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h1n1 influenza in hong kong. 197875351
identification of nonavid influenza a viruses containing human subtypes of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase isolated from poultry in hong kong. 1978287100
diversity of influenza a virus subtypes isolated from domestic poultry in hong kong.the second phase of a 2-year influenza virus surveillance programme of domestic avian species in hong kong (up to october 1977) yielded influenza a virus, newcastle disease virus, and hong kong paramyxovirus, as well as unidentified haemagglutinating agents. these viruses were isolated from the trachea or cloaca of apparently healthy domestic ducks, geese, and chickens originating from china and hong kong. twenty-five combinations of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface antigens were identif ...1979314357
antigenic variation in current influenza a viruses: evidence for a high frequency of antigenic 'drift' for the hong kong virus.a new antigenic variant of the hong kong (h3n2) subtype of influenzavirus type a is described. the variant, a/port chalmers/1/73 (h3n2), was first isolated in australasia in the autumn of 1973 and subsequently became the predominant influenza a variant in most areas of the world, replacing the previously prevalent strain a/england/42/72 (h3n2). the 1973 variant shows antigenic differences from former hong kong variants in both haemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens. the application of immuno- ...19744218138
an influenza epicentre? 19826126676
genetic analysis of porcine h3n2 viruses originating in southern china.from immunological and phylogenetic analyses of h3 influenza viruses isolated from pigs and ducks in the people's republic of china (china), hong kong, taiwan and japan, between 1968 and 1982, we arrived at the following conclusions. the h3 haemagglutinin and n2 neuraminidase genes from swine isolates can be segregated into four mammalian lineages, including: (i) the earliest human strains; (ii) early swine strains including hong kong isolates from 1976-1977; (iii) an intermediate strain between ...19957897351
influenza. 19968901336
influenza as a zoonosis: how likely is a pandemic? 19989482431
human influenza a h5n1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.in may, 1997, a 3-year-old boy in hong kong was admitted to the hospital and subsequently died from influenza pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, reye's syndrome, multiorgan failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. an influenza a h5n1 virus was isolated from a tracheal aspirate of the boy. preceding this incident, avian influenza outbreaks of high mortality were reported from three chicken farms in hong kong, and the virus involved was also found to be of the h5 subtype.19989482438
[influenza a(h5n1): current status]. 19989599174
a simple restriction fragment length polymorphism-based strategy that can distinguish the internal genes of human h1n1, h3n2, and h5n1 influenza a viruses.a simple molecular technique for rapid genotyping was developed to monitor the internal gene composition of currently circulating influenza a viruses. sequence information from recent h1n1, h3n2, and h5n1 human virus isolates was used to identify conserved regions within each internal gene, and gene-specific pcr primers capable of amplifying all three virus subtypes were designed. subtyping was based on subtype-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) patterns within the amplifie ...200010878047
characterization of a human h9n2 influenza virus isolated in hong kong.two h9n2 viruses were isolated, for the first time, from humans in hong kong in 1999. isolation of influenza viruses with a novel subtype of the hemagglutinin (ha) drew attention of health care authorities worldwide from the view of pandemic preparedness. sequence analysis of the ha genes reveals that ha of a/hong kong/1073/99 (h9n2) is most closely related to that of a/quail/hk/g1/97 (h9n2) that contains the internal genes similar to those of hong kong/97 (h5n1) viruses. phylogenetic and antige ...200111567756
x-ray structure of the hemagglutinin of a potential h3 avian progenitor of the 1968 hong kong pandemic influenza virus.we have determined the structure of the ha of an avian influenza virus, a/duck/ukraine/63, a member of the same antigenic subtype, h3, as the virus that caused the 1968 hong kong influenza pandemic, and a possible progenitor of the pandemic virus. we find that structurally significant differences between the avian and the human has are restricted to the receptor-binding site particularly the substitutions q226l and g228s that cause the site to open and residues within it to rearrange, including ...200312758169
responsiveness to a pandemic alert: use of reverse genetics for rapid development of influenza vaccines.in response to the emergence of severe infection capable of rapid global spread, who will issue a pandemic alert. such alerts are rare; however, on feb 19, 2003, a pandemic alert was issued in response to human infections caused by an avian h5n1 influenza virus, a/hong kong/213/03. h5n1 had been noted once before in human beings in 1997 and killed a third (6/18) of infected people. the 2003 variant seemed to have been transmitted directly from birds to human beings and caused fatal pneumonia in ...200415064027
live poultry exposures, hong kong and hanoi, 2006.since 1997, the largest epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (h5n1) ever recorded has caused 172 human and several billion bird deaths. recently administered questionnaires determined that live poultry exposures have declined by approximately 63% in hong kong since 2004 and that, in vietnam, domestic backyard exposures to poultry are likely more important than retail exposures.200718214181
wet markets--a continuing source of severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza?context: live-animal markets (wet markets) provide a source of vertebrate and invertebrate animals for customers in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. wet markets sell live poultry, fish, reptiles, and mammals of every kind. live-poultry markets (mostly chicken, pigeon, quail, ducks, geese, and a wide range of exotic wild-caught and farm-raised fowl) are usually separated from markets selling fish or red-meat animals, but the stalls can be near each other with no physical separation. ...200414738798
acceptability of a/h1n1 vaccination during pandemic phase of influenza a/h1n1 in hong kong: population based cross sectional survey.objective: to investigate the intention of the hong kong general population to take up vaccination against influenza a/h1n1. setting cross sectional population based anonymous survey. participants random sample of 301 adults interviewed by telephone (response rate 80%). main outcome measure: intention to take up vaccination against influenza a/h1n1 under five hypothetical scenarios: vaccination is free; vaccination per dosage costs less than $hk100 ( pound8; euro9; $13), $hk101-200, or more than ...200919861377
molecular evolution of h6 influenza viruses from poultry in southeastern china: prevalence of h6n1 influenza viruses possessing seven a/hong kong/156/97 (h5n1)-like genes in poultry.the a/teal/hong kong/w312/97 (h6n1) influenza virus and the human h5n1 and h9n2 influenza viruses possess similar genes encoding internal proteins, suggesting that h6n1 viruses could become novel human pathogens. the molecular epidemiology and evolution of h6 influenza viruses were characterized by antigenic and genetic analyses of 29 h6 influenza viruses isolated from 1975 to 1981 and 1997 to 2000. two distinct groups were identified on the basis of their antigenic characteristics. phylogenetic ...200211752141
school closure and mitigation of pandemic (h1n1) 2009, hong kong.in hong kong, kindergartens and primary schools were closed when local transmission of pandemic (h1n1) 2009 was identified. secondary schools closed for summer vacation shortly afterwards. by fitting a model of reporting and transmission to case data, we estimated that transmission was reduced approximately 25% when secondary schools closed.201020202441
pandemic threat posed by avian influenza a viruses.influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. the last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. in 1997, an h5n1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in hong kong ...200111148006
continued circulation in china of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses encoding the hemagglutinin gene associated with the 1997 h5n1 outbreak in poultry and humans.since the outbreak in humans of an h5n1 avian influenza virus in hong kong in 1997, poultry entering the live-bird markets of hong kong have been closely monitored for infection with avian influenza. in march 1999, this monitoring system detected geese that were serologically positive for h5n1 avian influenza virus, but the birds were marketed before they could be sampled for virus. however, viral isolates were obtained by swabbing the cages that housed the geese. these samples, known collective ...200010864673
reassortment of pandemic h1n1/2009 influenza a virus in swine.the emergence of pandemic h1n1/2009 influenza demonstrated that pandemic viruses could be generated in swine. subsequent reintroduction of h1n1/2009 to swine has occurred in multiple countries. through systematic surveillance of influenza viruses in swine from a hong kong abattoir, we characterize a reassortant progeny of h1n1/2009 with swine viruses. swine experimentally infected with this reassortant developed mild illness and transmitted infection to contact animals. continued reassortment of ...201020558710
community psychological and behavioral responses through the first wave of the 2009 influenza a(h1n1) pandemic in hong kong.little is known about the community psychological and behavioral responses to influenza pandemics.201020677945
distinct pathogenesis of hong kong-origin h5n1 viruses in mice compared to that of other highly pathogenic h5 avian influenza viruses.in 1997, an outbreak of virulent h5n1 avian influenza virus occurred in poultry in hong kong (hk) and was linked to a direct transmission to humans. the factors associated with transmission of avian influenza virus to mammals are not fully understood, and the potential risk of other highly virulent avian influenza a viruses infecting and causing disease in mammals is not known. in this study, two avian and one human hk-origin h5n1 virus along with four additional highly pathogenic h5 avian influ ...200010627555
comparison of the incidence of influenza in relation to climate factors during 2000-2007 in five countries.relatively few international comparisons of the incidence of influenza related to climate parameters have been performed, particularly in the eastern hemisphere. in this study, the incidence of influenza and climate data such as temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall, from cities at different latitudes with contrasting climates: singapore, hong kong (china), ulaanbaatar (mongolia), vancouver (canada), and three australian cities (brisbane, melbourne and sydney) were examined to determine w ...201020872724
reconstruction of epidemic curves for pandemic influenza a (h1n1) 2009 at city and sub-city levels.to better describe the epidemiology of influenza at local level, the time course of pandemic influenza a (h1n1) 2009 in the city of hong kong was reconstructed from notification data after decomposition procedure and time series analysis. gis (geographic information system) methodology was incorporated for assessing spatial variation. between may and september 2009, a total of 24415 cases were successfully geocoded, out of 25473 (95.8%) reports in the original dataset. the reconstructed epidemic ...201021078195
pandemic influenza 1918 h1n1 and 1968 h3n2 dna vaccines induce cross-reactive immunity in ferrets against infection with viruses drifted for decades.alternative influenza vaccines and vaccine production forms are needed as the conventional protein vaccines do not induce broad cross-reactivity against drifted strains. furthermore, fast vaccine production is especially important in a pandemic situation, and broader vaccine reactivity would diminish the need for frequent change in the vaccine formulations.201021138536
evolution of the haemagglutinin gene of the influenza a(h1n1)2009 virus isolated in hong kong, 2009-2011.phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin (ha) gene shows that the influenza a(h1n1)2009 viruses collected in hong kong clustered in two main branches characterised by the e391e and e391k amino acids. the main branch e391k evolved in two sub-branches with n142d and s202t mutations that first appeared in march and july 2010, respectively, with the latter becoming the predominant strain. these genetic variants that emerged display similar antigenic characteristics.concurrent with genetic surveil ...201121392488
human infection with influenza h9n2.we report the clinical features of two cases of human infection with influenza a virus subtype h9n2 in hong kong, and show that serum samples from blood donors in hong kong had neutralising antibody suggestive of prior infection with influenza h9n2.199910489954
the clustering and transmission dynamics of pandemic influenza a (h1n1) 2009 cases in hong kong.objectives: human influenza a (h1n1) 2009 has caused severe epidemics in many countries, but its dynamics in spatial and temporal contexts have so far been poorly appreciated. methods: a total of 24,414 laboratory confirmed human influenza a (h1n1) 2009 cases reported from may to september 2009 in hong kong were evaluated, using a geographic information system (gis)-based approach. spatio-temporal clustering was assessed after dividing hong kong into 4 geographic sectors, 18 districts and 500 m  ...201121601284
circulating influenza virus, climatic factors, and acute myocardial infarction: a time series study in england and wales and hong kong.(see the editorial commentary by finelli and chaves, on pages 1701-4.) background. previous studies identifying associations between influenza and acute cardiac events may have been confounded by climatic factors. differing seasonal patterns of influenza activity in hong kong and england and wales provide a natural experiment to examine associations with myocardial infarction (mi) independent of cold weather effects. methods. weekly clinical and laboratory influenza surveillance data, environmen ...201121606529
long-term evolution and transmission dynamics of swine influenza a virus.swine influenza a viruses (swiv) cause significant economic losses in animal husbandry as well as instances of human disease and occasionally give rise to human pandemics, including that caused by the h1n1/2009 virus. the lack of systematic and longitudinal influenza surveillance in pigs has hampered attempts to reconstruct the origins of this pandemic. most existing swine data were derived from opportunistic samples collected from diseased pigs in disparate geographical regions, not from prospe ...201121614079
clinical and nonclinical health care workers faced a similar risk of acquiring 2009 pandemic h1n1 infection.(see the editorial commentary by drumright and holmes, on pages 284-286.) reporting of confirmed pandemic influenza a virus (ph1n1) 2009 infection was mandatory among health care workers in hong kong. among 1158 confirmed infections, there was no significant difference in incidence among clinical versus nonclinical staff (relative risk, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.20). reported community exposure to ph1n1 was common and was similar in both groups.201121765076
avian strain of influenza a virus isolated from humans in hong kong. 199910333647
biological heterogeneity, including systemic replication in mice, of h5n1 influenza a virus isolates from humans in hong kong.an h5n1 avian influenza a virus was transmitted to humans in hong kong in 1997. although the virus causes systemic infection and is highly lethal in chickens because of the susceptibility of the hemagglutinin to furin and pc6 proteases, it is not known whether it also causes systemic infection in humans. the clinical outcomes of infection in hong kong residents ranged widely, from mild respiratory disease to multiple organ failure leading to death. therefore, to understand the pathogenesis of in ...199910074171
characterization of influenza a/hongkong/156/97 (h5n1) virus in a mouse model and protective effect of zanamivir on h5n1 infection in mice.a recent outbreak of influenza in hong kong was caused by a highly virulent virus of avian origin. concern that the appearance of such a virus in the human population may be a harbinger of a new pandemic has brought increased attention to the issue of antivirals available for treatment of influenza. a/hongkong/156/97 (h5n1), the first virus of h5n1 subtype isolated from a human host, is highly virulent in the mouse model and can infect mouse lungs without requiring adaptation. high mortality and ...19989815209
[influenza a (h5n1) in hong kong: forerunner of a pandemic or just a scientifically interesting phenomenon and a useful exercise in pandemiology?].in 1997, 18 influenza patients were detected who were infected with influenza a(h5n1) virus. six patients died. presumably most of the patients had acquired the infection directly from chickens with the fowl plague prevalent in china in 1997. these are the first reported cases of isolation of influenza viruses belonging to one of the h4-h15 subtypes from human influenza patients. man-to-man transmission of the virus has not been demonstrated but cannot be excluded in every case. genetic analyses ...19989749297
influenza a(h5n1). 19989707895
could virulent virus be harbinger of 'new flu'? 19989450695
summaries for patients. the effects of hand washing and facemasks on prevention of influenza infection. 200919805764
structures of receptor complexes formed by hemagglutinins from the asian influenza pandemic of 1957.the viruses that caused the three influenza pandemics of the twentieth century in 1918, 1957, and 1968 had distinct hemagglutinin receptor binding glycoproteins that had evolved the capacity to recognize human cell receptors. we have determined the structure of the h2 hemagglutinin from the second pandemic, the "asian influenza" of 1957. we compare it with the 1918 "spanish influenza" hemagglutinin, h1, and the 1968 "hong kong influenza" hemagglutinin, h3, and show that despite its close overall ...200919805083
willingness of hong kong healthcare workers to accept pre-pandemic influenza vaccination at different who alert levels: two questionnaire surveys.to assess the acceptability of pre-pandemic influenza vaccination among healthcare workers in public hospitals in hong kong and the effect of escalation in the world health organization's alert level for an influenza pandemic.200919706937
widespread public misconception in the early phase of the h1n1 influenza epidemic.to investigate the community responses and preparedness for a possible epidemic of h1n1 influenza in hong kong shortly after an imported case was confirmed.200919592114
avian influenza a/h5n1 virus: management in human and bird. 200818685155
[asia: avian influenza h5n1].the emergence of the first human cases of avian influenza in hong kong in 1997 has raised fears of a new pandemic originating from the asian continent. despite unprecedented international mobilization, first to stop then to limit its diffusion, the highly pathogenic avian virus a/h5n1 has successfully spread in asia, europe and africa by successive epizootic outbreaks affecting migratory birds and poultry, transmission from animals to humans is uncommon but severe with a fatality rate exceeding ...200818681218
factors associated with early hospital discharge of adult influenza patients.understanding factors affecting length of hospital stay (los) in patients with severe influenza may improve their management.200717668558
perceptions related to human avian influenza and their associations with anticipated psychological and behavioral responses at the onset of outbreak in the hong kong chinese general population.anticipated psychological responses and perceptions of risk have not been examined prior to the outbreak of an epidemic.200717276790
tropism of avian influenza a (h5n1) in the upper and lower respiratory tract.poor human-to-human transmission of influenza a h5n1 virus has been attributed to the paucity of putative sialic acid alpha2-3 virus receptors in the epithelium of the human upper respiratory tract, and thus to the presumed inability of the virus to replicate efficiently at this site. we now demonstrate that ex vivo cultures of human nasopharyngeal, adenoid and tonsillar tissues can be infected with h5n1 viruses in spite of an apparent lack of these receptors.200717206149
reducing the impact of the next influenza pandemic using household-based public health interventions.the outbreak of highly pathogenic h5n1 influenza in domestic poultry and wild birds has caused global concern over the possible evolution of a novel human strain [1]. if such a strain emerges, and is not controlled at source [2,3], a pandemic is likely to result. health policy in most countries will then be focused on reducing morbidity and mortality.200616881729
perceptions about status and modes of h5n1 transmission and associations with immediate behavioral responses in the hong kong general population.perceptions and associated behavioral responses to h5n1 avian influenza were investigated.200616860379
immune response to influenza vaccination in community-dwelling chinese elderly persons.we investigated the immune antibody response to influenza vaccine in community-dwelling chinese elderly persons in hong kong. one hundred and twenty-eight subjects were recruited in a single-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial. there was no significant baseline difference between the vaccine and placebo groups regarding the seroprotection rates (pr) (haemagglutination inhibition [hi] titre>or=1:40) and geometric mean titres (gmt) of the hi antibody titers. the pr, gmts and serologica ...200616713661
[hong kong and the bird flu ]. 200616512010
[influenza and other viral diseases, historical reminders of large pandemics]. 200920067042
another nightmare after sars: knowledge perceptions of and overcoming strategies for h1n1 influenza among chronic renal disease patients in hong kong.in this article i demonstrate the knowledge perceptions of and the preventive health behaviors toward the influenza a h1n1 pandemic, or "human swine flu," among the chronic renal disease patients in hong kong. based on ethnographic data from participant observation in a chronic renal disease patient self-help alliance and semistructured interviews with its 30 members, i demonstrate that the participants' knowledge perceptions of and the adoption of the preventive health behaviors against h1n1 we ...201020363953
knowledge of risk and self-protection practices and the degree of influenza hazard from live poultry sales.1. perceptions of risk from buying live chickens were moderate, but sickness anxieties did not predict buying or touching habits. 2. buying was strongly predicted by the erroneous belief that cooking is the best means of protection from avian influenza. health education groups seeking to increase preventive practices to control possible avian influenza outbreaks need to learn from this.200920393226
fear appeals and public service advertising: applications to influenza in hong kong. 201020845150
factors affecting intention to receive and self-reported receipt of 2009 pandemic (h1n1) vaccine in hong kong: a longitudinal study.vaccination was a core component for mitigating the 2009 influenza pandemic (ph1n1). however, a vaccination program's efficacy largely depends on population compliance. we examined general population decision-making for ph1n1 vaccination using a modified theory of planned behaviour (tbp).201121412418
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