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visceral leishmaniasis in the indian subcontinent: modelling epidemiology and control.in the indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (vl). in 2005, the governments of india, nepal and bangladesh started the first regional vl elimination program with the aim to reduce the annual incidence to less than 1 per 10,000 by 2015. a mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic quantifications of transmission, disease and intervention parameters. this model was used to predict the effects of different ...201122140589
alteration of serum copper in kala-azar patients during sag therapy.we conducted an analytic case-control study in kala-azar patients during sodium antimony gluconate (sag) therapy to assess the changes in serum copper. a total of 89 subjects were included in the study. diagnosed patients of kala-azar with parasitological evidence of leishmania donovani (ld) bodies in bone marrow, were selected as cases (n=54). they were selected from medicine and paediatric wards of mymensingh medical college hospital, mymensingh and nearby fulbaria upazila of mymensingh distri ...200717344788
enhanced case detection and improved diagnosis of pkdl in a kala-azar-endemic area of bangladesh.to support the bangladesh national kala-azar elimination programme (nkep), we investigated the feasibility of using trained village volunteers for detecting post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) cases, using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for confirmation of diagnosis and treatment compliance by pkdl patients in kanthal union of trishal sub-district, mymensingh, bangladesh.201020957193
pcr-based detection of leishmania donovani dna in a stray dog from a visceral leishmaniasis endemic focus in bangladesh.although phlebotomus argentipes as the only known vector of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is zoophilic in nature, vl is considered to be anthroponotic in the indian subcontinent. peripheral blood samples from 85 stray dogs were examined for any molecular evidence of leishmania infection in vl endemic areas of bangladesh. parasite dna was detected in a blood sample from 1 of 85 (1.2%) stray dogs using its1-pcr, and pcr sequencing of the rrna-its and cytochrome b gene confirmed that the parasitic dn ...201322878541
post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis with mucosal involvement: an unusual case presentation including successful treatment with miltefosine.post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) is a dermatologic manifestation that usually occurs after visceral leishmaniasis (vl) caused by leishmania donovani. it is characterized by hypopigmented patches, a macular or maculopapular rash and nodular skin lesions on the body surface. involvement of the mucosae is very rare and unusual in pkdl. we report a case of pkdl that presented with polymorphic skin lesions, along with involvement of peri-oral mucosa and tongue from an endemic area for kala- ...201323930349
biomarkers for intracellular pathogens: establishing tools as vaccine and therapeutic endpoints for visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis in south asia is a serious disease affecting children and adults. acute visceral leishmaniasis develops in only a fraction of those infected individuals, the majority being asymptomatic with the potential to transmit infection and develop disease. we followed 56 individuals characterized as being asymptomatic by seropositivity with rk39 rapid diagnostic test in a hyperendemic district of bangladesh to define the utility of leishmania-specific antibodies and dna in identify ...201424237596
pcr-based detection of leishmania dna in skin samples of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis patients from an endemic area of bangladesh.post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) is a sequel of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and pkdl patients are an important reservoir for anthroponotic transmission of vl. therefore, diagnosis and treatment of pkdl is important for the kala-azar elimination program in south asia, including bangladesh. while definitive diagnosis of pkdl is still based on microscopy, despite the low sensitivity of this method of diagnosis, pcr for identification of kinetoplast dna (kdna) from leishmania parasites is ...201222814154
rflps of its, its1 and hsp70 amplicons and sequencing of its1 of recent clinical isolates of kala-azar from india and bangladesh confirms the association of l. tropica with the disease.visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar (ka) is a serious health concern in india. in the present study, restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of three genetic markers viz., internal transcribed spacer (its), its1 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) have been employed for typing the clinical isolates [n=15] of ka and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniosis (pkdl) collected from india and bangladesh in the period of 2006-2010. experimentally, its, its1 and hsp70 regions of genomes of all the clin ...201222960646
peripheral blood buffy coat smear: a promising tool for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.confirmative diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is still being a challenge at the primary health care facilities in most of the rural endemic areas in the indian sub-continent. conventional methods for parasitological confirmation are risky and require skilled personnel hence, unreachable to the poor people in the endemic region. buffy coat smear microscopy, as a minimally invasive simple alternative, for the parasitological diagnosis of vl was evaluated in this prospective study. one hund ...201122205790
specific antibody responses as indicators of treatment efficacy for visceral leishmaniasis.acute visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is caused by infection with parasites of the leishmania donovani complex and may be fatal if not treated. early diagnosis and efficacious treatment are the keys to effective vl management and control. novel regimens are being developed to overcome limitations in vl treatment options, which are currently restricted by high costs, severe systemic side effects, and unresponsiveness. although simple and accurate serological tests are available to help confirm vl, no ...201525407374
genetic markers for antimony resistant clinical isolates differentiation from indian kala-azar.visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is caused by the protozoan parasites belonging to the genus leishmania. once thought eradicated from the indian subcontinent, the disease came back with drug resistance to almost all prevalent drugs. molecular epidemiological studies revealed the polymorphic nature of the population of the main player of the disease, leishmania donovani and involvement of other species (l. tropica) and other genus (leptomonas) with the disease. this makes control measures almo ...201627629023
accurate serodetection of asymptomatic leishmania donovani infection by use of defined antigens.infection with leishmania donovaniis typically asymptomatic, but a significant number of individuals may progress to visceral leishmaniasis (vl), a deadly disease that threatens 200 million people in areas where it is endemic. while diagnosis of acute vl has been simplified by the use of cost-effective confirmatory serological tests, similar standardized tools are not widely available for detecting asymptomatic infection, which can be 4 to 20 times more prevalent than active disease. a simple an ...201626842701
characteristics of phlebotomine sandflies in selected areas of sri lanka.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) is an endemic disease in sri lanka. studies on vector aspects, although important for better understanding of disease transmission dynamics, are still limited. the present study describes the species distribution and behavioral patterns of sandflies within selected disease-prevalent zones in the country. adult sandflies were collected from several field sites over a two-year duration in sri lanka using cattle-baited net traps, cdc light traps and manual methods. spec ...201526867357
mobile suitcase laboratory for rapid detection of leishmania donovani using recombinase polymerase amplification assay.leishmania donovani (ld) is a protozoan parasite transmitted to humans from sand flies, which causes visceral leishmaniasis (vl). currently, the diagnosis is based on presence of the anti-ld antibodies and clinical symptoms. molecular diagnosis would require real-time pcr, which is not easy to implement at field settings. in this study, we report on the development and testing of a recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assay for the detection of ld.201627177926
survey of domestic cattle for anti-leishmania antibodies and leishmania dna in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of bangladesh.visceral leishmaniasis (vl), caused by an intracellular parasite leishmania donovani in the indian subcontinent, is considered to be anthroponotic. the role of domestic animals in its transmission is still unclear. although cattle are the preferred blood host for phlebotomus argentipes, the sandfly vector of vl in the indian subcontinent, very little information is available for their role in the disease transmission. in this study, we examined domestic cattle for serological and molecular evide ...201121651757
pcr for diagnosis and assessment of cure in kala-azar patients in bangladesh.the study evaluated the usefulness of leishmania-nested polymerase chain reaction (ln-pcr) for diagnosis of kala-azar and assessed its role as a test of cure among kala-azar patients in bangladesh. peripheral blood buffy coat ln-pcr was done in ninety-seven (97) clinically suspected patients of kala-azar, in forty (40) healthy controls from both endemic and non-endemic areas, and in forty-six (46) patients after completion of treatment with sodium stibogluconate (ssg). the ln-pcr results were co ...201019769932
characterisation of bangladeshi leishmania isolated from kala-azar patients by isoenzyme electrophoresis.to identify the prevalent leishmania species in bangladesh, a total of nine patients aged 4-35 years, were studied; six (66.7%) of them were below 20 years of age. all the patients were clinically diagnosed to have visceral leishmaniasis; their haematological profile was in accordance with leishmaniasis and all were improved after treatment with sodium stibogluconate. all the aspirated materials (eight bone marrows and one splenic aspirate) yielded growth of leishmania parasite in nnn media; lei ...200010882903
development and comparative evaluation of two antigen detection tests for visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) can be fatal without timely diagnosis and treatment. treatment efficacies vary due to drug resistance, drug toxicity and co-morbidities. it is important to monitor treatment responsiveness to confirm cure and curtail relapse. currently, microscopy of spleen, bone marrow or lymph node biopsies is the only definitive method to evaluate cure. a less invasive test for treatment success is a high priority for vl management.201526395447
low prevalence of leishmania donovani infection among the blood donors in kala-azar endemic areas of bangladesh.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a major public health problem in bangladesh with the highest disease burden in the mymensingh district. the disease is transmitted by sand fly bites, but it may also be transmitted through blood transfusions. no information is available about the prevalence of leishmania infection among blood donors in bangladesh; therefore we aimed to investigate this question.201323375008
vector control by insecticide-treated nets in the fight against visceral leishmaniasis in the indian subcontinent, what is the evidence?visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a deadly vector-borne disease that causes an estimated 500 000 new cases a year. in india, nepal and bangladesh, vl is caused by leishmania donovani, which is transmitted from man to man by the sandfly phlebotomus argentipes. in 2005, these three countries signed a memorandum of understanding to eliminate vl from the region. integrated vector management is one of the pillars of this elimination strategy, alongside early case detection and treatment. we reviewed the ...200818564350
immunochromatographic (rk39) strip test in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in bangladesh.immunochromatographic strip test (ict strip test) for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis was evaluated in this study in the context of a case-control study. a total sixty consecutive cases of kala-azar admitted in all four medicine units of mymensingh medical college hospital during the period of may 2002 to february 2003 was included here. parasitological confirmation was done by demonstration of leishmania donovani bodies in bone marrow or splenic aspiration in all cases. a total 120 cont ...200312894040
application of an improved method for the recombinant k 39 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect visceral leishmaniasis disease and infection in bangladesh.several serology-based immunoassays are used to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis (vl), a chronic protozoan parasitic disease caused by the leishmania donovani complex. these tests are primarily designed to diagnose the most severe clinical form of vl, known as kala-azar. however, leishmanial infection is frequently asymptomatic and may manifest only as a positive serologic response or positive leishmanin skin test. we modified a previously described enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) that ...200516339064
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