pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in goshawks (accipiter gentilis) and great horned owls (bubo virginianus) naturally infected with west nile virus.the carcasses of 25 great horned owls and 12 goshawks were investigated for west nile virus (wnv) infection by immunohistochemistry (ihc) performed on various organs, including brain, spinal cord, heart, kidney, eye, bone marrow, spleen, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and proventriculus, using a wnv-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody and by wnv-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), performed on fresh brain tissue only. wnv infection was diagnosed by ihc in all ...200516094831
lineage 1 and 2 strains of encephalitic west nile virus, central europe.two different west nile virus (wnv) strains caused lethal encephalitis in a flock of geese and a goshawk in southeastern hungary in 2003 and 2004, respectively. during the outbreak in geese, 14 confirmed human cases of wnv encephalitis and meningitis were reported in the same area. sequencing of complete genomes of both wnv strains and phylogenetic analyses showed that the goose-derived strain exhibits closest genetic relationship to strains isolated in 1998 in israel and to the strain that emer ...200616704810
clinical and pathologic features of lineage 2 west nile virus infections in birds of prey in the southeast of hungary a sparrow hawk (accipiter nisus) and several goshawk (accipiter gentilis) fledglings succumbed to encephalitis manifesting as an acute neurological disease during the summers of 2004 and 2005. both years the causative agent was identified as a lineage 2 west nile virus. this is the first description of clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical findings of infection caused by a neuroinvasive, lineage 2 west nile virus and the first evidence of its circulation in c ...200717627436
detection and molecular analysis of west nile virus infections in birds of prey in the eastern part of austria in 2008 and 2009.the emergence of west nile virus (wnv) was expected in austria since the initial discovery of the infection in neighbouring hungary in 2003/2004. in 2008 six cases of west nile disease were diagnosed at the institute for veterinary disease control mödling, austrian agency for health and food safety (ages), involving five goshawks (accipiter gentilis) and one gyrfalcon (falco rusticolus), which were found dead in the eastern austrian federal states of lower austria, vienna and styria, respectivel ...201021276665
emergence of west nile virus lineage 2 in europe: a review on the introduction and spread of a mosquito-borne disease.west nile virus (wnv) is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes fever and encephalitis in humans, equines, and occasionally wild birds. the virus was first isolated in sub-saharan africa where it is endemic. wnv lineage 1 has been responsible for repeated disease outbreaks in the countries of the mediterranean basin over the past 50 years. this lineage was also introduced into north america in 1999 causing widespread human, equine, and avian mortality. wnv lineage 2, the first wnv lineage to be is ...201425538937
monitoring west nile virus (wnv) infection in wild birds in serbia during 2012: first isolation and characterisation of wnv strains from serbia.west nile virus (wnv), a neurovirulent mosquito-transmissible zoonotic virus, has caused recent outbreaks in europe, including serbia from august until october 2012. although humans can be infected, birds are the main natural wnv reservoir. to assess wnv circulation in northern serbia, 133 wild birds were investigated. these comprised resident and migratory birds, collected between january and september 2012 in the vojvodina province. the birds belonged to 45 species within 27 families. blood se ...201324176657
explosive spread of a neuroinvasive lineage 2 west nile virus in central europe, 2008/2009.for the first time outside sub-saharan africa, a lineage 2 west nile virus (wnv) emerged in hungary in 2004. it caused sporadic cases of encephalitis in goshawks (accipiter gentilis), other predatory birds, and in mammals. as a consequence, a surveillance program was initiated in hungary and in austria, which included virological, molecular, serological and epidemiological investigations in human beings, birds, horses, and mosquitoes. the virus strain became endemic to hungary, however only spor ...201323570864
west nile virus lineage 2 in sardinian wild birds in 2012: a further threat to public health.west nile virus (wnv) strains belonging to lineage 2 were detected and isolated from the tissues of a goshawk and two carrion crows in sardinia in august 2012. according to ns3 sequence analysis, the sardinian isolates shared a high level of similarity with those of italian lineage 2 strains which circulated in 2011 and with the homologous sequence of the 2004 hungarian isolate. following the human fatality reported in 2011 in olbia, this study is the first to report the spread and enzootic circ ...201323343580
west nile virus infections in greece: an update.approximately 2 years have passed since the detection of the first human case of west nile virus (wnv) infection in greece, which was the starting signal of a large outbreak in 2010, followed by a second one in 2011. more than 250 neuroinvasive disease cases with 15% fatality were observed during the two wnv seasons. wnv lineage 2 sequences were obtained from blood donors, culex mosquitoes, wild birds and sentinel chickens. the greek wnv strain shows high genetic relatedness to the goshawk-hunga ...201222943398
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