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hemocytic rickettsia-like organisms in ticks: serologic reactivity with antisera to ehrlichiae and detection of dna of agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by pcr.ixodid ticks were collected from connecticut, massachusetts, missouri, pennsylvania, rhode island, and british columbia (canada) during 1991 to 1994 to determine the prevalence of infection with hemocytic (blood cell), rickettsia-like organisms. hemolymph obtained from these ticks was analyzed by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody (fa) staining methods with dog, horse, or human sera containing antibodies to ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia equi, or rickettsia rickettsii. of the 693 nymphal and a ...19958567911
prevalence of rickettsiales in ticks removed from the skin of outdoor workers in north carolina.tick-transmitted rickettsial diseases, such as ehrlichiosis and spotted fever rickettsiosis, are significant sources of morbidity and mortality in the southern united states. because of their exposure in tick-infested woodlands, outdoor workers experience an increased risk of infection with tick-borne pathogens. as part of a double blind randomized-controlled field trial of the effectiveness of permethrin-treated clothing in preventing tick bites, we identified tick species removed from the skin ...201425533148
prevalence of antibodies to spotted fever group rickettsia spp. and ehrlichia spp. in coyotes (canis latrans) in oklahoma and texas, usa.coyotes (canis latrans) are commonly infested with ticks, including amblyomma americanum, the predominant vector of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii; dermacentor variabilis, an important vector of rickettsia rickettsii; and amblyomma maculatum, a major vector of rickettsia parkeri, a spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia. to determine the degree to which coyotes are infected with or exposed to tick-borne bacterial disease agents, serum samples collected from coyotes in oklahoma and tex ...201323778619
anaplasma phagocytophilum in small mammals and ticks in northeast florida.human anaplasmosis is an emerging tick-borne disease in the united states, but few studies of the causative agent, anaplasma phagocytophilum, have been conducted in southeastern states. the aim of this study was to determine if a. phagocytophilum is present in small mammals and ticks in northeast florida. polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify portions of the major surface protein 2 gene (p44), 16s rdna, and groesl operons were used to test rodent blood and tick dna samples for the ...201222548563
population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis and the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.we identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in ontario, canada, and tested blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis for borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum. among the 18 species of ticks identified, i. scapularis, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes cookei and amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in ontario's eastern region; d. variabilis in central west and easte ...201425171252
detection of human bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from louisiana black bears (ursus americanus luteolus).there are 4 major human-biting tick species in the northeastern united states, which include: amblyomma americanum, amblyomma maculatum, dermacentor variabilis, and ixodes scapularis. the black bear is a large mammal that has been shown to be parasitized by all the aforementioned ticks. we investigated the bacterial infections in ticks collected from louisiana black bears (ursus americanus subspecies luteolus). eighty-six ticks were collected from 17 black bears in louisiana from june 2010 to ma ...201323415850
laboratory maintenance of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia canis and recovery of organisms for molecular biology and proteomics studies.tick-borne illnesses are emerging as a major concern for human health in recent years. these include the human monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by the amblyomma americanum tick-transmitted bacterium, ehrlichia chaffeensis; human ewingii ehrlichiosis caused by ehrlichia ewingii (also transmitted by a. americanum ticks); and human granulocytic anaplasmosis caused by the ixodes scapularis tick-transmitted pathogen, anaplasma phagocytophilum. likewise, tick-borne rickettsial pathogens are also a major ...200818770537
detection of ehrlichia spp. in raccoons (procyon lotor) from georgia.raccoons (procyonis lotor) and opossums (didelphis virginianus) acquired from six contiguous counties in the piedmont physiographic region of georgia were investigated for their potential role in the epidemiology of ehrlichial and anaplasmal species. serum was tested by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) assay for the presence of antibodies reactive to ehrlichia chaffeensis, e. canis, and anaplasma phagocytophilum (hga agent). nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was used to test whole ...200516011433
prevalence of infection in ticks submitted to the human tick test kit program of the u.s. army center for health promotion and preventive medicine.in 1997, ticks removed from humans and received alive by the tick-borne disease laboratory of the u.s. army center for health promotion and preventive medicine (usachppm) were tested for pathogens by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). thirty-three of 222 (15%) amblyomma americanum (l.) dnas produced amplicons of the expected size of ehrlichia chaffeensis anderson, dawson & wilson and 26/222 (12%) produced amplicons indicating borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigalt & brenner. five (2% ...200111268694
human ehrlichioses: newly recognized infections transmitted by ticks.human ehrlichioses are tick-borne infections caused by bacteria in the genus ehrlichia. human monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by an agent similar to ehrlichia equi. e. chaffeensis infects mononuclear phagocytes and is transmitted by lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) found in the south central and eastern united states. the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis infects mostly neutrophils, it transmitted by ixodes spec ...19989509259
development and use of specific polymerase reaction for the detection of an organism resembling ehrlichia sp. in white-tailed deer.the role of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in the epidemiology of ehrlichia chaffeensis and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) is not fully understood, and diagnostic procedures may be complicated by the recent detection of 16s rdna sequence from an ehrlichia sp.-like organism in wild deer. a specific forward primer (dga) and an ehrlichia spp. reverse primer (ga1ur) were constructed to amplify this new, distinct ehrlichia sp.-like 16s rdna. the dga primer, a forward p ...19979131554
natural coinfection of a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) population with three ehrlichia spp.the ticks amblyomma americanum and ixodes scapularis, strongly implicated vectors of ehrlichia chaffeensis and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) agent, respectively, commonly are found on white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). as deer can be infected with e. chaffeensis, the hge agent, and another ehrlichia-like organism, a deer population parasitized by both tick species in coastal georgia was tested for evidence of ehrlichia spp. infection using serologic, molecular, and culture t ...19989794627
[ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis].ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are zoonoses caused by bacteria from the family anaplasmataceae, including human and animal pathogens. the human pathogens are ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme), anaplasma phagocytophilum, the pathogen causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga), e. ewingii and neorickettsia sennetsu, granulocytotropic and monocytotropic ehrlichia species, respectively. ehrlichia spp. are small, gram-negative, obligate intracellular b ...200920077398
ticks and tick-borne pathogens and putative symbionts of black bears (ursus americanus floridanus) from georgia and florida.ticks were collected from 38 black bears (ursus americanus floridanus) from northwestern florida (n = 18) from 2003 to 2005 and southern georgia (n = 20) in 2006. five species (amblyomma americanum, a. maculatum, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes scapularis, and i. affinis) were collected from florida bears, and 4 species (a. americanum, a. maculatum, d. variabilis, i. scapularis) were collected from bears in georgia. ixodes scapularis was the most frequently collected tick, followed by d. variabil ...200919413369
experimental and field studies on the suitability of raccoons (procyon lotor) as hosts for tick-borne pathogens.we investigated the experimental susceptibility and natural exposure of raccoons (procyon lotor) to five tick-borne pathogens of human and veterinary importance, ehrlichia canis, e. chaffeensis, e. ewingii, anaplasma phagocytophilum (apvariant 1 and ap-ha hge-1 strains), and borrelia lonestari. infections were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) testing, and/or culture isolation methods for at least 30 days postinoculation (dpi). two e. chaffeensis-in ...200818429696
anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis - maine, 2008.anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are rickettsial tickborne diseases that have had at least a twofold increase in prevalence in the united states since 2000. despite similar clinical presentations, the causative organisms are carried by different ticks with distinct geographic and ecologic associations. surveillance efforts are complicated by ambiguous terminology and serologic testing with antibody cross-reactivity. although anaplasmosis historically has been reported in maine, ehrlichiosis has bee ...200919779398
current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis.anaplasma phagocytophilum, ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii are emerging tick-borne pathogens and are the causative agents of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and e. ewingii ehrlichiosis, respectively. collectively, these are referred to as human ehrlichioses. these obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the family anaplasmataceae are transmitted by ixodes spp. or amblyomma americanum ticks and infect peripherally circulating leukocytes to cause inf ...200919681699
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