histofarcin test for the diagnosis of epizootic lymphangitis in ethiopia: development, optimisation, and validation in the field.histofarcin, a skin test antigen for the diagnosis of epizootic lymphangitis, was locally produced from the mycelial form of histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum (hcf) in disease-endemic districts of ethiopia and tested for its application in the field between april 2002 and may 2003. the test was evaluated using 108 mules, 84 in endemic and 24 in disease-free districts. microscopic and mycological examinations of clinical lesions were used as the "gold standard" for the validation of the te ...200616490721
comparative evaluation of three commercially available complement fixation test antigens for the diagnosis of glanders.the sensitivity and specificity of three commercially available complement fixation test (cft) antigens from (, central veterinary institute of wageningen ur (cidc) and the united states department of agriculture (usda) were comparatively evaluated by testing 410 sera collected from glanders-endemic and non-endemic areas (200 true-negative randomly collected sera and 210 sera collected from experimentally immunised animals (12 rabbits, 19 horses), clinically positive (135) and cu ...201121896565
identification of a new diagnostic antigen for glanders using immunoproteome analysis.glanders is a disease of horses, donkeys and mules. the causative agent burkholderia mallei, is a biorisk group 3 pathogen and is also a biothreat agent. simple and rapid diagnostic tool is essential for control of glanders. using a proteomic approach and immunoblotting with equine sera, we identified 12 protein antigens that may have diagnostic potential. various immunoreactive proteins e.g. groel, translation elongation factor tu, elongation factor ts, arginine deiminase, malate dehydrogenase, ...201728750864
[glanders]. 195213027150
first draft genome for a burkholderia mallei isolate originating from a glanderous mule from brazil.burkholderia mallei is the etiological agent of glanders. here, we present the draft genome sequence of burkholderia mallei strain 16-2438_bm#8 that was isolated from a mule found dead in pernambuco, northeast brazil. it is the first available genomic sequence from a strain isolated on the american continent.201728705969
characterization of clinically-attenuated burkholderia mallei by whole genome sequencing: candidate strain for exclusion from select agent lists.burkholderia mallei is an understudied biothreat agent responsible for glanders which can be lethal in humans and animals. research with this pathogen has been hampered in part by constraints of select agent regulations for safety reasons. whole genomic sequencing (wgs) is an apt approach to characterize newly discovered or poorly understood microbial pathogens.200818446194
[hypothesis on the achean disease].a hypothesis on the achaean disease. analyzing the text in the light of the modern medical knowledge, the article traces a profile of the mortal illness described in the first book of homer's iliad. the disease was a severe, acute epidemic zoonosis, rapidly bringing death. first, it affected mules and dogs, then it involved men; the infection spread quickly and the number of deaths was high. these elements suggest that the illness occurred among the achaeans can be identified with glanders, an i ...19938233662
incidence of burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in india.burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a 'notifiable' disease in many countries. an increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the asian continents, including india, have been noticed recently. in view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to ...201526457190
use of a western blot technique for the serodiagnosis of glanders.the in vivo diagnosis of glanders relies on the highly sensitive complement fixation test (cft). frequently observed false positive results are troublesome for veterinary authorities and cause financial losses to animal owners. consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a test with high specificity. hence, a western blot assay making use of a partly purified lipopolysaccaride (lps) containing antigen of three burkholderia mallei strains was developed. the test was validated investigating a ...201121247488
a disruption of ctpa encoding carboxy-terminal protease attenuates burkholderia mallei and induces partial protection in cd1 mice.burkholderia mallei is the etiologic agent of glanders in solipeds (horses, mules and donkeys), and incidentally in carnivores and humans. little is known about the molecular mechanisms of b. mallei pathogenesis. the putative carboxy-terminal processing protease (ctpa) of b. mallei is a member of a novel family of endoproteases involved in the maturation of proteins destined for the cell envelope. all species and isolates of burkholderia carry a highly conserved copy of ctpa. we studied the invo ...200818614331
[glanders--a comprehensive review].since 1990 the number of glanders outbreaks in race, military and pleasure horses in asia and south america is steadily increasing. glanders, which is eradicated in western europe, australia and northern america, is currently considered a re-emerging disease. consequently, the disease may be introduced into glanders-free regions by subclinical carriers at any time. the causative agent of glanders, burkholderia (b.) mallei, is highly contagious and leads to chronic disease in horses whereas in do ...200617009807
assessment of the effectiveness of the ppd-mallein produced in brazil for diagnosing glanders in assess the potency of the ppd-mallein produced in brazil, five animals were from a property identified as a focus of glanders. these animals had suggestive clinical signs of the disease and the other five, from a property free from glanders, showed no clinical signs and were serology negative (control group). ppd-mallein from burkholderia mallei was obtained by precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and ammonium sulfate. the animals were inoculated according to the criteria established by de ...201324159303
glanders in animals: a review on epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and countermeasures.glanders or farcy, caused by burkholderia mallei, is an infectious and zoonotic disease of solipeds. horses, donkeys and mules are the only known natural reservoir of b. mallei. although glanders has been eradicated from most countries, it has regained the status of a re-emerging disease because of the numerous recent outbreaks. pre-symptomatic or carrier animals are the potential source of infection for the healthy equine population and play a crucial role in the spreading of the infectious age ...201322630609
glanders and the risk for its introduction through the international movement of horses.glanders is the contagious zoonotic disease caused by infection with burkholderia mallei. it affects primarily horses, donkeys and mules. the disease was eradicated from large areas of the western world in the early 20th century, but, over the last 10-20 years, has emerged and re-emerged in areas in which it was previously unknown or had been eradicated. although glanders was previously thought to manifest in only acute or chronic presentations, it now appears that b. mallei can produce latent i ...201627288893
[glanders--a potential disease for biological warfare in humans and animals].infection with burkholderia mallei (formerly pseudomonas mallei) can cause a subcutaneous infection known as "farcy" or can disseminate to condition known as glanders. it is primarily a disease affecting horses, donkeys and mules. in humans, glanders can produce four types of disease: localized form, pulmonary form, septicemia, and chronic form. necrosis of the tracheobronchial tree and pustular skin lesions characterize acute infection with b. mallei. other symptoms include febrile pneumonia, i ...200212170562
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