direct isolation in vitro of trypanosoma brucei from man and other animals, and its potential value for the diagnosis of gambian trypanosomiasis.a recently described simple kit for isolating african trypanosomes in vitro (kivi) was tested further with blood samples from man and other animals in côte d'ivoire and république du congo. a high rate of success was achieved, with positive cultures being found 5-36 d after inoculation. the method was also of value in diagnosis. parasitaemia was initially detected by the haematocrit method; in addition, the mini-anion exchange column was used for human blood and lymph fluid from patients with sw ...19921287920
trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense: characterisation of stocks from zambia, kenya, and uganda using repetitive dna probes.we have previously described a system for characterising the relationships between trypanosome stocks of the t.brucei group based on southern blotting with repetitive dna probes followed by cluster analysis of resultant banding patterns (g. hide et al. molec. bioch. parasitol. 39, 213-226, 1990). in this study, we extend this analysis to examine the relationships between trypanosome stocks isolated from major sleeping sickness foci in zambia, kenya, and uganda. we show that the trypanosome strai ...19912026217
a simple and rapid method to initiate trypanosoma brucei brucei and t. brucei evansi bloodstream form cultures.initiation of cultures of bloodstream forms of trypanosomes from the trypanozoon subgenus is an established laboratory procedure. the trypanosomes are usually separated from the blood cells of the donor animal by centrifugation on a density gradient (hirumi et al., 1977) or by differential centrifugation (hill et al., 1978; brun et al., 1981; zweygarth et al., 1982; baltz et al., 1985). isolation on an anion exchange column (lanham and godfrey, 1970) has been little used for this purpose. we des ...19892566273
lysosomal and non-lysosomal peptidyl hydrolases of the bloodstream forms of trypanosoma brucei brucei.african trypanosomes have thiol-dependent proteolytic activity that resembles some of the cathepsin-like activity found in mammalian lysosomes [lonsdale-eccles, j. d. & mpimbaza, g. w. n. (1986) eur. j. biochem. 155, 469-473]. here we show that this activity is found in lysosome-like organelles which we have isolated (density = 1.082 g/cm3 in percoll) from bloodstream forms of trypanosoma brucei brucei. they are approximately 250 nm in diameter, are bounded by a single limiting membrane, and con ...19873319612
failure of trypanosomal membrane antigens to induce protection against tsetse-transmitted trypanosoma vivax or t. brucei in goats and rabbits.a purified protein, relative molecular weight 83 kilodalton (kd), and plasma membranes from trypanosoma brucei were tested as potential vaccines against tsetse-transmitted t. vivax and t. brucei in goats and rabbits. the 83 kd protein was found in lysates of all clones of t. brucei examined, as well as in lysates of t. vivax, t. congolense and t. rhodesiense. rabbits and goats were immunized with various amounts of antigen in freund's complete adjuvant and boosted twice with antigen in freund's ...19846150617
trypanosoma vivax, t. congolense or t. brucei infection rates in glossina morsitans when maintained in vitro on the blood of goat or calf.tenerals of glossina morsitans morsitans and g. m. centralis were infected with trypanosoma vivax, t. congolense or t. brucei by feeding mainly on infected goats and then maintained either in vivo on uninfected calves, goats or rabbits, or fed in vitro upon heparinised or defibrinated blood of goats or calves for 21 days for t. vivax and t. congolense and 30 days for t. brucei and then dissected. the observed differences in the infection rates for all three trypanosome species maintained on diff ...19846143482
the transmission of mixed infections of pathogenic trypanosoma species to susceptible hosts by glossina morsitans morsitans. 19826131589
survival and reproductive performance of female glossina morsitans morsitans when maintained on livestock infected with salivarian trypanosomes. 19854096568
colostral transfer of antibodies to trypanosoma brucei in goats. 19854037899
suppression of trypanosoma congolense, t. vivax and t. brucei infection rates in tsetse flies maintained on goats immunized with uncoated forms of trypanosomes grown in vitro.significant suppression in the incidence of cyclical development of trypanosoma congolense, t. vivax and t. brucei occurred in glossina morsitans centralis maintained on goats immunized with in vitro-propagated uncoated forms of t. congolense, t. vivax and t. brucei, respectively. this was observed when tsetse given a t. congolense-infected feed were subsequently maintained on uninfected immunized goats and also when uninfected tsetse were fed on immunized goats infected with t. congolense, t. v ...19854034247
relapse infection after chemotherapy in goats experimentally infected with trypanosoma brucei: pathological changes in central nervous system.fourteen goats were experimentally infected with trypanosoma brucei with the following results: four animals became terminally ill 24 to 47 days after inoculation of trypanosomes and were killed for necropsy. a second group of four goats became sick, had signs of systemic trypanosomiasis, were treated with diminazine aceturate (berenil) and recovered showing no signs of disease over observation periods of 151 to 163 days. a third group of six goats, were treated with berenil and temporarily reco ...19863946052
comparison of diagnostic techniques during subclinical single infections of trypanosomiasis in goats.parasitological diagnostic techniques were compared in caprine hosts in which single subclinical infection with trypanosoma vivax, trypanosoma congolense or trypanosoma brucei brucei had been established. the haematocrit centrifuge technique (hct) was the most sensitive for the diagnosis of t. vivax and t. b. brucei while the buffy coat method (bcm) proved superior to all other techniques for t. congolense. except with the miniature anion-exchange/centrifugation technique (maec), each of the con ...19863788024
development of trypanosoma congolense, t vivax and t brucei in the skin reaction induced in goats by infected glossina morsitans centralis: a light and electron microscopical study.the development and distribution of trypanosoma congolense, t vivax and t brucei in the skin of goats was examined after the animals were bitten by infected glossina morsitans centralis. following the tsetse bite, the trypanosomes in the skin multiplied, reaching maximum numbers when the skin reaction (chancre) of the host attained its maximum size. in goats infected with t vivax and t brucei, trypanosomes were observed circulating in the blood before the peak of the chancre, while in t congolen ...19883387665
comparative study on the susceptibility of different glossina species to trypanosoma brucei brucei infection.teneral glossina morsitans centralis, g. austeni, g. palpalis palpalis, g. p. gambiensis, g. fuscipes fuscipes, g. tachinoides and g. brevipalpis from laboratory-bred colonies, were allowed to feed simultaneously for 34 days on the flanks of ten goats infected with trypanosoma brucei brucei isolated in tanzania or in nigeria, and then the tsetse were dissected. the seven tsetse species and subspecies showed salivary glands infections over the range of 0% to 40.4%. survival of the tanzanian and n ...19883194664
dynamics of host blood effects in glossina morsitans sspp. infected with trypanosoma congolense and t. brucei.the pattern of infection in glossina morsitans morsitans and g. m. centralis membrane-fed on eland, buffalo or goat blood mixed with trypanosoma congolense or t. brucei was studied from day 1 to day 10. tsetse were initially permissive vectors, with most flies harbouring infections of 10(4)-10(5) parasites on day 3. however, after a second blood meal on day 3, flies cleared many infections, with g. m. morsitans clearing more infections than g.m. centralis. infective feeds of goat blood consisten ...19948036228
relationships between protease activity, host blood and infection rates in glossina morsitans sspp. infected with trypanosoma congolense, t. brucei and t. simiae.midgut protease activity in glossina morsitans centralis and g.m. morsitans, at 48 h post bloodmeal averaged 1.8iu of trypsin-like activity. these two tsetse subspecies differ in their susceptibility to trypanosome infection. except for low levels in flies fed on waterbuck blood (0.7 iu), activity did not differ in flies fed a variety of host bloods (goat, pig, cow, buffalo, eland) and trypanosome species (trypanosoma congolense, t. brucei, t. simiae). protease activity was also not correlated w ...19948161844
african buffalo serum contains novel trypanocidal protein.the high ability of african buffalo, as compared to domestic cattle, to control infections with trypanosoma brucei brucei iltat 1.4 organisms did not correlate with the timing or magnitude of parasite surface coat-specific antibody responses and may have resulted from the constitutive presence in buffalo blood of a novel trypanocidal factor. buffalo plasma and serum contained material that killed bloodstream stage t. b. brucei, t. b. rhodesiense, t. b. gambiense, t. evansi, t. congolense, and t. ...19948167620
the influence of host blood on infection rates in glossina morsitans sspp. infected with trypanosoma congolense, t. brucei and t. simiae.trypanosoma congolense, t. brucei and t. simiae isolated from wild-caught glossina pallidipes were fed to laboratory-reared g. morsitans centralis and g.m. morsitans to determine the effect of host blood at the time of the infective feed on infection rates. bloodstream forms of trypanosomes were membrane-fed to flies either neat, or mixed with blood from cows, goats, pigs, buffalo, eland, waterbuck and oryx. the use of different bloods for the infective feed resulted in differences in infection ...19938355996
a comparison of glossina morsitans centralis originating from tanzania and zambia, with respect to vectorial competence for pathogenic trypanosoma species, genetic variation and inter-colony fertility.two laboratory strains of glossina morsitans centralis originating from different fly-belts (one from singida, in tanzania, and the other from mumbwa, in zambia) were compared with respect to vectorial competence for pathogenic trypanosoma species, genetic variation and inter-colony fertility. the vectorial competence of g.m.centralis of tanzanian origin for trypanosma vivax and t. congolense is similar to, whereas for t.brucei brucei it is lower than the colony of zambian origin. nevertheless, ...19958541585
suppression of cyclical development of trypanosoma brucei brucei in glossina morsitans centralis by an anti-procyclics monoclonal antibody.five hundred and sixty teneral male glossina morsitans centralis were fed, at the height of parasitaemia, on a goat infected with trypanosoma brucei brucei. thereafter, the tsetse were divided into 4 equal groups. group i was fed in vitro once weekly for 4 weeks and group ii twice weekly for 4 weeks on fresh defibrinated ox blood containing 2 mg/ml purified monoclonal antibody against t. b. brucei procyclics, while group iii was fed twice a week for 4 weeks on blood containing 2 mg/ml anti-t. vi ...19882901200
the effect of host blood in the in vitro transformation of bloodstream trypanosomes by tsetse midgut homogenates.midgut homogenates prepared from glossina morsitans morsitans, that had previously been fed on different host blood samples, were tested for their abilities to transform bloodstream trypanosoma brucei into procyclic (midgut) forms in vitro. compared to rat and goat blood samples, eland blood had the least capacity to support trypanosome transformation, whereas buffalo blood showed intermediate capacity. fractionation of rat blood showed the importance of the cellular portion since both rat and e ...19968994132
occurrence of human serum-resistant trypanosoma congolense in goats and sheep in assessment of the role of dogs, goats and sheep as reservoir hosts of african trypanosomes infective for humans (sleeping sickness) was carried out in nigeria during a 2-year study period. twelve stocks of trypanosoma (trypanozoon) brucei, 10 stocks of trypanosoma congolense and 11 stocks of trypanosoma vivax were isolated from a total of 699 animals, comprising 286 sheep, 221 goats and 192 dogs. the potential infectivity of the isolates for man was tested in vitro using the blood incubation ...19892741299
interference in the establishment of tsetse-transmitted trypanosoma congolense, t. brucei or t. vivax superinfections in goats already infected with t. congolense or t. interference phenomenon that delays superinfection with a trypanosome species different from that used for the initial infection has been found to occur in goats. following tsetse transmission of trypanosoma brucei to goats already infected with t. congolense, there was a delay in chancre development, as well as in the appearance of t. brucei and anti-t. brucei antibodies in the blood when compared to previously uninfected goats. however, there was no delay in the establishment of a tsetse-tr ...19892705284
study on the sequential tsetse-transmitted trypanosoma congolense, t. brucei brucei and t. vivax infections to african buffalo, eland, waterbuck, n'dama and boran cattle.susceptibility of african buffalo, eland, waterbuck, n'dama and boran cattle to sequential glossina morsitans centralis-transmitted infections of trypanosoma congolense, t. brucei brucei and t. vivax was compared, and their possible role as reservoirs of these parasites for g. moristans centralis, g. pallidipes, g. austeni, g. brevipalpis and g. longipennis determined. the buffalo, eland, waterbuck and n'dama controlled t. congolense parasitaemias and were able to prevent anaemia. by contrast, o ...19999950344
prevalence and distribution of animal trypanosomosis on buvuma islands in lake victoria, uganda. 199910371007
detection of circulating trypanosomal antigens in trypanosoma evansi-infected animals using a t. brucei group-specific monoclonal antigen-detection enzyme immunoassay based on a t. brucei group-specific monoclonal antibody was used for the detection of circulating antigens in several animal species experimentally infected with t. evansi stocks from sudan, indonesia, thailand and south america. circulating antigens were detected as early as 6 days after infection, and they persisted throughout the observation period of up to 60 days postinfection. in an analysis of sera from naturally infected water buffaloes from thaila ...19892694313
effectiveness of wr 163577 against animal trypanosomes in goats and mice.a bisquinaldine, 1,6-bis-(6-amino-2-methyl-4-quinolylamino) hexane, was tested against trypanosoma brucei ssp. in goats and against t. brucei, t. congolense and t. vivax in mice. at doses of 25 and 100 mg kg-1, the drug protected goats for at least 90 days against blood challenge with t. brucei ssp. fifty to sixty per cent of goats challenged 180 days after treatment were protected, but all goats challenged 270 days after treatment became infected. in mice, bisquinaldine also had a marked effect ...19892619391
effect of tick-borne fever (ehrlichia phagocytophila) and trypanosomiasis (trypanosoma brucei 1066) on the pharmacokinetics of sulfadimidine and its metabolites in goats.the effect of tick-borne fever (tbf) and trypanosomiasis (tbr) on the plasma disposition of sulfadimidine (sdd) in goats was studied after iv administration of 20 and 200 mg/kg of body weight. in each group of six goats, the plasma disappearance curves showed four animals with rapid and two with slow sdd elimination. it is likely that this difference is determined by oxidative rather than acetylation phenotype. in all goats administered 20 mg/kg, half-life increased with tbf but not with tbr. vd ...19892566460
drug sensitivity of trypanosome populations from cattle in a peri-urban dairy production system in uganda.cattle from 50 farms in mukono county, uganda, were monitored for trypanosomes every second month over an 18-month period (1995-1996) by mini-anion exchange chromatography and haematocrit centrifugation techniques. eighteen trypanosome isolates collected from cattle during this period were characterised in cattle, goats and mice for their sensitivity to homidium, isometamidium and diminazene; 10 of the isolates were selected randomly, 8 were from animals that had the highest serum isometamidium ...200212387907
domestic animals as reservoirs for sleeping sickness in three endemic foci in south-eastern uganda.the persistence of sleeping sickness (human african trypanosomiasis) in some areas of south-eastern uganda has necessitated further investigations, focusing mainly on domestic animals as reservoirs of this disease in three agro-ecological zones. the inter-zone differences in the prevalences of trypanosome infection among cattle (p < 0.001) and pigs (p < 0.001) were significant. overall, 5.0% of the cattle, 13.9% of the pigs and 0.4% of the small ruminants investigated were found to be infected w ...200312803870
immunological clearance of 75se-labelled trypanosoma brucei in experiment was conducted to determine, under different conditions, the capacity of young adult east african goats to eliminate intravenously inoculated [75se]selenomethionine-labelled trypanosoma brucei from the bloodstream. over 80% of labelled trypanosomes, preincubated for 1 h in inactivated normal goat serum, were detectable in the circulation 1 h after inoculation into normal goats. by contrast, after incubation in serum from goats which had been immunised against the homologous trypanos ...19892565070
a drug incubation infectivity test (diit) for assessing resistance in trypanosomes.blood stream forms of drug-resistant and sensitive trypanosoma brucei brucei, trypanosoma brucei evansi and trypanosoma vivax were incubated in a liquid medium for 24 h at 37 degrees c in the presence of various concentrations of diminazene aceturate (berenil) or isometamidium chloride (samorin), and assayed for infectivity in mice. whereas the infectivity to mice of all samorin-sensitive trypanosomes was decreased after incubation with 1 ng samorin ml-1, the samorin-resistant stocks remained in ...19902316178
influence of fever and flurbiprofen on trypanosome growth.the administration of flurbiprofen, a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (nsaid), to goats infected with trypanosomes resulted in high elevated parasitaemia and suppression of fever. in contrast to goats, rats infected with trypanosomes do not show febrile reactions. therefore, the role of body temperature was investigated with yeast-induced fever in trypanosoma evansi and t. brucei infected rats. these investigations did not support the hypothesis that a high body temperature causes a ...19901969700
the effect of temperature and storage on the infectivity and motility of african animal trypanosomes in the blood of different hosts.blood from mice, rats, goats or cattle infected with trypanosoma congolense, t. vivax or t. brucei was stored at 0-4 degrees c, 20-25 degrees c, 30-35 degrees c or 36-40 degrees c. each sample was examined after set intervals to determine the maximum period the trypanosomes could remain motile and infective. t. brucei in blood remained motile for 96 h at 0-4 degrees c, being the longest period that was observed, but remained infective for only 8 h. t. vivax survived poorly in rodent blood, but d ...19901967509
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of trypanosomal antigens in goat serum using a monoclonal igm murine monoclonal antibody (mab) tea 1/ raised against circulating trypanosome antigens was used in a sandwich elisa to assay trypanosomal antigens in a trypanosome lysate preparation and in sera from goats infected with trypanosoma brucei evansi. as little as 1.25 ug/ml of trypanosomal antigen could be detected by this assay. following infection, trypanosomal antigens were first detected in goat serum 24 hours after the intravenous (i/v) or 6 days after the intramuscular (i/m) in ...19921430240
vector competence of glossina pallidipes and g. morsitans centralis for trypanosoma vivax, t. congolense and t. b. brucei.vector competence of glossina pallidipes for pathogenic trypanosoma species was compared to that of g. morsitans centralis. cattle or goats were the hosts used to infect teneral tsetse, rabbits were used to maintain tsetse which were dissected on day 30. mean infection rates of g. pallidipes and g. m. centralis by t. vivax isolated from a cow in kenya were respectively 39.5 +/- 8.9% and 32.1 +/- 10.3% whilst for t. vivax isolated from a cow in nigeria, they were 30.0 +/- 7.5% and 19.8 +/- 4.3%. ...19921359753
some plasma biochemical changes in experimental trypanosoma brucei infection of sokoto red goats.plasma biochemical changes were studied for 8 consecutive weeks in sokoto red goats experimentally infected by intravenous route injection of 1.6 x 10(7) trypanosoma brucei. the strain 8/18 was highly infective. the mean packed cell volume significantly decreased from 1 to 8 weeks post-infection (pi) at p < 0.05. during this period, the mean plasma total bilirubin concentrations significantly increased (p < 0.05). the mean plasma direct and indirect bilirubin concentrations significantly increas ...19921339997
preliminary observations on the efficacy of mel cy (cymelarsan) in domestic animals infected with stocks of trypanosoma brucei brucei and t.b. evansi.the trypanocidal activity of an arsenical compound (rm 110; mel cy; cymelarsan) was evaluated against trypanosoma brucei brucei and t. brucei evansi in cultures, in goats and pigs. the trypanosome stocks used differed in their levels of susceptibility to cymerlarsan in an in vitro test, their ic50 values (drug concentration which inhibits growth by 50%) ranging from 4.8-5.1 nm for susceptible, and 26.9 nm for a resistant stock. goats infected with a susceptible t.b. evansi stock were cured after ...19921293725
studies on the influence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs upon trypanosomiasis in goats and sheep.the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (nsaid) flurbiprofen caused a rise in parasitaemia in goats infected with trypanosoma vivax, trypanosoma congolense and trypanosoma brucei. all trypanosome-infected goats treated with flurbiprofen showed many dividing trypanosomes. this also included the short-stumpy forms of t. brucei. in t. vivax-infected goats flurbiprofen treatment resulted in 100% mortality in the acute and chronic stages of the infection. the increase in parasitaemia of t. brucei in ...19846512919
detection of circulating trypanosomal antigens by enzyme immunoassay.antisera raised against trypanosoma evansi and t. congolense were used in a double antibody sandwich enzyme immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect trypanosomal antigens in sera from experimentally infected rabbits and goats. assays quantitated using reference antigen preparations and the homologous antisera showed that antigens could be detected at protein concentrations of 1.5 microgram ml-1. the antisera also cross-reacted with soluble antigens prepared from t. brucei and t. vivax at similar pr ...19846532328
natural agglutinins to african trypanosomes.agglutinins to uncoated culture forms of the african trypanosomes, t. congolense and t.b. brucei were detected in sera from a variety of mammals not exposed to the parasites. the agglutinins in bovine serum were shown to be specific antibodies with opsonic properties selective for the species of trypanosome. these findings suggest a possible role for the glycoprotein coat in preventing access of cross-reacting antibodies to the plasma membrane of african trypanosomes.19836657292
parasite development and host responses during the establishment of trypanosoma brucei infection transmitted by tsetse fly.following inoculation of trypanosoma brucei into large mammals by the tsetse fly a local skin reaction, the 'chancre', develops due to trypanosome proliferation. we have cannulated the afferent and efferent lymphatics of the draining lymph node in goats and examined the onset of a cellular reaction, the emigration of the parasite from the chancre and the development of both antigenic variation and the specific immune response. the chancre first became detectable by day 3 post-infection, peaked b ...19846709396
the ability of stomoxys calcitrans and mechanical means to transmit trypanosoma (brucei) evansi from goats to camels in kenya. 19947831761
the effects of mammalian milk/colostrum upon trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. 19863789845
study on the mechanical transmission by tsetse fly glossina morsitans centralis of trypanosoma vivax, t. congolense or t. brucei brucei to goats. 200010643915
trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in goats. response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to mitogen stimulation.the in vitro proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes from trypanosoma b. brucei infected goats to mitogens was studied during the course of infection. an inverse correlation was observed between the number of lymphocytes and their capacity to respond to concanavalin a, phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen. lymphocyte responsiveness to mitogens was reduced during a period of increased lymphocyte counts. during this period of time only few trypanosomes were detectable in the peri ...19836879709
cyclical transmission of pathogenic trypanosoma species by gamma-irradiated sterile male glossina morsitans morsitans. 19827070842
characterisation of trypanosoma (trypanozoon) evansi from camels in kenya using isoenzyme electrophoresis.forty-nine trypanozoon stocks isolated from camels in five different areas of kenya were screened for isoenzyme patterns of 11 enzymes using thin-layer starch gel electrophoresis. the results were compared with those obtained in other studies with trypanosoma (trypanozoon) evansi stocks from south america, nigeria, sudan and kuwait. most of the kenyan camel stocks were found to be either identical or closely similar to t (t) evansi stocks from elsewhere and were therefore designated t (t) evansi ...19836836172
a comparison of the susceptibility to stocks of trypanosoma brucei brucei of glossina pallidipes originating from allopatric populations in kenya. 19958541599
a comparative study on the susceptibility of male and female albino mice to trypanosoma brucei brucei.trypanosomiasis has remained a major set-back in the development of livestock farming in tropical africa. thus the need for ascertaining the trypanotolerant levels of domestic animal breeds and possible improvement on them cannot be over-emphasised.200515999456
heterologous expression, purification and characterisation of the extracellular domain of trypanosome invariant surface glycoprotein isg75.the invariant surface glycoprotein isg75 is a transmembrane glycoprotein occurring on the surface of the bloodstream-form trypanozoon. this study describes the expression and purification of the n-terminal extracellular domain of isg75, a novel target for development of diagnostic tests for trypanosomosis. to facilitate disulfide formation in the cytoplasm, a 1287-bp cdna fragment encoding isg75 from trypanosoma brucei gambiense was expressed in a thioredoxin reductase, glutathione oxidoreductas ...200818538880
feeding behaviour of glossina morsitans morsitans infected with trypanosoma vivax, t. congolense or t. brucei.the feeding behaviour of glossina morsitans morsitans infected with trypanosoma vivax, t. congolense or t. brucei was studied and compared with that of uninfected control tsetse. the following parameters were measured. (1) mean number of feeds taken in 20 consecutive days; (2) mean rate of blood meal intake in microgram/sec of the total days fed; (3) mean weight of blood meal intake/day of the total days fed; (4) mean total blood meal engorgement in 20 days; (5) mean number of probes/day of the ...19836835699
diagnostic evaluation of pcr on dried blood samples from goats experimentally infected with trypanosoma brucei seven goats experimentally infected with a pleomorphic clone of trypanosoma brucei brucei, parasitaemia was monitored weekly for 6 weeks by wet blood film and microhaematocrit buffy coat examination. dried blood samples on filter paper were concomitantly collected and tested by pcr using three different primer sets, putatively specific for trypanozoon, t. vivax and t. congolense. with the originally designed orphon5j trypanozoon primers, pcr tests became positive after 1 week (six animals) or ...19989777713
detection of trypanosoma brucei, t. congolense and t. vivax infections in cattle, sheep and goats using latex agglutination.a monoclonal antibody-based latex agglutination test for detection of circulating trypanosome antigens in animal serum was evaluated for the ability to detect natural t. brucei, t. congolense and t. vivax infections in cattle, sheep and goats in ghana. the test detected antigens in 180/422 (42.7%) of cattle, 27/131 (20.6%) of sheep and 14/79 (17.7%) of the goats. by comparison, the microplate-based antigen-elisa gave similar results (p > 0.01), detecting trypanosome antigens in 41.7% of the catt ...19979076533
pitfalls in the application of enzyme-linked immunoassays for the detection of circulating trypanosomal antigens in serum samples.the experimental infection of two goats with trypanosoma vivax trypanosomes provided samples for analysis using parasitology techniques and antigen-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for t. vivax, t. congolense and t. brucei. clinical, parasitological and serological findings were monitored during the course of infection to identify problems in the application of these elisas. the data clearly showed that the elisas examined were entirely unsuitable for the reliable detection ...199910382604
detection of trypanosoma brucei in field-captured tsetse flies and identification of host species fed on by the infected flies.the prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies in the chiawa area of lower zambezi in zambia, with endemic trypanosomosis, was determined by a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method that allowed the detection of trypanosome dna and determination of the type of animal host fed on by the tsetse fly glossina pallidipes, using tsetse-derived dna extracts as templates. ninety g. pallidipes (82 females and 8 males; 18.3%) of the 492 flies captured by baited biconical traps tested positive fo ...200818399780
the physiological significance of transferrin receptor variations in trypanosoma brucei.trypanosoma brucei escapes destruction by the host immune system by regularly replacing its variant surface glycoprotein (vsg) coat. the vsg is expressed in a vsg expression site, together with expression site associated gene (esag) 6 and 7, encoding the heterodimeric transferrin receptor (tf-r). there are around 20 vsg expression sites, and trypanosomes can change the site that is active. since esag6 and 7 in different expression sites differ somewhat in sequence, expression site switching resu ...200211814575
the pathogenesis of anaemia in goats experimentally infected with trypanosoma congolense or trypanosoma brucei: use of the myeloid:erythroid ratio.the present study examined the development of anaemia in small east african goats experimentally infected with trypanosoma congolense or trypanosoma brucei. experimental goats received a primary trypanosome challenge on day 0, treated with diminazene aceturate on day 49 and received a secondary trypanosome challenge on day 77 of the 136-day experiment. both primary and secondary challenges were characterised by reduced peripheral erythrocyte counts, fall in packed cell volume (pcv), hypohaemoglo ...200716982150
resistance and resilience of traditionally managed west african dwarf goats from the savanna zone of northern nigeria to naturally acquired trypanosome and gastrointestinal nematode infections.a survey was conducted of gastrointestinal nematode infections and trypanosomosis in nigerian west african dwarf (wad) goats from the savanna region of the country. animals were screened at two markets, gboko and akpagher, from the beginning of april until the end of september, coinciding with the end of the dry season and the first 5 months of the wet season. of 1054 goats that were examined, 80.5% carried gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes belonging to the genera haemonchus (61.0%), oesophagostom ...201120459880
the modulatory influence of trypanosoma brucei on challenge infection with haemonchus contortus in nigerian west african dwarf goats segregated into weak and strong responders to the nematode.although nigerian west african dwarf (wad) goats are relatively resistant to infection with haemonchus contortus and are also trypanotolerant, natural outbreaks of both infections are known to occur. despite their relative resistance to h. contortus wad goats nevertheless show variability in response phenotype and it was of interest to examine the effect of this variability on the outcome of concurrent trypanosome infection. trypanosoma brucei infections were established in goats that were initi ...200515725530
hydrogen peroxide destaining: a new method for removing non-specific stains in nitrocellulose membrane-based dot-elisa for the detection of trypanosomes in tsetse flies (glossina spp.).gut samples prepared from laboratory-reared tsetse flies and applied in dots onto nitrocellulose (nc) membrane were found to stain the membrane with differing coloration and intensity. the stains were, predominantly, either reddish to brown or blackish-brown to black and occasionally greenish to almost colourless, depending on the stage of digestion of the bloodmeal in the fly. nc membrane strips applied with tsetse gut samples from t. brucei infected and uninfected control flies were tested wit ...19957490455
no gold standard estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of two molecular diagnostic protocols for trypanosoma brucei spp. in western kenya.african animal trypanosomiasis is caused by a range of tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites includingtrypanosoma vivax, trypanosoma congolense and trypansoma brucei. in western kenya and other parts of east africa two subspecies of t. brucei, t.b. brucei and the zoonotict.b. rhodesiense, co-circulate in livestock. a range of polymerase chain reactions (pcr) have been developed as important molecular diagnostic tools for epidemiological investigations of t. brucei s.l. in the animal reservoir a ...201020062795
domestic animals as potential reservoir hosts of trypanosoma brucei gambiense in sleeping sickness foci in explanation of the endemic nature and/or the resurgence of human african trypanosomiasis (hat) in the historic foci in west and central africa may be the existence of an animal reservoir. in some hat foci, pigs were found infected by trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the implication of the other domestic animals was not quite evaluated. this study aims to determine the prevalence of t. b. gambiense in domestic animal species (goat, sheep, pig and dog) commonly found in the four active hat foci ...201020387740
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