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prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater congo basin.vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. the role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. we investigated the exposure history of various african wildlife species from the congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. sera from 24 african forest buffalo (syncerus caffer nanus), 34 african elep ...201323778608
characteristics of night-time sleeping places selected by golden monkeys (rhinopithecus bieti) in the samage forest, baima snow mountain nature reserve, china.we examined the criteria for sleeping place selection in a social band of rhinopithecus bieti (black-and-white snub-nosed or golden monkeys) living in the mountainous samage forest, baima snow mountain nature reserve, yunnan, china. we performed principal component analysis and found that slope aspect, tree height and trunk diameter were likely key variables influencing selection of sleeping places. sleeping sites were preferentially located in mixed deciduous/conifer forest. the monkeys slept e ...200621396007
[isolation and identification of coxsackievirus in sichuan golden monkey].a coxsackievirus b strain was successfully isolated by cells culture from cardiac muscle tissues of a dead sichuan golden monkey with myocarditis from a zoo of changchun in china. the isolate was consistent with cvb by morphology, physicochemistry test, animal regression test and rt-pcr. analysis of vp1 partial gene sequence and detection of mice specific serum igg showed that the strain isolated was a coxsackievirus b3. it was the first cvb case report in sichuan golden monkey and the strain is ...200818780636
phylogeography and population structure of the golden monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana): inferred from mitochondrial dna sequences.the golden monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana) is one of the most endangered primate species due to its dramatically shrinking distribution during the past 400 years. its populations are restricted to three isolated regions, qinglin (ql), sichuan/gansu (sg), and shennongjia (snj) in china. as with other snub-nosed monkeys in china and vietnam, the biology and evolution of this species is still poorly known. to assess genetic differentiation and explore the relationships among populations of golden ...200717385699
molecular evolution study in china: progress and future promise.china has a large land area with highly diverse topography, climate and vegetation, and animal resources and is ranked eighth in the world and first in the northern hemisphere on richness of biodiversity. even though little work on molecular evolution had been reported a decade ago, studies on both the evolution of macromolecules and the molecular phylogeny have become active in china in recent years. this review highlights some of the interesting and important developments in molecular evolutio ...200717317644
[cloning of novel pituitary growth hormone gene from rhinopithecus roxellanae].putative pituitary growth hormone gene of rhinopithecus roxellanae was cloned and sequenced. all exons sequences and deduced amino acid sequence (containing 26 residues signal peptide and 191 residues mature protein) were obtained. we constructed a phylogenetic tree,which well reflected the true evolutionary relationship of pituitary growth hormone genes from 7 primates species. from the results of amino acids sequence comparison and analysis of functionally important sites of growth hormone, pi ...200315639872
the term "lateral recess" and craniofacial pneumatization in old world monkeys (mammalia, primates, cercopithecoidea).the primate superfamily cercopithecoidea (or old world monkeys) is characterized by a widespread lack of the maxillary sinus, a paranasal pneumatic space found in most other eutherian mammals. previous discussions of the distribution of pneumatization in the group, however, have been ambiguous and contradictory, and have been further complicated by discussion of a poorly defined structure named the "lateral recess," linked implicitly to the maxillary sinus. computed tomography (ct) was applied t ...200314518012
genetic diversity and population history of golden monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana).golden monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana), namely the snub-nosed monkey, is a well-known endangered primate, which distributes only in the central part of mainland china. as an effort to understand the current genetic status as well as population history of this species, we collected a sample of 32 individuals from four different regions, which cover the major habitat of this species. forty-four allozyme loci were surveyed in our study by allozyme electrophoresis, none of which was found to be pol ...200312750338
vertical distribution of different age-sex classes in a foraging group of sichuan golden monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana). 200111490136
development of sexual morphology, physiology and behaviour in sichuan golden monkeys, rhinopithecus roxellana. 200011155030
seasonality of matings and births in captive sichuan golden monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana).this study, based on three years of mating behavior observations and 10 years of birth records, reveals that sichuan golden monkeys in captivity displayed a marked seasonality of mating behavior and births. the peak of matings occurred around october, and births occurred in march-june. the birth peak followed the mating peak by six to seven months. this seasonal cycle of matings and births was similar to observations made in the wild, where both temperature and food resources were favorable in s ...200010941443
conservation of human gamma-x centromeric satellite dna among primates with an autosomal localization in certain old world monkeys.gamma-x satellite dna is a 220-bp tandemly arranged repetitive dna with specificity for the centromeric region of the human x chromosome. the conservation of this human x centromeric satellite dna sequence in primate species was evaluated by comparative fluorescence in-situ hybridization to metaphase chromosome preparations of the great apes and three old world monkeys. homologous gamma-x dna were detected at centromeric locations in all six primate species. for the great apes, gamma-x was exclu ...199910219731
[mitochondrial dna sequence evolution and conservation relevance of snub-nosed langurs].the classification and phylogenetic relationships of the snub-nosed langurs (rhinopithecus) are still open questions. we have sequenced a mitochondrial cytochrome b gene fragment from r. roxellana, r. bieti, r. avunculus and presbytis phayrei. there are 47 sites (19%) characterized by variation. a series of evolutionary trees with concordant topology has been derived by using parsimony, maximum likelihood and distance methods, which may have resolved the evolutionary relationships of the three g ...19979254966
phylogenetic relationships among two species of golden monkey and three species of leaf monkey inferred from rdna variation.restriction maps of rdna repeats of five species of colobinae and three outgroup taxa, hylobates leucogenys, macaca mulatta, and macaca irus, were constructed using 15 restriction endonucleases and cloned 18s and 28s rrna gene probes. the site variation between rhinopithecus roxellana and rhinopithecus bieti is comparable to that between presbytis françoisi and preshytis phayrei, implying that r. bieti is a valid species rather than a subspecies of r. roxellana. phylogenetic analysis on the 47 i ...19958792613
maxillary premolar reduction in the golden monkey (rhinopithecus roxellanae). 1975811696
a juvenile sichuan golden monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana) predated by a goshawk (accipiter gentilis) in the qinling mountains 199910394069
the origin and population history of the endangered golden snub-nosed monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana).the origin and population history of the endangered golden snub-nosed monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana) remain largely unavailable and/or controversial. we here integrate analyses of multiple genomic markers, including mitochondrial (mt) genomes, y-chromosomes, and autosomes of 54 golden monkey individuals from all three geographic populations (sg, ql, and snj). our results reveal contrasting population structures. mt analyses suggest a division of golden monkeys into five lineages: one in snj, t ...201930481341
recent decline in vegetative regeneration of bamboo (yushania alpina), a key food plant for primates in volcanoes national park, rwanda.the african montane bamboo yushania alpina provides both habitat and food for many species in the albertine rift region. in volcanoes national park (vnp), rwanda, it is especially important as a key food resource for the endangered mountain gorilla gorilla beringei beringei and endangered golden guenon cercopithecus mitis kandti. we examined temporal and spatial variation in bamboo shoots regeneration and consumption by primates, monitored between 2013 and 2018 in 82 16-m2 plots located along tr ...201931506574
morphological and molecular confirmation of the validity of trichuris rhinopiptheroxella in the endangered golden snub-nosed monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana).the golden snub-nosed monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana) is an endangered species endemic to china. relatively little is known about the taxonomic status of soil-transmitted helminths (sth) in these monkeys. trichuris spp. (syn. trichocephalus) are among the most important sths, causing significant socio-economic losses and public health concerns. to date, five trichuris species have been reported in golden monkeys, including a novel species, t. rhinopiptheroxella, based on morphology. in the pres ...201929986779
female choice impacts residential male takeover in golden snub-nosed monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana).in primate species with social systems consisting of one-male breeding units (omus), resident male takeover represents a major challenge to individual reproductive success and mating strategies. the golden snub-nosed monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana) is characterized by large multilevel societies (mls) comprised of several omus and all-male units (amus); however, the factors and mechanisms associated with resident male takeover, which offer important insight into primate reproduction and social s ...201829551758
a preliminary study of food transfer in sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana).food transfer happens regularly in a few nonhuman primates species that are also characterized by remarkable social tolerance. sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana), or golden monkeys, which exhibit high social tolerance in their social relationships are thus of interest to see whether tolerance would extend to food transfer. in this study, branch feeding activity was observed in a semi-captive group of sichuan snub-nosed monkeys, which consisted of 10 subjects that included a one ...200817694533
comparison of masticatory morphology between rhinopithecus bieti and r. roxellana.the masticatory apparatus for two endemic species of golden monkey in china, rhinopithecus bieti and rhinopithecus roxellana, were compared with those of macaques, macaca and leaf monkeys, presbytis. multivariate analyses demonstrated that the two golden monkey species are distinct. interspecies allometric analyses revealed that golden monkeys differ in their masticatory apparatus from both macaques and leaf monkeys. the prominent symphysial fusion, corpus, and sagittal condylar dimension of r. ...199531924080
vocal behavior of captive sichuan golden monkeys (rhinopithecus r. roxellana).vocal behavior of four pairs of adult sichuan golden monkeys was studied at the san diego, seattle, los angeles, and san francisco zoos between november 1984 and october 1986. four call types made up 86% (1,357/ 1,578) of vocalizations that occurred during 45 h of tape-recording. all four major vocalization types were made by both sexes. there was, however, significant sexual asymmetry in their production: 82% to 99% of each type was produced by one sex or the other. frequently, duets developed ...198832093432
exposure of the endangered golden monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana) to heavy metals: a comparison of wild and captive animals.golden monkeys are endemic to china and of high conservation concern. conservation strategies include captive breeding, but the success of captive breeding programs may be being compromised by environmental pollution. heavy metal exposure of wild and captive golden monkeys living in the qinling mountains was assessed by measuring fecal metal concentrations (as, cd, cr, co, cu, mn, hg, ni, pb, and zn). captive monkeys were exposed to higher concentrations of as, hg, pb, and cr than monkeys living ...201525422120
puberty, ovarian cycle, pregnancy, and postpartum ovulation in captive sichuan golden monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana) based on changes in urinary and fecal gonadal steroid metabolites.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive sichuan golden monkeys. the concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (e2g) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (pdg) or fecal estradiol-17β (e2) and pdg in two females, and fecal testosterone concentrations in a male, were measured continuously using enzyme immunoassays. on the basis of these hormone profiles, the follicular phase, luteal phase, and ovarian cycle were calculated ...201727743688
detection of viruses using discarded plants from wild mountain gorillas and golden monkeys.infectious diseases pose one of the most significant threats to the survival of great apes in the wild. the critically endangered mountain gorilla (gorilla beringei beringei) is at high risk for contracting human pathogens because approximately 60% of the population is habituated to humans to support a thriving ecotourism program. disease surveillance for human and non-human primate pathogens is important for population health and management of protected primate species. here, we evaluate discar ...201627331804
[physiological adaptations of sichuan golden monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana) to high altitude habitat in the qinling mountains].the golden monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana) is a special species in china, and possesses the highest altitude habitat (4,167 m) in all kinds of primates. so it is very important to study this monkey how to adapt to such a high and severe habitat. according to our research results in recent years and relative publications, this paper, from digestive, respiratory, blood, circulative and reproductive systems, inquired into the sichuan golden monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana), a named species for gol ...200415146651
identifying potential refugia and corridors under climate change: a case study of endangered sichuan golden monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana) in qinling mountains, china.climate change threatens endangered species and challenges current conservation strategies. effective conservation requires vulnerability assessments for species susceptible to climate change and adaptive strategies to mitigate threats associated with climate. in this paper, we used the maxent to model the impacts of climate change on habitat suitability of sichuan golden monkey rhinopithecus roxellana. our results showed that (i) suitable habitat for sichuan golden monkey was predicted to decre ...201830380174
improving conservation effectiveness of nature reserve for golden snub-nosed monkey, a niche-based approach.reserve selections are often opportunistic rather than strategic and coordinated, and consequently, many reserves are ineffective to achieve their intended goals of conservation. here, we assessed the conservation effectiveness of a reserve for the golden snub-nosed monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana) with a niche-based approach. we assessed habitat usage of the monkeys in shennongjia nature reserve (snr) and attributes of 14 environmental variables that could potentially affect the monkeys' habit ...201830377503
lichen as a biomonitor for vehicular emission of metals: a risk assessment of lichen consumption by the sichuan snub-nosed monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana).two lichen species, usnea aciculifera and usnea luridorufa, were used as biomonitors for the deposition of traffic-related metals in china's shennongjia national nature reserve. the suitability of the two lichen species for use as biomonitors was compared. the health threat to the sichuan snub-nosed (aka golden) monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana) from consuming lichen with elevated metal concentrations due to vehicular traffic was then assessed. lichens, with large surface areas and neither roots ...201931146154
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