severity of influenza. 197985029
epidemic mechanisms of type a influenza.the antigenic varieties of influenza a virus isolated from 1968 to 1976 in a surveillance of a small, rather remote population were similar to those from england and wales as a whole, despite frequent antigenic changes during the period. household studies in the first two h3n2 influenza a epidemics found low attack rates within households, a high proportion (70%) of affected households with only one case of influenza, similar distributions of affected households in the two epidemics by the numbe ...1979458138
influenza in a geriatric outbreak of influenza a (resembling a/victoria/3/75) occurred in 2 geriatric wards in february 1976 and, out of 19 patients, 3 died. of the patients who were at risk, 30% were affected. immunization for influenza in the elderly just before the winter is suggested. the procedure is simple and inexpensive. the recommendations of the dhss (u.k.) for the use of influenza vaccine to practising doctors is, therefore, welcome. the suitable treatment appears to be that of repeated immunization with i ...1979461281
single radial haemolysis: a survey of antibody titres in the highland region of scotland to recent strains of influenza a.the single radial haemolysis test is conveniently practical and economical and promises to have wide applicability in the study of influenza antibodies in human populations. it can also be adapted for preliminary examination of new virus isolates during epidemics. using this test a rather higher proportion of the population in the highland region of scotland were found to possess antibody to a recent epidemic strain of influenza (a/scotland/74) than was the case in the south of england. antibody ...1978621377
recent experience of influenza. 1978731619
natural challenge of subjects vaccinated with wrl 105 strain live influenza vaccine in a residential the spring of 1975 an outbreak of influenza associated with influenza virus a/scotland/840/74 virus occurred in a residential college where the previous autumn some students had been immunised with a single intranasal dose of recombinant wrl 105 (h3n2) (a/okuda/57xa/finland/4/74) strain live attenuated infleunza virus vaccine. during the outbreak none of seven students who had been vaccinated suffered from influenza but an influenzal illness did occur in four of eleven who had received placeb ...1976782969
swine influenza: history and recommendations for vaccination. 1976792372
efficacy of live attenuated influenza a/scotland/74 (h3n2) virus vaccine against challenge with influenza a/victoria/3/75 (h3n2) virus.for evaluation of heterologous protection by live attenuated influenza virus vaccine, 42 healthy volunteers with low titers of or no antibody to a/scotland/74 (h3n2) and a/victoria/3/75 (h3n2) influenza viruses were given live attenuated a/scotland/74 (h3n2) virus vaccine or placebo by the intranasal route with no resultant vaccine-related illness. seventeen of 21 vaccine recipients and none of 21 placebo recipients developed antibody conversion. thirty-seven days after administration of vaccin ...1977925382
influenza surveillance in england and wales: november 1991-june 1992. 19921285133
influenza update. 19921285173
virological surveillance of influenza a. 19921285178
schizophrenia following pre-natal exposure to influenza epidemics between 1939 and 1960.we examined the relationship between the dates of births of schizophrenic patients admitted to hospitals for the first time in england and wales between 1970 and 1979, and the occurrence of influenza epidemics between 1939 and 1960. our results indicate that exposure to influenza epidemics between the third and seventh month of gestation is associated with schizophrenia in adult life. the hypothesis that maternal viral infection is an important cause of schizophrenia can explain many aspects of ...19921294066
influenza surveillance. 19911669817
influenza activity. 19911669896
influenza a and meningococcal disease.there are several anecdotal accounts of the association between outbreaks of influenza and meningococcal disease. the exceptional increase in the number of cases of meningococcal infection 2 weeks after an influenza a outbreak in england and wales during november and december, 1989, provided an opportunity to investigate the relation between the two events. patients with meningococcal disease in december, 1989, were more likely than age-matched controls to show serological evidence of recent inf ...19911678811
failure of influenza vaccine to prevent two successive outbreaks of influenza a h1n1 in a school community.forty nine of the 149 boys (33%) at a preparatory school fell ill at the beginning of the autumn term 1986 with symptoms of influenza. one hundred and eighty two of the 470 pupils (39%) in the senior part of the same school had similar symptoms of influenza at the beginning of the spring term 1987. a new variant of influenza a h1n1 virus was isolated from both outbreaks and shown to be antigenically similar to a/taiwan/1/86. the attack rate among pupils who had previously received trivalent infl ...19902107831
declining t-cell immunity to influenza, 1977-82.influenza-a-virus-specific, hla-restricted, cytotoxic t-cell immunity, measured in 189 volunteers in the six years 1977-82, showed a sharp decline from 1978. it is shown that natural infection with influenza-a virus boosts cytotoxic t-cell memory. the decline in t-cell immunity is probably associated with the low prevalence of influenza-a-virus infection since 1978.19836137602
age and secular distributions of virus-proven influenza patients in successive epidemics 1961-1976 in cirencester: epidemiological significance discussed.a general practice population of around 3900, under continuous clinical and laboratory surveillance, experienced 20 outbreaks of influenza between march 1960 and march 1976. four epidemics were caused by subtype h2n2 type a viruses, seven by subtype h3n2 type a viruses and nine outbreaks by type b viruses. the age of every person proved virologically to have influenza is related to the age structure of the community and to the phase of the epidemic in which the virus-positive specimens were coll ...19846736641
the prediction of epidemics of respiratory infection.experience from 25 years of clinical monitoring of influenza and related illnesses has been considered in relation to the prediction of epidemics of influenza. the monitoring has taken place in a network of sentinel practices in england and wales who report new episodes of illness weekly as they occur. the practice data are aggregated at the birmingham research unit of the royal college of general practitioners and weekly rates per 100,000 population are published in age-specific groups. major e ...19947843362
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: influenza activity--1995-96 season. 19958568974
influenza surveillance in england and wales: october 1995 to june 1996.this report summarises information collected for the surveillance of influenza virus infection in england and wales from october 1995 to june 1996 (weeks 40/95 to 25/96). total respiratory disease' activity, as reported by the birmingham research unit of the royal college of general practitioners, rose to peaks in weeks 48/95, 51/95, and 01/96. the first peak coincided with a peak in "influenza and flu-like illness'. the subsequent peaks were accounted for by an increase in reports of acute bron ...19968972979
influenza surveillance in england and wales: october 1996 to june 1997.this report summarises information collected for the surveillance of influenza in england and wales during the winter of 1996/97. consultations for 'influenza and influenza-like illness' with sentinel general practitioners in england and wales began to increase towards the end of november and peaked at the start of january. in england, consultations for 'aggregated respiratory disease' (ard) began to increase a little earlier, perhaps as a result of increased respiratory syncytial virus activity ...19979447787
influenza activity in england and wales. 19979447789
influenza activity in england, wales, and scotland. 19989476419
influenza activity in england and wales remains low. 19989549169
outbreaks of influenza a in nursing homes in sheffield during the 1997-1998 season: implications for diagnosis and control.three recent outbreaks of influenza a in nursing and residential homes in sheffield were characterized by high attack rates among both residents and staff, and a high mortality rate among residents. the epidemiology of the outbreaks was unusual in that all three occurred towards the end of a quiet influenza season, against a generally low level of community activity, and involved strains of influenza that were not included in the current season's vaccine. the outbreak investigation was aided by ...200010774913
influenza virus infection in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy: a clinical and seroepidemiological determine whether maternal influenza virus infection in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy results in transplacental transmission of infection, maternal auto-antibody production or an increase in complications of pregnancy.200011028582
three years of low influenza activity--no reason for complacency.influenza activity in england and wales has been unusually low over the last three years. despite this, substantial morbidity and mortality has occurred in subgroups of the population. furthermore, the influenza season 2001/02 was characterised by the emergence of a new subtype of the influenza a virus (h1n2), a timely reminder that it is not possible to assess the impact of a change in the virus strains circulating without having a comprehensive surveillance infrastructure in place.200312889292
harmonisation of national influenza surveillance morbidity data from eiss: a simple index.the european influenza surveillance scheme is a collaboration with 18 member countries (2001/02) which monitors the activity and impact of influenza by collecting morbidity and virological data in primary care facilities throughout the winter season each year. despite being in principle similar in the surveillance concept, the indicators used and observations made are very different. different healthcare systems and organisational needs (eg a certificate of illness for the employer) influence th ...200312941981
epidemiological features of a new strain of the influenza a virus--influenza a (h1n2) circulating in england and its public health implications.the uk influenza season of 2001/2002 was characterized by widespread geographic circulation of a new subtype of influenza a (h1n2) virus throughout the duration of the season. younger children were predominantly infected, suggesting primary infection. despite this, the public health impact of this new virus was minimal. it remains to be seen whether influenza a (h1n2) virus will persist and co-circulate with the previously circulating subtypes of influenza a (h1n1 and h3n2), or whether it was a ...200415163488
influenza a and respiratory syncytial virus hospital burden in young children in east london.epidemiological studies have demonstrated high hospitalization rates attributable to influenza and rsv in children aged 6 months and those aged <12 months, respectively (43 and 92.5/10 000 person-months, respectively). in conclusion, these high paediatric rsv and influenza incidence rates can be used to inform uk policy on childhood influenza immunization and subsequent rsv immunization in the future.200817903316
an outbreak of influenza a(h1n1)v in a boarding school in south east england, may-june outbreak of influenza a(h1n1)v was confirmed in may and june 2009 in a boarding school in south east england involving 102 symptomatic cases with influenza-like illness. influenza a(h1n1)v infection was laboratory-confirmed by pcr in 62 pupils and one member of staff.200919589330
oseltamivir adherence and side effects among children in three london schools affected by influenza a(h1n1)v, may 2009 - an internet-based cross-sectional survey.this report describes the results of a cross-sectional anonymised online survey on adherence to, and side effects from oseltamivir when offered for prophylaxis, among pupils from one primary and two secondary schools with confirmed cases of influenza a(h1n1)v in london in april-may 2009. of 103 respondents (response rate 40%), 95 were estimated to have been offered oseltamivir for prophylaxis, of whom 85 (89%) actually took any. less than half (48%) of primary schoolchildren completed a full cou ...200919643062
modelling the impact of an influenza a/h1n1 pandemic on critical care demand from early pathogenicity data: the case for sentinel reporting.projected critical care demand for pandemic influenza h1n1 in england was estimated in this study. the effect of varying hospital admission rates under statistical uncertainty was examined. early in a pandemic, uncertainty in epidemiological parameters leads to a wide range of credible scenarios, with projected demand ranging from insignificant to overwhelming. however, even small changes to input assumptions make the major incident scenario increasingly likely. before any cases are admitted to ...200919645759
four at-risk groups will be first to be vaccinated against swine flu, says chief medical officer. 200919687089
clinical characteristics of paediatric h1n1 admissions in birmingham, uk. 200919700001
no evidence of transmission of h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza to humans after unprotected contact with infected wild swans.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) subtype h5n1 remains a public health threat as long as it circulates in wild and domestic birds. information on the transmissibility of h5n1 hpai from wild birds is needed for evidence-based public health advice. we investigated if transmission of h5n1 hpai had taken place in people that had unprotected contact with infected wild mute swans during an incident at the abbotsbury swannery in dorset, england. thirteen people who had been exposed to infected s ...201019765331
pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza: experience from the critical care unit.this case series details experience of critical care admissions with pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza from an intensive care unit in the west midlands. we present four critically ill patients admitted with severe hypoxia. two of the patients failed a trial of continuous positive airway pressure and all underwent controlled ventilation within 24 h of admission. bilevel and high frequency oscillatory ventilation were the most useful modes. our patients generally had one organ failure and were ventil ...200919825061
cases of swine flu in england almost double in a week. 200919858182
an assessment of the validity of sofa score based triage in h1n1 critically ill patients during an influenza pandemic.sequential organ failure assessment (sofa) score based triage of influenza a h1n1 critically ill patients has been proposed for surge capacity management as a guide for clinical decision making. we conducted a retrospective records review and sofa scoring of critically ill patients with influenza a h1n1 in a mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit in an urban hospital. eight critically ill patients with influenza a h1n1 were admitted to the intensive care unit. their mean (range) age was 39 ( ...200919860754
swine flu has been "considerably less lethal than feared," says donaldson. 200920026511
incidence of 2009 pandemic influenza a h1n1 infection in england: a cross-sectional serological study.knowledge of the age-specific prevalence of immunity from, and incidence of infection with, 2009 pandemic influenza a h1n1 virus is essential for modelling the future burden of disease and the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination.201020096450
school absence data for influenza surveillance: a pilot study in the united children are at a high risk of acute respiratory virus infections including the 2009 pandemic influenza a(h1n1). school absence records have been suggested as a tool for influenza surveillance. we analysed absence records from six primary schools (children aged from around five to 11 years) in london during the years 2005 to 2007 in order to provide baseline epidemiological characteristics of illness-related school absence, and to correlate school absence with seasonal influenza. the ...201020122378
triaging for adult critical care in the event of overwhelming need.predictions of the need for critical care within the h1n1 influenza pandemic suggested overwhelming need beyond potential resources, necessitating rationing of care via triaging.201020349037
open-label, randomised, parallel-group, multicentre study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of an as03(b)/oil-in-water emulsion-adjuvanted (as03(b)) split-virion versus non-adjuvanted whole-virion h1n1 influenza vaccine in uk children 6 months to 12 years of evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of an as03(b)/oil-in-water emulsion-adjuvanted (as03(b)) split-virion versus non-adjuvanted whole-virion h1n1 influenza vaccine in uk children aged 6 months to 12 years.201020923610
age-specific effectiveness of an oil-in-water adjuvanted pandemic (h1n1) 2009 vaccine against confirmed infection in high risk groups in england.the use of a squalene-containing (as03) pandemic vaccine for high-risk groups in england allowed vaccine effectiveness (ve) of such novel oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccine to be evaluated.201121148494
observational study to investigate vertically acquired passive immunity in babies of mothers vaccinated against h1n1v during pregnancy.the primary objective was to determine the proportion of babies who acquired passive immunity to a/h1n1v, born to mothers who accepted vaccination as part of the national vaccination programme while pregnant (during the second and/or third trimesters) against the novel a/h1n1v influenza virus (exposed group) compared with unvaccinated (unexposed) mothers.201021208547
from containment to community: trigger points from the london pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza incident the uk, during the first wave of pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza, a national 'containment' strategy was employed from 25 april to 2 july 2009, with case finding, treatment of cases, contact tracing and prophylaxis of close contacts. the aim of the strategy was to delay the introduction and spread of pandemic flu in the uk, provide a better understanding of the course of the novel disease, and thereby allow more time for the development of treatment and vaccination options.201121288544
age-specific incidence of a/h1n1 2009 influenza infection in england from sequential antibody prevalence data using likelihood-based estimation.estimating the age-specific incidence of an emerging pathogen is essential for understanding its severity and transmission dynamics. this paper describes a statistical method that uses likelihoods to estimate incidence from sequential serological data. the method requires information on seroconversion intervals and allows integration of information on the temporal distribution of cases from clinical surveillance. among a family of candidate incidences, a likelihood function is derived by reconst ...201121373639
circulating influenza virus, climatic factors, and acute myocardial infarction: a time series study in england and wales and hong kong.(see the editorial commentary by finelli and chaves, on pages 1701-4.) background. previous studies identifying associations between influenza and acute cardiac events may have been confounded by climatic factors. differing seasonal patterns of influenza activity in hong kong and england and wales provide a natural experiment to examine associations with myocardial infarction (mi) independent of cold weather effects. methods. weekly clinical and laboratory influenza surveillance data, environmen ...201121606529
a cross-sectional audit of the uptake of seasonal and h1n1 influenza vaccination amongst patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a london hospital. 201121722505
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