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genotyping toxoplasma gondii from wildlife in pennsylvania and identification of natural recombinants virulent to mice.recent studies indicated the predominance of toxoplasma gondii haplogroup 12 in wildlife in the usa. however, still little is known of the genetic diversity of this parasite circulating in wildlife. in the present study, we tested coyotes (canis latrans), red foxes (vulpes vulpes), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and geese (branta canadensis) from the state of pennsylvania for t. gondii infection. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 160 of 367 animals, including 92 (34.5%) of 266 c ...201424332401
antibodies to avian influenza viruses in canada geese (branta canadensis): a potential surveillance tool?traditionally, the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (aivs) in wild birds has been defined by detection of virus or viral rna through virus isolation or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. our goals were to estimate aiv antibody prevalence in canada geese (branta canadensis) and measure effects of age and location on these estimates. we collected 3,205 samples from nine states during june and july 2008 and 2009: georgia, massachusetts, minnesota, mississippi, new jersey, north ...201223060517
influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses in ducks in the atlantic flyway, 1977-1983, including an h5n2 isolate related to the virulent chicken virus.from 1977 to 1983, waterfowl migrating along the atlantic flyway were annually monitored for orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in an area in central new york state. a total of 168 influenza isolates were obtained from 1,430 waterfowl. twenty-four combinations of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes were detected, with as many as 12 found in a single year. one combination, an h5n2 isolate in 1982, was closely related to the virulent chicken virus that appeared in pennsylvania in 1983. the ...19853833237
subtype-specific influenza a virus antibodies in canada geese (branta canadensis).historically, surveillance for influenza a viruses (iavs) in wild birds has relied on viral detection assays. this was largely due to poor performance of serological assays in wild birds; however, recently developed commercial serological assays have improved the ability to detect iav antibodies in wild birds. serological surveillance for iav antibodies in canada geese (branta canadensis) has shown that, despite a low prevalence of virus isolations, canada geese are frequently exposed to iavs an ...201525845755
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