west nile virus in north-eastern italy, 2011: entomological and equine igm-based surveillance to detect active virus circulation.since 2008, west nile virus (wnv) has expanded its range in several italian regions, and its yearly recurrence suggests the virus may have become endemic in some areas. in 2011, a new plan based also on the detection of igm antibodies was implemented in the north-eastern italian regions of veneto and friuli venezia giulia, aiming to early detect wnv infections in areas where the virus had already circulated during the previous summers, and in adjacent zones. from july to november 2011, 1880 sera ...201322971022
epidemiological surveillance of west nile neuroinvasive diseases in italy, 2008 to 2011.we describe the geographical and temporal distribution of west nile neuroinvasive diseases (wnnd) cases in italy from 2008 to 2011. the increasing number of confirmed human cases from eight in 2008 to 18 in 2009 and the occurrence of the virus in a larger geographical area in 2009 (moving from east to west) prompted the ministry of health to publish, in spring 2010, a national programme for wnnd human surveillance, comprising veterinary and vector surveillance. subsequently, in 2011, a new natio ...201222642945
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