swine influenza virus and the recycling of influenza-a viruses in man.sera collected in 1967 and 1972 from people in the 0-100 age-group showed haemagglutination-inhibition (h.i.) antibody to swine virus a/iowa/15/30 (hsw1n1) in greatest number and with highest titre in people born before 1918. a slight decrease was observed from 1967 to 1972 in the number of sera with antibody to swine virus and in the height of the titres. the recently isolated a/new jersey/10/76 (hsw1n1) virus showed a result comparable to that of the swine/1930 virus in sera of 1972. on the an ...197659252
behaviour in ferrets of swine influenza virus isolated from man.after intranasal instillation into ferrets, the "swine" influenza virus a/new jersey/8/76(hsw1 n1) had a 50% minimal infectious dose similar to that of previously tested a/pr/8-a/england (h3 n2) recombinants virulent and attenuated for man. a/new jersey produced only a mild upper respiratory tract infection. however, higher titres of virus were recovered from the lungs over a longer period than experienced previously with asian and hong kong virus strains. there was a diphasic pyrexia the second ...197763712
[comparative characteristics of influenza virus a/ussr/02/76 and swine influenza virus].comparative studies of the biological properties, antigenic structure and ultrastructure of influenza a viruses isolated in the ussr, a/new jersey/8/76 and a/swine/31 were carried out. antigenic differences between a/ussr/02/76 and a/swine/31 strains as well as a/new jersey/8/76 strain were found in the hemagglutination-inhibition and neuraminidase activity-inhibition tests. these differences were confirmed by serological examination of human sera.197771790
[reversion in the natural variability of influenza a virus].in mid-november, 1977, local outbreaks of acute respiratory diseases (ard) in institutionalized communities began to be recorded in a number of geographical zones of the ussr, and by the end of the month a general increase in the incidence was observed in some areas of the country. the epidemic outbreaks extended gradually and were characterized by moderate development involving mainly young subjects. the strains causing the epidemic had no antigenic relationship with reference a (h3n2) virus an ...197878585
a new jersey vaccine and a/fm 1/47 epidemics. 197887568
swine influenza a at fort dix, new jersey (january-february 1976). iv. summary and speculation.influenza a/new jersey/76 virus was detected at fort dix from january 19 through february 9, 1976 and infected at least 230 military personnel. thirteen hospital admissions for acute respiratory disease were associated with influenza a/new jersey infection, and additional members of index training companies may have been hospitalized with influenza a/new jersey. this virus was likely introduced into the reception center by an incoming trainee. although our studies could not eliminate the possibi ...1977342615
response to influenza a vaccine among high-risk recent years, it has been recommended that "high-risk" patients receive influenza immunizations annually. during the 1976 national influenza immunization program, a higher priority was given to these patients than to the general population. the present study was undertaken to compare the antibody response of high-risk patients with that of a group of individuals with no underlying disease after immunization with 0.5 ml of bivalent, split-virus vaccine containing 200 cca units each of influenz ...1979366766
investigations on the involvement of swine influenza a virus (hsw1n1) in the influenza outbreak recorded in a town of romania during the 1976--1977 winter season.seroepidemiological investigations performed with 1,620 serum samples and serodiagnostic tests with 166 paired sera demonstrated that swine influenza virus type a/new jersey 8/76 (hsw1n1) played no role in the epidemiology of human influenza in a large town of romania during 1977.1978567886
antigenic subgroups of influenza a (hsw1 n1) virus differentiated by hemagglutination inhibition.eleven influenza a/swine virus strains could be arranged in three subgroups by hemagglutination inhibition (hi) titrations. the antisera used include post-infection ferret sera (native as well as after adsorption with heterologous hsw1 n1 virus) and paired human sera from recent influenza a patients, showing antibody titre rises against a/swine virus. for serological detection of infections with an unknown a/swine virus, virus strains of the subgroup with the broadest reactivity are more suitabl ...1977604129
sensitivity of influenza a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) virus to amantadine-hcl.the appearance of a swine type of influenza a among recruits in fort dix, new jersey, in 1976 prompted an evaluation of the sensitivity of this virus to amantadine - hcl. well-tolerated levels of the drug effectively blocked replication of the influenza a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) virus isolate in three laboratory models: monkey kidney cells, embryonated eggs, and intranasally infected mice. on a comparative basis this virus would appear to be more sensitive to amantadine - hcl than human influen ...1977894080
[possible significance of human patients with "swine" influenza virus in january-february,1976 at fort dix, new jersey, usa, and theories concerning the cause of deaths in the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919]. 19761024248
genetic relatedness of the nucleoprotein (np) of recent swine, turkey, and human influenza a virus (h1n1) isolates.the sequences of nucleoprotein (np) genes of recent human and turkey isolates of influenza a viruses, which serologically could be correlated to contemporary swine viruses, were determined. these sequences were closely related to the nps of these swine viruses and they formed a separate branch on the phylogenetic tree. while the early swine virus from 1931 resembled the avian strains in consensus amino acids of the np and in its ability to rescue np ts mutants of fowl plague virus in chicken emb ...19921536092
[antigenic structure of hemagglutinins of influenza h1n1 (hsw1n1) virus isolated from humans and ducks].the method of specific adsorption followed by the use of antisera in hi test and competitive enzyme immunoassay was used to study the antigenic composition of hemagglutinins (ha) hsw1 in influenza viruses isolated in 1982 from humans in bulgaria and in 1976 in canada from ducks as well as their antigenic relationships with ha of hsw1 variant isolated from swine and man. hemagglutinins of hsw1 strains isolated from man in bulgaria and alma-ata were found to be similar to ha of a/new jersey/8/76 v ...19892483779
seroprevalence of porcine and human influenza a virus antibodies in pigs between 1986 and 1988 in hassia.1,268 sera collected from slaughtered pigs in hassia (frg) from 1986 to 1988 were tested for antibodies against porcine and human influenza a virus strains using the single radial haemolysis test (srht). antibodies against the porcine strains (subtype h1n1) a/swine/arnsberg/1/81, a/swine/iowa/15/30 and a/new jersey/7/76 were detected in 411 (32.4%), 318 (25.1%) and 304 (24.0%) of sera, respectively. up to 1988 a slight increase (10%) in the seroprevalence to a/swine/arnsberg/1/81 was noticed, wh ...19892559562
isolation of swine-like influenza a(h1n1) viruses from man in switzerland and the netherlands.swine influenza a (h1n1) viruses were isolated from two people in switzerland and one in the netherlands in early 1986. in haemagglutination-inhibition and neuraminidase-inhibition assays, the three viruses were closely related to one another and to the a/new jersey/8/76 strain. the swiss patients showed only mild symptoms, whereas the dutch patient suffered from severe pneumonia. two of the patients had been in close contact with diseased pigs. no such contact could be established for the third ...19883214596
antibody responses of swine to type a influenza viruses during the past ten years in japan.a total of 6346 swine sera collected at an abattoir in the city of obihiro, hokkaido during the years 1978-87 were tested for the presence of antibodies to swine and human influenza viruses. a high incidence of antibody to a/new jersey/8/76 (swine type h1n1) virus was observed throughout the 10 years except for the occasional month and a single long period of 15 months. antibodies to human h3n2 virus in swine appeared to be related to the epidemics of human influenza which occurred in the study ...19883378588
influenza virus a/swine-outbreaks in domestic pigs and antibody findings in human the last years, the occurrence of influenza viruses a/h1n1 (hsw1n1) in pig stocks of different countries has been increasingly reported. in general, the isolated viruses were related to the influenza virus a/new jersey/8/76 h1n1 (hsw1n1). human infections were not reported in these outbreaks. since march 1981, very limited influenza outbreaks in several pig stocks of the gdr with high morbidity and very low lethality have been observed. the illness took an uncomplicated path and generally sub ...19836316691
prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition antibody to current strains of the h3n2 and h1n1 subtypes of influenza a virus in sera collected from the elderly in 1976.sera were collected in 1976 from 182 individuals born between 1876-1935, who included patients in a large local nursing home in orange county, california, and patients and staff at the university of california, irvine medical center. sera were treated with receptor-destroying enzyme and assayed for hemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibody to recent strains of influenza a virus. the antigens tested were: a/victoria/3/76 and a/texas/1/77 for subtype h3n2; a/new jersey/8/76, a/x53 and a/swine/1976 ...19827072705
duck influenza lacking evidence of disease signs and immune response.influenza viruses a/duck/hokkaido/5/77 (hav7n2), a/budgerigar/hokkaido/1/77 (hav4nav1), a/kumamoto/22/76 (h3n2), a/aichi/2/68 (h3n2), and a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) were experimentally inoculated into pekin ducks. of these, the influenza viruses of duck and budgerigar origin replicated in the intestinal tract of the ducks. the infected ducks shed the virus in the feces to high titers, but did not show clinical signs of disease and scarcely produced detectable serum antibodies. using immunofluore ...19807439994
genetic reassortment in pandemic and interpandemic influenza viruses. a study of 122 viruses infecting humans.the human influenza pandemics of 1957 and 1968 were caused by reassortant viruses that possessed internal gene segments from avian and human strains. whether genetic reassortment of human and avian influenza viruses occurs during interpandemic periods and how often humans are infected with such reassortants is not known. to provide this information, we used dot-blot hybridization, partial nucleotide sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis to examine the 6 internal genes of 122 viruses is ...19968817180
antibody decline in children following a/new jersey/76 influenza virus immunization. 19806985957
augmentation of hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) antibodies in gilts of breeding age by large dosages of human a/new jersey/76 influenza vaccine.fifteen gilts of breeding age were studied. four received three 4 ml. doses three weeks apart of an experimental killed swine influenza vaccine containing a/swine/ill/65 antigen, four received three ml. doses three weeks apart of a human influenza vaccine containing a/new jersey/76 antigen and three received two doses of human influenza vaccine followed by a 3 ml. third dose of experimental swine influenza vaccine. all except one vaccinate responded to two doses of vaccine by the time of the th ...1979461965
transmissibility of swine flu at fort dix, 1976.the 1976 outbreak of a/new jersey/76 influenza in fort dix is a rare example of an influenza virus with documented human to human transmission that failed to spread widely. despite extensive epidemiological investigation, no attempt has been made to quantify the transmissibility of this virus. the world health organization and the united states government view containment of emerging influenza strains as central to combating pandemic influenza. computational models predict that it may be possibl ...200717412677
further studies in man of hsw1n1 influenza viruses.two subpopulations of antigenically different hsw1n1 influenza viruses, cloned from 'swine' new jersey virus 1976, were individually inoculated into antibody-free volunteers. one clone contained a haemagglutinin so far seen only in swine viruses prevalent in 1971 and after, the other a haemagglutinin of earlier strains dating back to a least 1957. each of the viruses was infectious for man and intermediate in human virulence between a wild human virus and swine pathogens of 1966 and 1967, which ...19807381437
[the possible epidemic recrudescence of swine-like influenza virus type a].an account of the effects of recent influenza epidemics is given from the medical standpoint, and also with respect to their social and economic repercussions. the part played by air travel in the carriage of such epidemics is also examined. the immunity of the population of rome towards an a strain swine fever (a/new jersey 8/76) is assessed in the light of personal research.1976995280
guillain-barré syndrome in the united states, 1979-1980 and 1980-1981. lack of an association with influenza ongoing surveillance program was intensified during the 1979-1980 and the 1980-1981 influenza seasons to determine whether an increased risk of acquiring guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) within eight weeks after influenza vaccination existed for adults in the united states who received influenza vaccine, when compared with adult who had not been vaccinated recently. five hundred twenty-eight cases of gbs with onset between sept 1 and march 31, including seven following recent vaccination, were r ...19827097920
influenza pandemic periodicity, virus recycling, and the art of risk assessment.influenza pandemic risk assessment is an uncertain art. the theory that influenza a virus pandemics occur every 10 to 11 years and seroarcheologic evidence of virus recycling set the stage in early 1976 for risk assessment and risk management of the fort dix, new jersey, swine influenza outbreak. additional data and passage of time proved the theory untenable. much has been learned about influenza a virus and its natural history since 1976, but the exact conditions that lead to the emergence of ...200616494714
swine influenza a outbreak, fort dix, new jersey, early 1976, the novel a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) influenza virus caused severe respiratory illness in 13 soldiers with 1 death at fort dix, new jersey. since a/new jersey was similar to the 1918-1919 pandemic virus, rapid outbreak assessment and enhanced surveillance were initiated. a/new jersey virus was detected only from january 19 to february 9 and did not spread beyond fort dix. a/victoria/75 (h3n2) spread simultaneously, also caused illness, and persisted until march. up to 230 soldiers w ...200616494712
[prevalence of antibodies to a/new jersey/76, a/victoria/3/75 and b/hong kong/5/72 influenza viruses in the population of milan examined in the late spring of 1976 and evaluation of the past experience of the same population with probable agent of the 1918-20 pandemics].hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies (h.i.a.) to influenza viruses a/new jersey/76, a/victoria/3/75 and b/hong kong/5/72 were titrated in 227 serum samples collected in milan in the late spring 1976 from healthy subjects of 0 to 90 years of age. in 185 of these neuraminidase-inhibiting antibodies (n.i.a.) for the type a strains were also titrated. subjects up to 40 years of age lack h.i.a. to a/new jersey/76 strain; antibody levels equal to or greater than 1:40 are occasionally present in the ...19761016579
the immunizing effect of influenza a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) virus vaccine administered intradermally and intramuscularly to adults.2the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of inactivated influenza a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) whole-virus vaccine administered intradermally (40 chick cell-agglutinating units/0.1-ml dose) and intramuscularly (im; 200 chick cell-agglutinating units/0.5-ml dose) to human adults were evaluated. among 18-24-year-old persons initially free of detectable antibody, intradermal vaccination induced lower titers of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies than did im vaccination, and a sequence of intradermal a ...1977606768
identification and preliminary antigenic analysis of swine influenza-like viruses isolated during an influenza outbreak at fort dix, new jersey.the sequence of events and the laboratory procedures that resulted in the identification of swine influenza-like viruses isolated during an influenza outbreak at fort dix, new jersey in january and february of 1976 are described. preliminary antigenic analysis suggested that the isolates from fort dix are closely related to a 1975 isolate of swine influenza virus and distinguishable from earlier swine influenza strains.1977606762
serological surveillance of influenza in hamburg and munich (1976/1977).a monthly serological survey (hi-test) of influenza infections was done in hamburg (1083 sera) and munich (955 sera) between june 1976-february 1977 in order to find out if environment influences the host's response to infection. a higher frequency of seropositive reactions and percentage of protective antibodies (titer 1:40 and over) was found in the population of hamburg versus munich. the frequency was greater in individuals over 60 years (group iv) followed by persons 25-29 years (group iii) ...1977604125
serological responses to whole and split a/new jersey vaccines in humans and mice following priming infection with influenza a viruses.experiments were performed in mice to investigate the role of previous infection on responses to a/nj/76 vaccines. results from human studies have demonstrated that the serological responses to a/nj/76 vaccines varied according to the age of the vaccinee and appeared to be related to their previous exposure to the different strains of influenza a virus. mice were infected with influenza a viruses representative of the major strains (hsw1n1, hon1, h2n2, h3n2) and later inoculated with varying dos ...1977604108
human responses to purified surface antigen invluenza vaccine (fluvirin).the dose response to a bivalent purified surface antigen vaccine containing a/victoria/3/75 and b/hong kong/8/73 has been studied in volunteers. over the range studied the response was very flat for both components insofar as the hi antibody was concerned. the lower, but still satisfactory, conversion rate to the b component may reflect the absence of previous experience with this strain. in another study in schoolboys a trivalent surface antigen containing a/new jersey, a/victoria and b/hong ko ...1977604103
immunization of pregnant women with influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine: reactogenicity and immunogenicity in mother and infant.the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated influenza virus vaccines in pregnant women have not been adequately investigated. in this study, 56 women received inactivated influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. no significant immediate reactions or increased fetal complications were associated with administration of the vaccine. the antibody response of the pregnant women to the vaccine was similar to that of nonpregnant adults. forty mother- ...1979479636
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