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west nile virus in the united states - a historical perspective.prior to 1999, west nile virus (wnv) was a bit player in the screenplay of global vector-borne viral diseases. first discovered in the west nile district of uganda in 1937, this culex sp.-transmitted virus was known for causing small human febrile outbreaks in africa and the middle east. prior to 1995, the last major human wnv outbreak was in the 1950s in israel. the epidemiology and ecology of wnv began to change in the mid-1990s when an epidemic of human encephalitis occurred in romania. the i ...201324335779
epidemiology and transmission dynamics of west nile virus disease.from 1937 until 1999, west nile virus (wnv) garnered scant medical attention as the cause of febrile illness and sporadic encephalitis in parts of africa, asia, and europe. after the surprising detection of wnv in new york city in 1999, the virus has spread dramatically westward across the united states, southward into central america and the caribbean, and northward into canada, resulting in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive wnv disease ever reported. from 1999 to 2004, >7,000 neuroinvasiv ...200516102302
infectious cdna clone of the epidemic west nile virus from new york city.we report the first full-length infectious clone of the current epidemic, lineage i, strain of west nile virus (wnv). the full-length cdna was constructed from reverse transcription-pcr products of viral rna from an isolate collected during the year 2000 outbreak in new york city. it was cloned into plasmid pbr322 under the control of a t7 promoter and stably amplified in escherichia coli hb101. rna transcribed from the full-length cdna clone was highly infectious upon transfection into bhk-21 c ...200212021317
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