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kdna genetic signatures obtained by lssp-pcr analysis of leishmania (leishmania) infantum isolated from the new and the old world.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) caused by species from the leishmania donovani complex is the most severe form of the disease, lethal if untreated. vl caused by leishmania infantum is a zoonosis with an increasing number of human cases and millions of dogs infected in the old and the new world. in this study, l. infantum (syn. l.chagasi) strains were isolated from human and canine vl cases. the strains were obtained from endemic areas from brazil and portugal and their genetic polymorphism was ascer ...201222912862
immunomodulatory and antileishmanial activity of phenylpropanoid dimers isolated from nectandra leucantha.three phenylpropanoid dimers (1-3) including two new metabolites were isolated from the extract of the twigs of nectandra leucantha using antileishmanial bioassay-guided fractionation. the in vitro antiparasitic activity of the isolated compounds against leishmania donovani parasites and mammalian cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory effects were evaluated. compounds 1-3 were effective against the intracellular amastigotes within macrophages, with ic50 values of 26.7, 17.8, and 101.9 μm, respective ...201525835647
development and comparative evaluation of two antigen detection tests for visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) can be fatal without timely diagnosis and treatment. treatment efficacies vary due to drug resistance, drug toxicity and co-morbidities. it is important to monitor treatment responsiveness to confirm cure and curtail relapse. currently, microscopy of spleen, bone marrow or lymph node biopsies is the only definitive method to evaluate cure. a less invasive test for treatment success is a high priority for vl management.201526395447
rk39: a cloned antigen of leishmania chagasi that predicts active visceral leishmaniasis.the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (vl), a serious and often fatal parasitic disease caused by members of the leishmania donovani complex, remains problematic. current methods rely on clinical criteria, parasite identification in aspirate material, and serology. the latter methods use crude antigen preparations lacking in specificity. a previously described cloned antigen, rk39, of leishmania specific for all members of the l. donovani complex (l. chagasi, l. donovani, l. infantum) was very ...19968627048
bone marrow parasite burden among patients with new world kala-azar is associated with disease severity.kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis, found mostly throughout the indian subcontinent, east africa, and brazil, kills 20,000-40,000 persons annually. the agents, leishmania donovani and leishmania infantum, are obligatory intracellular protozoa of mononuclear phagocytes found principally in the spleen and bone marrow. protracted fever, anemia, wasting, hepatosplenomegaly, hemorrhages, and bacterial co-infections are typical features. one hundred and twenty-two (122) in-hospital patients were stud ...201424615127
visceral leishmaniasis: a model for infection-induced cachexia.parasitic infections and malnutrition coexist in many tropical and subtropical areas. studies of leishmania donovani and of experimentally infected syrian hamsters have provided important insights into the complex interrelationships between malnutrition and this parasitic disease. malnutrition, which adversely affects cell-mediated immunity, is associated with the development of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in children living in endemic areas. in turn, l. donovani can cause wasting as well ...19921632476
fml vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis: from second-generation to synthetic vaccine.the leishmania donovani glycoprotein fraction, known as fml, successfully underwent preclinical and clinical (phase i-iii) vaccine trials against canine visceral leishmaniasis (92-95% of protection and 76-80% of vaccine efficacy) when formulated with a qs21 saponin-containing adjuvant. it became the licensed leishmune vaccine for canine prophylaxis in brazil. the immune response raised by the vaccine is long lasting, immunotherapeutic and reduces dog infectivity blocking the transmission of the ...200818665780
surface antigens of leishmania donovani promastigotes.surface antigen profiles of leishmania donovani promastigote isolates have been studied. surface patterns of brazilian and african isolates display remarkable similarities and are extremely simple, consisting of three major peptides of 65,000, 25,000, and 23,000 mol wt. surface iodination and biosynthetic labeling coupled to immunoprecipitation techniques revealed that a single major determinant of 65,000 mol wt is recognized in all strains by sera from kala-azar patients from both brazil and af ...19836854205
a mr 90 000 surface polypeptide of trypanosoma cruzi as a candidate for a chagas' disease diagnostic antigen.trypanosoma cruzi (peru strain) trypomastigotes and epimastigotes were biosynthetically labeled with [35s]methionine, and the proteins were analyzed by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2d-page). 2d-page analysis of the trypomastigotes showed a complex array of polypeptides with distinct clusters at mr 88 000-92 000, isoelectric point (pi) 5.6-6.0, and mr 72 000-76 000, pi 5.6-5.8. 2d-page analysis of the epimastigotes did not show the cluster of polypeptides at mr 90 000. when ...19853932849
vaccination using live attenuated leishmania donovani centrin deleted parasites induces protection in dogs against leishmania infantum.live attenuated leishmania donovani parasites such as ldcen(-/-) have been shown elicit protective immunity against leishmanial infection in mice and hamster models. previously, we have reported on the induction of strong immunogenicity in dogs upon vaccination with ldcen(-/-) including an increase in immunoglobulin isotypes, higher lymphoproliferative response, higher frequencies of activated cd4(+) and cd8(+) t cells, ifn-γ production by cd8(+) t cells, increased secretion of tnf-α and il-12/i ...201525475955
a phase iii trial of efficacy of the fml-vaccine against canine kala-azar in an endemic area of brazil (são gonçalo do amaranto, rn).protection against canine kala-azar was investigated in naturally exposed dogs of an endemic area, vaccinated with the fucose mannose ligand (fml)-vaccine of leishmania donovani. a total of 97% of vaccinees were seropositive to fml and 100% showed intradermal reaction to l. donovani lysate, 7 months after vaccination. the absorbency values and size of intradermal reaction were both significantly higher in vaccinees than in controls (anova, p<0.0001). after 2 years, 92% (chi(2)=6.996; p<0.0025) p ...200011137242
optimization of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assays for the detection of leishmania dna in human blood samples.visceral leishmaniasis (vl), one of the most important neglected tropical diseases, is caused by leishmania donovani eukaryotic protozoan parasite of the genus leishmania, the disease is prevalent mainly in the indian sub-continent, east africa and brazil. vl can be diagnosed by pcr amplifying its1 and/or kdna genes. the current study involved the optimization of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) for the detection of leishmania dna in human blood or tissue samples. three lamp systems ...201627288706
different susceptibilities of leishmania spp. promastigotes to the annona muricata acetogenins annonacinone and corossolone, and the platymiscium floribundum coumarin scoparone.leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease that can manifest itself in visceral and cutaneous form. the aim of this study was to search for new leishmanicidal compounds. preliminarily, artemia salina assay was applied to compounds from two plants found in northeastern brazil, platymiscium floribundum and annona muricata. then these compounds were tested against three leishmania species (leishmania donovani, leishmania mexicana and leishmania major). a screening assay using luciferase-expressing promast ...201323232251
long lasting protection against canine kala-azar using the fml-quila saponin vaccine in an endemic area of brazil (são gonçalo do amarante, rn).naturally exposed dogs of an endemic area were vaccinated with the fucose mannose ligand (fml) antigen of leishmania donovani in formulation with quila saponin. the 100% of vaccinees were seropositive to fml and showed intradermal reaction to l. donovani lysate, 2 months after vaccination. the absorbency values and size of intradermal reaction were both significantly higher in vaccinees than in controls along a 3.5 years period (anova, p<0.0001). the 25% of the control animals (two dogs on the f ...200212213397
leishmania spp. in didelphis spp. from northeastern brazil.the synanthropic behavior of marsupials of the genus didelphis in endemic areas of leishmaniasis suggests that these animals may play an important role in the epidemiology of this infection. the aim of the present study was to detect leishmania spp. dna in didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum) and didelphis aurita (big-eared opossum) living in forested and peridomestic areas of northeastern brazil. blood samples were collected from 25 animals (23 d. albiventris and 2 d. aurita ) by cardiac ...201627691942
antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of brazilian cerrado plants.the side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the brazilian cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of trypanosoma cruzi. among the selected plants, casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against bo ...200516419337
reciprocal relationships between undernutrition and the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis.little is known about the interrelationship between undernutrition and parasitic infections in areas of the world where both are prevalent. the associations between undernutrition and visceral leishmaniasis, an important protozoal disease, were assessed in a study of residents of an area in brazil with endemic leishmaniasis. mid-arm anthropometry was used to assess fat and muscle area. children with visceral leishmaniasis came from large families (9.6 +/- 1.1 members vs. 6.8 +/- 0.7 members in n ...19863523702
[reservoirs of leishmania donovani in brazil]. 196113884628
a direct agglutination test discriminative toward chagas' disease for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in brazil: preliminary results.two-hundred and sixty-five human sera from brazil were tested in a direct agglutination assay using trypsinated leishmania donovani donovani antigen. the assay proved to be of value for the diagnosis of american visceral leishmaniasis in that it was discriminative toward chagas' disease.19873115280
diverse viscerotropic isolates of leishmania all express a highly conserved secretory nuclease during human infections.previously, we characterized a gene encoding the unique nuclease (ldnuc(s)) from a sudanese isolate of the human pathogen leishmania donovani. this parasite secretory enzyme is involved in the salvage of host-derived purines and is constitutively expressed by both developmental forms of the parasite. currently, we assessed whether an ldnuc(s)-like nuclease was conserved among other geographically disparate isolates of l. donovani and whether this enzyme was produced by intracellular amastigotes ...201222020747
leishmania donovani: an opportunistic microbe associated with progressive disease in three immunocompromised patients.three cases are described showing that leishmania donovani can cause progressive disease in immunocompromised hosts. the first patient was receiving corticosteroid therapy for ulcerative colitis and the second corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide for proliferative glomerulonephritis; in the third patient, leishmaniasis occurred after a long episode of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and salmonella bacteraemia which was treated with chloramphenicol. in two cases, the patients had moved away from ar ...19862869348
immunoglobulin g and immunoglobulin m polar staining of toxoplasma gondii in the indirect immunofluorescence test.polar staining (ps) of toxoplasma gondii in the indirect immunofluorescence test has been considered a nonspecific reaction caused exclusively by certain immunoglobulin m (igm) antibodies and confined to the anterior end of the parasite. after we observed a patient with positive serology for chagas' disease who presented an igg ps reaction, we studied sera from 120 patients with chagas' disease, 20 sera from patients with leishmania donovani infection, and 30 sera from patients with leishmania b ...19806796601
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