leishmania donovani parasites in the nasal secretions, tonsillopharyngeal mucosa, and urine centrifugates of visceral leishmaniasis patients in the early 1930s, investigators of visceral leishmaniasis stated that leishman-donovan bodies are found in body fluids of kala-azar patients, for example, in urine, feces, semen, and nasal and pharyngeal secretions. based on this finding, we investigated the diagnostic potential of nasal secretions, tonsillopharyngeal mucosal swabs, and urine centrifugates inoculated into schneider's drosophila medium (containing antibiotics and antifungal agents) as well as with giemsa-stained smears. consequ ...19938480861
experimental infection of domestic sheep with culture-derived leishmania donovani promastigotes.domestic sheep were intradermally inoculated with culture-derived stationary phase leishmania donovani promastigotes. sampling of site of inoculation, liver and spleen for 244 days showed that this parasite can stay alive in the skin for up to 28 days post-inoculation. apart from pyrexia that was evident in all the animals for 42 days, no other symptoms of kala-azar were seen. no parasites were recovered from the visceral organs throughout the sampling period, suggesting that sheep are not susce ...19989561716
a phase ii dose-increasing study of sitamaquine for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in kenya.sitamaquine (wr6026) is an 8-aminoquinoline in development for the oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (vl). this was an open-label, dose-increasing study to determine the dose-response and safety profile for sitamaquine in kenyan patients with vl caused by leishmania donovani. patients (mean age 15.9 [range = 5-47] years) received sitamaquine daily for 28 days at one of four doses: 1.75 (n = 12), 2.0 (n = 61), 2.5 (n = 12), or 3.0 (n = 12) mg/kg/day. the primary efficacy outcome was cure ( ...200516282296
risk factors of visceral leishmaniasis in east africa: a case-control study in pokot territory of kenya and east africa, visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is endemic in parts of sudan, ethiopia, somalia, kenya and uganda. it is caused by leishmania donovani and transmitted by the sandfly vector phlebotomus martini. in the pokot focus, reaching from western kenya into eastern uganda, formulation of a prevention strategy has been hindered by the lack of knowledge on vl risk factors as well as by lack of support from health sector donors. the present study was conducted to establish the necessary evidence-b ...200818184669
serological surveillance development for tropical infectious diseases using simultaneous microsphere-based multiplex assays and finite mixture models.a strategy to combat infectious diseases, including neglected tropical diseases (ntds), will depend on the development of reliable epidemiological surveillance methods. to establish a simple and practical seroprevalence detection system, we developed a microsphere-based multiplex immunoassay system and evaluated utility using samples obtained in kenya.201425078404
evaluation of complement fixation procedures for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.three complement fixation (cf) procedures were evaluated for their ability to detect serum antibodies to visceral leishmaniasis. these tests differ in their use of buffers, volumes of complement and sensitized erythrocyte concentrations, incubation times and percentage haemolysis endpoints. freeze-thawed sonicates of leishmania donovani promastignotes were used as antigen. test sensitivity was determined using sera from 46 kenyans with parasitologically proven leishmaniasis. the frequencies of p ...19854096564
[what is your diagnosis? leishmania donovani visceral leishmaniasis]. 201323570920
comparison of three culture media for isolating leishmania donovani from splenic aspirates in kenyan visceral leishmaniasis. 19846545198
leishmaniasis in the sudan republic. 29. comparison and epidemiological implications of experimental canine infections with sudanese, mediterranean, and kenyan strains of leishmania donovani. 19705421087
leishmania donovani parasitaemia in kenyan visceral leishmaniasis.twenty kenyan patients with visceral leishmaniasis were evaluated for the presence of leishmania donovani in their peripheral blood. smears, cultures and hamster inoculations detected parasitaemia in 11, 10 and six patients, respectively, and at least one method detected parasitaemia in 15 patients (75%). the likelihood of detecting parasitaemia correlated with the density of parasites in splenic aspirate smears. it is apparent that parasitaemia with l. donovani occurs frequently in kenyan patie ...19854002290
comparative infectivity of a kenyan strain of leishmania donovani amastigotes for rattus rattus and the laboratory white rat.amastigotes of a kenyan strain of leishmania donovani from a previously infected hamster were used to inoculate rattus rattus and the laboratory white rat intracardially. the animals were sampled at 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks post-inoculation to determine infectivity and total parasite burdens in the liver and spleen. higher parasite burdens were observed in the livers and spleens of r. rattus. parasite culture indicated more generalized parasite dissemination compared to the white rat. demonstration ...19872894131
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