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serologic evidence of west nile virus infection in birds, tamaulipas state, méxico.following the introduction of west nile virus (wnv) into north america in 1999, surveillance for wnv in migratory and resident birds was established in tamaulipas state, northern méxico in december 2001. overall, 796 birds representing 70 species and 10 orders were captured and assayed for antibodies to wnv. nine birds had flavivirus-specific antibodies by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; four were confirmed to have antibody to wnv by plaque reduction neutralization test. the ...200314733673
vectest as diagnostic and surveillance tool for west nile virus in dead birds.the vectest antigen-capture assay for west nile virus was performed on oral and tissue swabs from dead birds in new york state from april 2003 through july 2004. results were compared with those from real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of kidney or brain. oral vectest sensitivity is adequate for surveillance in american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos) (87%), blue jays (cyanocitta cristata) (80%), and house sparrows (passer domesticus) (76%). oral vectest performed well for sm ...200415663856
overwintering of west nile virus in southern california.west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) invaded southern california during 2003, successfully overwintered, amplified to epidemic levels, and then dispersed to every county in the state. although surveillance programs successfully tracked and measured these events, mechanisms that allowed the efficient overwintering and subsequent amplification of wnv have not been elucidated. our current research provided evidence for three mechanisms whereby wnv may have persisted in south ...200616619621
necropsy findings and arbovirus surveillance in mourning doves from the southeastern united states.mourning doves (zenaida macroura) are the most abundant and widespread native member of the columbid family, as well as a major migratory game species, in the united states. however, there is little information on mortality factors in mourning doves. records of necropsy accessions at the southeastern cooperative wildlife disease study (scwds) from 15 southeastern states, from 1971 through 2005, were reviewed. one hundred thirty-five mourning doves were submitted from nine states during the 35-yr ...200717347403
culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae): a bridge vector of west nile virus to humans.host-feeding patterns of culex pipiens l. collected in southwest suburban chicago in 2005 were studied using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and dna sequencing techniques. culex spp. mosquitoes, most identified to cx. pipiens and the remainder to cx. restuans by pcr, had fed on 18 avian species, most commonly american robin (turdus migratorious), house sparrow (passer domesticus), and mourning dove (zenaida macroura). additional blood meals were derived from four mammal species, primarily humans ...200818283952
persistent west nile virus transmission and the apparent displacement st. louis encephalitis virus in southeastern california, 2003-2006.west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) invaded the colorado desert biome of southern california during summer 2003 and seemed to displace previously endemic st. louis encephalitis virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, slev, an antigenically similar flavivirus in the japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex). western equine encephalomyelitis virus (family togaviridae, genus alphavirus, weev), an antigenically distinct alphavirus, was detected during 2005 and 2006, ind ...200818533445
repeated west nile virus epidemic transmission in kern county, california, 2004-2007.west nile virus (wnv) has remained epidemic in kern county, ca, since its introduction in 2004 through 2007 when the human case annual incidence increased from 6-8 to 17 per 100,000, respectively. the 2007 increase in human infection was associated with contradicting surveillance indicators, including severe drought, warm spring but cool summer temperature anomalies, decreased rural and urban mosquito abundance but increased early season infection in urban culex quinquefasciatus say, moderate av ...200919198528
blood-feeding patterns of the culex pipiens complex in sacramento and yolo counties, california.mosquitoes in the culex pipiens complex are competent vectors of west nile virus (wnv; family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus) in the laboratory, and field-collected mosquitoes have tested positive for the virus in california and elsewhere. a better understanding of cx. pipiens complex blood-feeding patterns will help define the threat that these mosquitoes pose to human health and their role in wnv amplification in northern california. we collected blood-engorged cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes f ...201121485380
avian hosts of west nile virus in arizona.west nile virus (wnv) causes sporadic outbreaks of human encephalitis in phoenix, arizona. to identify amplifying hosts of wnv in the phoenix area, we blood-sampled resident birds and measured antibody prevalence following an outbreak in the east valley of metropolitan phoenix during summer, 2010. house sparrow (passer domesticus), house finch (haemorhous mexicanus), great-tailed grackle (quiscalus mexicanus), and mourning dove (zenaida macroura) accounted for most wnv infections among locally r ...201323857022
host (avian) biting preference of southern california culex mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).the host preference of a vector mosquito species plays a significant role in determining human and animal risk of infection with mosquito-transmitted pathogens. host preferences of common southern california culex species for four bird species, american crow (corvus brachyrhynchos), house sparrow (passer domesticus), house finch (carpodacus mexicanus), and mourning dove (zenaida macroura), were examined by determining the proportion of each mosquito species that successfully engorged on each of ...201222679878
west nile virus infection rates and avian serology in east-central illinois.understanding the geographic role of different species of mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts in west nile virus (wnv) transmission cycles can facilitate the development and implementation of targeted surveillance and control measures. this study examined the relationship between wnv-antibody rates in birds and mosquito infection rates and bloodfeeding patterns in east-central illinois. the earliest detection of wnv-rna by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction taqman was from culex r ...201323923325
association between agricultural land use and west nile virus antibody prevalence in iowa birds.in the plains states of the central united states, research suggests that the prevalence of west nile virus (wnv) disease in humans is higher in agricultural areas than in nonagricultural areas. in contrast, there is limited information about wnv exposure in birds, the primary amplifying host of wnv, in agriculturally dominated landscapes. we evaluated whether exposure to wnv in peridomestic birds sampled in central iowa varied with the proportion of land use devoted to agriculture. over the sum ...201324502714
surveys for antibodies against mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses in california birds, 1996-2013.from 1996 through 2013, 54,546 individual birds comprising 152 species and 7 orders were banded, bled, and released at four study areas within california, from which 28,388 additional serum samples were collected at one or more recapture encounters. of these, 142, 99, and 1929 birds from 41 species were positive for neutralizing antibodies against western equine encephalomyelitis virus (weev), st. louis encephalitis virus (slev), or west nile virus (wnv) at initial capture or recapture, respecti ...201626974395
the culex pipiens complex in the mississippi river basin: identification, distribution, and bloodmeal hosts.members of the culex pipiens complex are the primary vectors of st. louis encephalitis virus and west nile virus in the mississippi river basin (mrb). the cx. pipiens complex in the mrb is composed of 4 taxa: cx. p. pipiens form pipiens, cx. p. quinquefasciatus, hybrids between cx. p. pipiens f. pipiens and cx. p. quinquefasciatus, and cx. p. pipiens form molestus. three studies on bloodmeal hosts with large sample sizes have been conducted on members of the cx. pipiens complex in the mrb includ ...201223401948
avian host community structure and prevalence of west nile virus in chicago, illinois.vertebrate host diversity has been postulated to mediate prevalence of zoonotic, vector-borne diseases, such that as diversity increases, transmission dampens. this "dilution effect" is thought to be caused by distribution of infective bites to incompetent reservoir hosts. we quantified avian species richness, avian seroprevalence for antibodies to west nile virus (wnv), and infection of wnv in culex mosquitoes, in the chicago metropolitan area, illinois, usa, a region of historically high wnv a ...200919034529
host feeding pattern of culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) and its role in transmission of west nile virus in harris county, texas.the vertebrate hosts of 672 blood-engorged culex quinquefasciatus say, collected in harris county, texas, during 2005, were identified by nucleotide sequencing pcr products of the cytochrome b gene. analysis revealed that 39.1% had acquired blood from birds, 52.5% from mammals, and 8.3% were mixed avian and mammalian blood meals. most frequent vertebrate hosts were dog (41.0%), mourning dove (18.3%), domestic cat (8.8%), white-winged dove (4.3%), house sparrow (3.2%), house finch (3.0%), gray ca ...200717620633
avian host and mosquito (diptera: culicidae) vector competence determine the efficiency of west nile and st. louis encephalitis virus transmission.the ability of the invading ny99 strain of west nile virus (wnv) to elicit an elevated viremia response in california passerine birds was critical for the effective infection of culex mosquitoes. of the bird species tested, western scrub jays, aphelocoma coerulescens, produced the highest viremia response, followed by house finches, carpodacus mexicanus, and house sparrows, passer domesticus. most likely, few mourning, zenaidura macroura, or common ground, columbina passerine, doves and no calif ...200515962789
nestling passerines are not important hosts for amplification of west nile virus in chicago, illinois.nestling birds have been hypothesized to be important hosts for mosquito-borne arboviruses, but the role of nestlings for west nile virus (wnv) amplification remains unclear. we sampled open-cup and cavity-nesting passerines in chicago, illinois, an area of intense wnv transmission, to determine infection rates in nestlings and mosquitoes, and to test whether mosquitoes are attracted to nesting birds. analysis of culex pipiens mosquito populations demonstrated wnv amplification to high mosquito ...200818759639
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