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concomitant infection of htlv-i and hiv-1: prevalence of igg and igm antibodies in washington, d.c. area.serum samples collected from four groups of individuals in the washington, d.c. area were examined for the presence of igg and igm classes of antibody reacting against htlv-i and hiv-1. these four groups were: (1) healthy adults with negative premarital vdrl test for syphilis (n = 113), (2) miscellaneous common disease patients (n = 155), (3) drug abusers (n = 130), and (4) homosexual men (n = 187). the former two groups are considered to be low-risk groups, and the latter two, high-risk groups. ...19882904886
aids-related knowledge and attitudes of social workers in south carolina.this study examines the association between knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids) and skill among social workers in south carolina and attitudes toward people with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and aids. a stratified random sampling method was used to obtain a representative sample of social workers in south carolina. findings show that aids-related knowledge and skill were significantly associated with improving the general attitudes of social workers toward hiv/aids clie ...19938288150
human immunodeficiency virus social work program at the walter reed army medical center: a historical perspective.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection has become a pandemic concern for many nations. when this disease first presented itself in a global manner in the early 1980s, it was accompanied by fear, denial, misunderstanding, social stigma, and a paucity of available support services. the u.s. army was becoming increasingly aware of the potential impact hiv could have on the active forces. a tragic event involving the suicide of a young hiv-infected soldier resulted in the development of a comp ...200314529241
epidemiology of hiv and aids among adolescents and young adults in the united states.to describe the current status of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (hiv/aids) epidemic among adolescents and young adults in the united states. despite reported declines in sexual risk behaviors among adolescents in the past decade, little has been published about the epidemiology of hiv and aids among adolescents and young adults in the united states.200616857526
syringe exchange programs --- united states, 2008.persons who inject drugs should use a new, sterile needle and syringe for each injection. syringe exchange programs (seps) provide free sterile syringes and collect used syringes from injection-drug users (idus) to reduce transmission of bloodborne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), hepatitis b virus, and hepatitis c virus (hcv). as of march 2009, a total of 184 seps were known to be operating in 36 states, the district of columbia (dc), and puerto rico (north american syri ...201021085091
publicly funded hiv counseling and testing--united states, 1991.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) counseling and testing (ct) services provided by health departments are a major component of the national hiv-prevention program. the purpose of hiv ct is to 1) reinforce perception of risk by those who are unaware or uninformed, 2) help uninfected persons initiate and sustain behavior changes that reduce their risk for becoming infected, and 3) identify hiv-infected persons who can be referred for early medical care and counseled to practice safer behaviors. t ...19921501603
tuberculosis in older adults in the united states, 1993-2008.to describe older adults with tuberculosis (tb) and compare demographic, diagnostic, and disease characteristics and treatment outcomes between older and younger adults with tb.201121517786
recent infection with human immunodeficiency virus and possible rapid loss of cd4 t lymphocytes.to assess a hypothesized trend that persons recently infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) may have more rapid declines in absolute cd4 t-lymphocyte (cd4+ cell) counts than those who were hiv-infected in earlier years, sequential cd4+ cell counts in three groups who had definable dates of hiv seroconversion between 1978 and 1992 were reviewed. the cd4+ cell counts examined were from some of the longest extant studies in the united states: 100 homosexual and bisexual men engaged in ...19957788428
the relationship between outpatient drug costs and disease progression in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected population. the military medical consortium for applied retroviral research.as the focus of the management of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection turns from the treatment of aids to the entire continuum of the disease, projection of long-term healthcare costs becomes increasingly important. rather than a fulminant disease treated primarily inside the hospital, hiv infection will become a chronic condition requiring years of outpatient monitoring and pharmacologic intervention with attending increases in pharmacy costs. the objective of this study was to charact ...19911926913
factors affecting health status in african americans living with hiv/aids.this study surveyed face-to-face 111 african american newly diagnosed and living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (hiv/aids) from the washington d.c. area, to ascertain the use of, and need for, early intervention services. the survey instrument included sections on demographics, level of health functioning and health indicators, social and financial support, and needed services. this article constructs a health status proxy variable from survey items and exa ...200111445015
success in implementing public health service guidelines to reduce perinatal transmission of hiv--louisiana, michigan, new jersey, and south carolina, 1993, 1995, and 1996.in 1994, the public health service (phs) published guidelines for zidovudine (zdv) use to reduce perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) (1), and in 1995 published guidelines for hiv counseling and voluntary testing of pregnant women (2). to directly assess the implementation of these guidelines and to identify barriers to the continued reduction of perinatal transmission, four states that conduct surveillance for hiv/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) (louisiana, mic ...19989733415
adapting an effective primary care provider std/hiv prevention training programme.sexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection continues to be the major source of hiv infection in the usa. preventing sexual transmission of hiv can be accomplished through patient behaviour change. such behaviour change can also decrease risk of other sexually transmitted diseases (stds) and unwanted pregnancies, both far more common problems than hiv infection. primary care physicians and other providers can increase patients' safe sex practices by conducting effective sexual ...19989625896
psychiatric diagnoses in adolescents seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus.to provide a descriptive analysis of the prevalence of past and current psychiatric disorders in adolescents positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv).200010710020
hiv-risk behaviors associated with homelessness characteristics in youth.to examine characteristics of youth homelessness associated with engaging in risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv).199910551665
human immunodeficiency virus infection in urban adolescents: can we predict who is at risk?few studies have evaluated the extent of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in the adolescent population. however, there has been growing concern that sexual and drug experimentation common in this age group may increase their risks of transmitting the virus. between october 1, 1987, and january 31, 1989, a blinded, unlinked hiv seroprevalence study was conducted among all adolescents aged 13 through 19 receiving ambulatory care at children's national medical center and having blood drawn for ot ...19911945639
physician and infection control practitioner hiv/aids reporting characteristics.we surveyed a random sample of south carolina physicians and infection control practitioners about the reporting of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) cases. of physicians surveyed, 79% indicated that hiv infection as well as aids should be reported by name. the following characteristics were associated with those physicians who do not report aids cases: not feeling responsible for reporting, not reporting a case perceived to have been reported in an ...19921585971
hiv-infected women's experiences and beliefs related to azt therapy during pregnancy.to explore women's experiences and beliefs concerning zidovudine (azt) therapy during pregnancy, short-answer and open-ended questions were asked of 322 human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected women at increased risk for pregnancy. specifically, we examined what women believed they had been told concerning azt therapy during pregnancy by health care professionals and peers, experiences with taking azt, how effective they believed azt therapy to be, and if they would take azt if they became p ...200111359662
progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is influenced by cd4 t-lymphocyte count and time since seroconversion.progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) varies considerably and may be influenced by factors such as age, smoking, number of male partners per year, and cd4 t-lymphocyte count. the loss of cd4 lymphocytes is known to be the dominant factor in the progression to aids. however, it is unclear whether the effect of the cd4 lymphocyte count is of such importance that persons with similar cd4 cell counts who have been infe ...19979098180
foster care of hiv-positive children in the united states.a national study regarding the foster care of children identified as human immunodeficiency virus-positive (hiv-positive) was conducted in 1991. a survey form was sent to the administrators of the state agency responsible for foster care in each state, the district of columbia, and u.s. territories for a total sample size of 55. after followup, all 55 responded for a response rate of 100 percent. the number of children in foster care was ascertained for the current year and cumulatively. in 1991 ...19948303016
coping with aids and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in south carolina. 19873475500
contact tracing to identify human immunodeficiency virus infection in a rural community.this report describes a contact investigation conducted in rural south carolina to identify, counsel, and educate persons infected with or exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). starting with one hiv antibody-positive man and his 19 sex contacts, we identified 83 sex contacts of hiv antibody-positive men. of these, 64 were residents of the county and 63 (98%) agreed to be tested for evidence of hiv infection. eight (13%) were hiv antibody positive. thirty-six initially hiv antibody-n ...19883131555
delayed hypersensitivity skin testing and anergy in a population of gay men.anergy is almost universal among patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). to determine the prevalence and correlates of anergy in a population at risk for aids, we performed skin tests in 1120 gay men who were enrolled in a prospective study of the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. anergy, defined as no induration to any of four intradermal antigens, was present in 12%. individually, no induration was detected in response to tetanus toxoid (41%) ...19872822314
prevalence of hiv infection in childbearing women in the united states. surveillance using newborn blood samples.a national, population-based survey was initiated in 1988 to measure the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in women giving birth to infants in the united states. following standardized procedures, residual dried-blood specimens collected on filter paper for newborn metabolic screening were tested anonymously in state public health laboratories for maternal antibody to hiv. as of september 1990, annual survey data were available from 38 states and the district of columbia ...19912002571
clinical implications of positive tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in asymptomatic blood donors. 19901974833
hiv-related characteristics of migrant workers in rural south carolina.after finding human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in a migrant worker named as a syphilis contact, the south carolina department of health and environmental control offered hiv counseling and testing and syphilis screening to migrant workers in the surrounding two-county area. in addition, a brief questionnaire was administered to document demographics and risk behavior. of the 265 workers aged 16 and older in 15 migrant camps, 198 (75%) consented to the survey and testing. of the 198 t ...19911891727
immunologic markers of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are time-dependent and illness-specific.since prevalent cohorts may be biased by the duration of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection (onset bias), it is useful to assess the potential predictive value of markers in incident cohorts of hiv-positive subjects for whom the date of seroconversion is known or can reliably be estimated. of 131 homosexual men with hiv-1 seroconversion from new york city and washington, dc, who were evaluated annually beginning in 1982, 60 developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) by the end ...19921384311
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