well as a possible vector of several avian pathogens. in this study, to define the role of prm in the prevalence of avian infectious agents, we used polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to check for the presence of seven pathogens: avipox virus (apv), fowl adenovirus (fadv), marek's disease virus (mdv), erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (er), salmonella enterica (se), mycoplasma synoviae (ms) and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). ...201425649939
fiber knob domain lacking the shaft sequence but fused to a coiled coil is a candidate subunit vaccine against egg-drop syndrome.egg-drop syndrome (eds) virus is an avian adenovirus that causes a sudden drop in egg production and in the quality of the eggs when it infects chickens, leading to substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. inactivated eds vaccines produced in embryonated duck eggs or cell culture systems are available for the prophylaxis of eds. however, recombinant subunit vaccines that are efficacious and inexpensive are a desirable alternative. in this study, we engineered chimeric fusion proteins ...201627105561
molecular cloning, expression and characterization of 100k gene of fowl adenovirus-4 for prevention and control of hydropericardium syndrome.fowl adenovirus-4 is an infectious agent causing hydropericardium syndrome in chickens. adenovirus are non-enveloped virions having linear, double stranded dna. viral genome codes for few structural and non structural proteins. 100k is an important non-structural viral protein. open reading frame for coding sequence of 100k protein was cloned with oligo histidine tag and expressed in escherichia coli as a fusion protein. nucleotide sequence of the gene revealed that 100k gene of fadv-4 has high ...201626558992
recombinant hexon antigen based single serum dilution elisa for rapid serological profiling against fowl adenovirus-4 causing hydropericardium syndrome in chickens.a recombinant hexon antigen based single serum dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to measure the specific antibody in sera of chickens against fowl adenovirus-4 (fadv) causing hydropericardium syndrome (hps). an immunodominant partial hexon gene of 737bp was cloned into prset vector and expressed in escherichia coli strain bl21 de3 plys s. expression was tested by western blot test. the purified recombinant protein antigen was used in coating elisa plate for fadv-4 ...201424983486
developing an indirect elisa based on recombinant hexon protein for serological detection of inclusion body hepatitis in chickens.fowl adenovirus (fadv) serotype 2 causes inclusion body hepatitis (ibh) disease which adversely affects the broiler industry in thailand. we developed an indirect elisa based on the recombinant hexon protein produced by e. coli. the recombinant hexon protein was tested with sera, in both infected and noninfected chickens. the recombinant hexon protein was standardized with an antigen concentration of 3.75 µg/ml and test sera. the intra- and inter-assays were repeatable. the cutoff value from tg- ...201424141320
sequence analysis of the left end of fowl adenovirus genomes.nucleotide sequence analysis of the left end of the genome of fowl adenoviruses (fadv) representing species group c (fadv-4 and -10), d (fadv-2) and e (fadv-8) were carried out, and the sequence data was compared to those of fadv-1 (fadv-a) and fadv-9 (fadv-d). the viruses were propagated in chicken hepatoma cell line for viral dna isolation. restriction endonuclease analysis was performed followed by hybridization with two dna probes representing the left end of fadv-9. the identified fragments ...200616791424
detection and quantitation of fowl adenovirus genome by a real-time pcr assay.the purpose of the study was to develop a highly sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay to detect and quantitate fowl adenovirus (fadv) dna in chicken tissues, using fadv-9 as a model. the assay had a dynamic range of 7 logs and minimum detection limit of 9.4 viral genome copies. it was shown to be highly specific, as tissues from uninfected chickens and other viral genomes, such as those of marek's disease virus, fowlpox virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus did not pr ...200919442846
structure of the c-terminal head domain of the fowl adenovirus type 1 short fibre.there are more than 100 known adenovirus serotypes, including 50 human serotypes. they can infect all 5 major vertebrate classes but only aviadenovirus infecting birds and mastadenovirus infecting mammals have been well studied. celo (chicken embryo lethal orphan) adenovirus is responsible for mild respiratory pathologies in birds. most studies on celo virus have focussed on its genome sequence and organisation whereas the structural work on celo proteins has only recently started. contrary to m ...200818561970
antibody fragments, expressed by a fowl adenovirus vector, are able to neutralize infectious bursal disease virus.single-chain variable fragments (scfv) contain the heavy and light chain variable domains of immunoglobulin, joined by a short peptide linker. previously, our laboratory has produced neutralizing scfv to epitopes of infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv). the in vitro delivery and expression of one of these scfv with and without the c(h)2-c(h)4 fc domain of chicken igy attached (scfv-fc) by a serotype 8 fowl adenovirus (fadv-8) vector was investigated in the present study. a panel of fadv-8 vect ...201020954010
Antibody response and virus shedding of chickens inoculated with left end deleted fowl adenovirus 9-based recombinant viruses.The nonpathogenic fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are suitable recombinant virus vectors. Two different replication-competent FAdV-9-based recombinant viruses carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene within a nonessential DNA sequence at the left end genomic region were tested in chickens to study the antibody response by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to both the foreign proteins, EGFP and FAdV-9, and virus shedding through the feces. All inoculations were done intramuscularly: ...201122017044
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to fowl adenoviruses.a panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies to a hypervirulent fowl adenovirus (fadv) strain 398a was produced. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were characterized for their isotype, neutralizing activity, ability to capture viral antigens, immunoblotting of viral polypeptides, competitive inhibition with chicken antisera and their reaction pattern with other fadvs in indirect immunoperoxidase. eight out of 10 mabs reacted strongly in indirect immunoperoxidase staining with most of the fadvs isolated from i ...200119184933
hepatitis virus infections in poultry.viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis e virus (hev), duck hepatitis b virus (dhbv), duck hepatitis a virus (dhav-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (fadv), and turkey hepatitis virus (thv). while these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. in this article, we aim to review the common an ...201627610716
[the potential of avian cytokines as immunotherapeutics and vaccine adjuvants].with the imminent and widespread ban of the use of antibiotic feed additives and chemical antimicrobials in food production animals, alternative measures need to be sought to ensure that the livestock industry will not be adversely affected. cytokines are proteins that control the type and extent of an immune response following infection or vaccination. they therefore represent excellent naturally occurring therapeutics. the identification, cloning and characterisation of cytokine genes in chick ...200315966311
pathogenicity of fowl adenovirus isolated from gizzard erosions to immuno-suppressed chickens.pathogenicity of a fowl adenovirus (fav), jm1/1 strain of serotype 1 derived from gizzard erosions of a broiler chicken, was examined to specific pathogen-free (spf) chickens pre-treated with infectious bursal disease viruses (ibdvs) or cyclophosphamide (cy). virulent ibdvs, classical type, were inoculated orally at 3 days of age of spf chickens. cy was treated subcutaneously for 3 days after hatch. fav was given orally at 30 days of age. at 40 days of age, all chickens were bled and autopsied f ...200616598177
economically important non-oncogenic immunosuppressive viral diseases of chicken--current status.immunosuppressive viral diseases threaten the poultry industry by causing heavy mortality and economic loss of production, often as a result of the chickens' increased susceptibility to secondary infections and sub-optimal response to vaccinations. this paper aimed to present an up-to-date review of three specific economically important non-oncogenic immunosuppressive viral diseases of chickens, viz. chicken infectious anaemia (cia), infectious bursal disease (ibd) and hydropericardium syndrome ...200616883664
fta liver impressions as dna template for detecting and genotyping fowl adenovirus.the feasibility of using liver impressions on flinders technology associates (fta filter paper for the collection, inactivation, and molecular analysis of fowl adenovirus (fav) was evaluated. fav i european union (eu) serotype 1 spotted on fta was shown to be inactivated using specific-pathogen-free (spf) primary chicken embryo liver cell culture as indicated by absence of cytopathic effect. sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) test using tenfold dilutions of allantoic fluid from 1 ...200717461276
the non-essential left end region of the fowl adenovirus 9 genome is suitable for foreign gene insertion/replacement.the goals of this study were to demonstrate that a non-essential region at the left end of the fowl adenovirus 9 (fadv-9) genome could be used to generate recombinant viruses, examine their in vitro growth characteristics and determine their ability to transduce non-avian cells. three fadv-9 vectors (rfadv-9s) were generated carrying the enhanced-green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene: fadv-9inegfp, fadv-9 delta 1-egfp and fadv-9 delta 4-egfp. fadv-9inegfp carried the egfp cassette inserted into ...201020132849
adenoviral gizzard erosion in broiler chickens in germany.avian adenovirus infections cause important disease complexes in chickens, but many of the viruses also infect chickens without resulting in overt disease. previously several outbreaks of gizzard erosions caused by a fowl adenovirus a serotype-1 (fadv-1) were reported from japan. here we report an outbreak of gizzard erosions in 12 broiler flocks in germany in 2011. chickens had a reduced daily weight gain and a higher total mortality rate of up to 8%. the birds showed a severe detachment of the ...201323678748
preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.the current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (hsv). currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. a field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. the chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. groups of ...201020878234
high incidence of glomerulonephritis associated with inclusion body hepatitis in broiler chickens: routine histopathology and histomorphometric studies.during the routine histologic evaluation of an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis (ibh) in mississippi broilers, a high incidence of renal enlargement and glomerulonephropathy was observed in the birds presenting classic hepatic pathology. characteristic intranuclear adenoviral inclusion bodies were demonstrated in the livers of these birds, and fowl adenovirus was identified by viral isolation and by pcr. the glomerular lesions were consistent with proliferative or membranoproliferative forms ...201020945776
pathogenicity and complete genome sequence of a fowl adenovirus serotype 8 this study we determined and analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a fowl adenovirus serotype 8 (fadv-8) isolate and examined its pathogenicity in chickens. the full genome of fadv-8 was 44,055 nucleotides in length with a similar organization to that of fadv-1 and fadv-9 genomes. no regions homologous to early regions e1, e3 and e4 of mastadenoviruses were recognized. along with fadv-9, fadv-8 has only one fiber gene and with regard to sequence composition and genome org ...201121237223
molecular characterization of fowl adenoviruses isolated from chickens with gizzard erosions.broiler chickens with clinical signs of uneven growth, depression, and dull feathers were submitted to our laboratory and, at necropsy, lesions in proventriculus, gizzard, and intestines were detected. fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (fadv-1) was isolated from digestive tissues. the virus, assigned as fadv-pl/g068/08, showed 99.5% nucleotide homology and 99.2% amino acid homology in hexon gene with chicken embryo lethal orphan (celo) strain classified as the european reference of fadv-1. one-day-old ...201121489943
inclusion body hepatitis caused by fowl adenovirus in broiler chickens in japan, 2009-2010.from january 2009 to june 2010, many broiler chicks suddenly died without clinical signs. the mortality rates were from 1.2% to 17.0% in affected flocks. inclusion body hepatitis (ibh) was detected in 13 prefectures (northern, eastern, western, and southern areas) in japan. the livers were enlarged and pale. the bursa of fabricius and thymus had not atrophied. multifocal necroses of hepatocytes with basophilic intranuclear inclusions were seen in the liver. eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bo ...201122313000
detection and molecular characterization of chicken astrovirus associated with chicks that have an unusual condition known as "white chicks" in brazil.chicken astrovirus (castv) is one of many viruses related to enteric diseases in poultry that are associated with runting-stunting syndrome (rss), which affects young chickens. castv was also recently associated with an unusual condition in chicks called "white chicks." some hatcheries in certain states of brazil have reported several incubation problems, mortality, and the presence of chicks with white plumages over the past several months. these chicks were termed locally as "white chicks." th ...201626976903
molecular detection of chicken parvovirus in broilers with enteric disorders presenting curving of duodenal loop, pancreatic atrophy, and mesenteritis.enteric disorders are an important cause of economic losses in broiler chickens worldwide. several agents have been associated with enteric problems, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. in this study, broiler chickens showing signs of enteric disorders were subjected to molecular diagnosis for several viral agents and also for pathological examination for elucidating this problem. thus, the chickens were screened for avian nephritis virus (anv), chicken astrovirus (castv), avian rotavirus ...201626908891
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of virus-like particles and recombinant fiber proteins in broiler-breeder vaccination against fowl adenovirus (fadv)-8b.inclusion body hepatitis (ibh) is an economically important diseases in broiler chicken industry. several serotypes of fowl adenovirus (fadv) can cause ibh, among them, serotype fadv-8b is associated with the majority of the ibh cases in canada. here, we evaluated fadv-8b virus-like particles (vlps) and recombinant fadv-8b fiber proteins (expressed in e. coli) as potential broiler-breeder vaccines against ibh. for assessing the immunogenicity of vaccines, we investigated both humoral and cellula ...201728396209
development of dot enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay using recombinant hexon protein for detecting antibodies to hydropericardium syndrome disease enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (elisa) using recombinant hexon protein of fowl adenovirus 4 (fadv 4) was standardized to detect antibody levels against hydropericardium syndrome disease in chickens. results were compared with the dot-elisa using purified virus protein antigen of fadv 4. in an experimental vaccination of broiler chicken, the antibody levels by dot elisa with recombinant protein and purified virus protein antigen ranged from 2.240±0.09 log10 to 2.0±0.04 during 5th to 8th w ...201526954190
fowl adenovirus species c serotype 4 is attributed to the emergence of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome in chickens in china.since july in 2015, an emerging infectious disease of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (hhs) was prevalent in chicken flocks in china. to confirm the causative agent and investigate the epidemiology of the disease, a total of 38 chicken flocks including 187 samples from jilin, liaoning, heilongjiang, henan, anhui, hubei, jiangxi, xinjiang, shandong and hunan provinces in china were collected and determined by pcr detection, sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and virus isolation. 81 samples (po ...201627615553
fowl adenovirus-based vaccine platform.nonpathogenic fowl adenoviruses (fadvs) are amenable for engineering multivalent vaccine platforms due to large stretches of nonessential dna sequences in their genomes. we describe the generation of fadv-9-based vaccine platforms by targeted homologous recombination in an infectious clone (ppacfadv-9 or wild type fadmid) containing the entire viral genome in a cosmid vector. the viral dna is subsequently released from the cosmid by restriction enzyme digestion followed by transfection in a chic ...201728374242
characterization and functional studies of fowl adenovirus 9 dutpase.deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphatase (dutpase), a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of dutp to dump and found in many viruses, has yet to be identified in fowl adenovirus 9 (fadv-9). by a multiple alignment of dutpase amino acid sequences, fadv-9 orf1 contained the five conserved motifs that define the protein family, and encoded a functional dutpase. moreover, transcription and protein expression patterns were characterized, indicating that dutpase was transcribed from 2h ...201627498408
chronological analysis of gross and histological lesions induced by field strains of fowl adenovirus serotypes 1, 8b and 11 in one-day-old chickens.fowl adenoviruses (fadvs) cause diseases in domestic chickens, including inclusion body hepatitis (ibh), with immunosuppression believed to play a role in their pathogenesis. to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis and chronology of disease caused by fadvs, the gross pathology, histopathology and dissemination of virus were examined at several different time points, after inoculation of one-day-old specific pathogen-free chickens with fadv-1, fadv-8b or fadv-11 via the ocular route. f ...201525609454
oral inoculation of chickens with a candidate fowl adenovirus 9 vector.fowl adenoviruses (fadvs) are a potential alternative to human adenovirus-based vaccine vectors. our previous studies demonstrated that a 2.4-kb region at the left end of the fadv-9 genome is nonessential for virus replication and is suitable for the insertion or replacement of transgenes. our in vivo study showed that the virus fadv-9δ4, lacking six open reading frames (orfs) at the left end of its genome, replicates less efficiently than wild-type fadv-9 (wtfadv-9) in chickens that were infect ...201323740924
an inactivated oil-emulsion fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine provides broad cross-protection against various serotypes of fowl adenovirus.the number of clinical cases of inclusion body hepatitis (ibh) and hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (hhs) has been increasing, resulting in considerable economic losses in many countries. currently, only fowl adenovirus (fadv) serotype 4 (fadv-4) has been reported as the causative agent of hhs, whereas ibh can be caused by all 12 serotypes of fadv. for protection against hhs, various live and killed fadv serotype 4 vaccines have been developed. however, there is a concern whether these vaccin ...201424662704
phylogenetic and geographic analysis of fowl adenovirus field strains isolated from poultry in poland.fowl adenoviruses (fadvs) are widely distributed in chickens in poland and throughout the world. fadv infections have been reported in the united states, australia, europe, and the mediterranean basin. detection of fadvs strains is very important from the epidemiological point of view and for monitoring disease outbreaks and developing strategies for vaccine development. several molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic studies have been performed, but the results obtained are still limited, becau ...201626446890
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