toscana virus central nervous system infections in southern italy.toscana virus was detected by reverse transcription-nested pcr in 5.6% of cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples from patients with meningitis and encephalitis during the summer in southern italy. the central nervous system infections were associated with young adults and with a substantially benign clinical course. presenting features and csf findings are also discussed in the present report.200516333126
the chikungunya epidemic in italy and its repercussion on the blood system.the chikungunya virus (chikv) is transmitted by aedes mosquitoes and recently caused a massive epidemic on la réunion island, in the indian ocean. between july and september 2007 it caused the first autochthonous epidemic outbreak in europe, in the region of emilia-romagna in the north-east of italy.200819112735
chikungunya virus in north-eastern italy: a seroprevalence survey.after an outbreak of chikungunya infection in emilia-romagna region (north-eastern italy), a survey was performed to estimate the seroprevalence of antibody to chikungunya virus and the proportion of asymptomatic infections, to identify factors associated with infection, and evaluate the performance of the surveillance system. the method used was a survey on a random sample of residents of the village with the largest number of reported cases. the prevalence was 10.2% (33 of 325), being higher i ...201020207883
toscana virus infection in american traveler returning from sicily, 2009. 201020735948
anti-plasmodial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants growing in the mediterranean area.sardinia is a mediterranean area endemic for malaria up to the last century. during a screening study to evaluate the anti-plasmodial activity of some aromatic plants traditionally used in sardinia, myrtus communis (myrtle, myrtaceae), satureja thymbra (savory, lamiaceae), and thymus herba-barona (caraway thyme, lamiaceae) were collected in three vegetative periods: before, during and after flowering.201222747579
mosquito, bird and human surveillance of west nile and usutu viruses in emilia-romagna region (italy) in 2008, after the first west nile virus (wnv) detection in the emilia-romagna region, a surveillance system, including mosquito- and bird-based surveillance, was established to evaluate the virus presence. surveillance was improved in following years by extending the monitoring to larger areas and increasing the numbers of mosquitoes and birds tested.201222666446
usutu virus persistence and west nile virus inactivity in the emilia-romagna region (italy) in 2011.the circulation of west nile virus and usutu virus was detected in the emilia-romagna region in 2008 and 2009. to evaluate the extent of circulation of both viruses, environmental surveillance, based on bird and mosquito testing, was conducted in 2008 and gradually improved over the years.201323667694
toscana virus encephalitis in a traveler returning to the united italy, toscana virus is the most common cause of meningitis from may to october. though only a few cases have been reported in u.s. travelers returning from europe, most cases are likely unrecognized due to lack of familiarity with the disease. here, we describe the case of an 82-year-old man presenting with fever, profound weakness, and hearing loss after returning to the united states following a 2-week summertime vacation in southern italy who was ultimately diagnosed with toscana virus en ...201525673791
human and entomological surveillance of west nile fever, dengue and chikungunya in veneto region, italy, 2010-2012.since 2010 veneto region (north-eastern italy) planned a special integrated surveillance of summer fevers to promptly identify cases of west nile fever (wnf), dengue (denv) and chikungunya (chikv). the objectives of this study were (i) to increase the detection rate of imported chikv and denv cases in travellers from endemic areas and promptly identify potential autochthonous cases.(ii) to detect autochthonous cases of wnf, besides those of west nile neuroinvasive disease (wnnd) that were alread ...201424499011
surveillance for west nile, dengue, and chikungunya virus infections, veneto region, italy, 2010, in veneto region, italy, surveillance of summer fevers was conducted to promptly identify autochthonous cases of west nile fever and increase detection of imported dengue and chikungunya in travelers. surveillance highlighted the need to modify case definitions, train physicians, and when a case is identified, implement vector control measures.022469230
lack of identification of flaviviruses in oral and cloacal swabs from long- and short-distance migratory birds in trentino-alto adige (north-eastern italy).west nile virus (wnv) and usutu virus (usuv), both belonging to the genus flavivirus, are emerging in italy as important human and animal pathogens. migratory birds are involved in the spread of flaviviruses over long distances, particularly from africa to europe. once introduced, these viruses can be further be dispersed by short-distance migratory and resident bird species. thus far, there is still a considerable knowledge gap on the role played by different bird species in the ecology and tra ...201324119320
molecular xenomonitoring of dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens in mosquitoes from north-eastern italy by real-time pcr coupled with melting curve analysis.dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens are transmitted by bloodsucking culicid mosquitoes belonging to culex, aedes, ochlerotatus, anopheles and mansonia genera. the detection of filarioids in mosquitoes for assessing distribution of vectors and/or of pathogens in a given area (also known as "xenomonitoring"), when based on individual dissection of wild-caught female mosquitoes is time consuming and hardly applicable in large epidemiological surveys. our study aimed to evaluate the recently ...201222520170
large human outbreak of west nile virus infection in north-eastern italy in 2012.human cases of west nile virus (wnv) disease have been reported in italy since 2008. so far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of wnv infection ever recorded in italy occurred. most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for west nile fever was in place. in this outbreak, 25 cases of west nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. in addition, 14 wnv rna-po ...201324284876
integrated human surveillance systems of west nile virus infections in italy: the 2012 italy, a west nile virus (wnv) surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a wnv neuroinvasive disease (wnnd) surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 june-30 november, in those regions where wnv circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. moreover, since wnv can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected d ...201324351740
toscana virus genome stability: data from a meningoencephalitis case in mantua, july of 2013, samples from a patient with a neurological syndrome were collected from mantua hospital and sent to the national reference laboratory for arboviruses (national institute of health, rome). on the basis of the symptoms, serological and molecular assays were performed to diagnose either west nile virus (wnv) or toscana virus (tosv) infection. molecular and serological tests confirmed tosv infection. virus isolation was obtained from cerebrospinal fluid. a full genome sequence was d ...025514123
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