Publications

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long distance truck-drivers: 1. prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (stds).a cross section study was conducted among long distance truck drivers to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (stds) and antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). a total of 8 drivers and their assistants en route from port of mombasa to countries in east and central africa were enrolled into the study. blood was taken for hiv and syphilis serology. discharges from urethra and genital ulcer disease (gud) were cultured. seroprevalence for hiv was 18% and 4.6% for syph ...19911752221
toxoplasma antibodies in hiv-positive patients from nairobi.sera from 94 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) 1, together with 86 controls, attending the kenyatta national hospital, nairobi were examined for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii using enzyme immunoassay and latex and dye tests. 54% had toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin g (igg) by dye test. 22% of the hiv-positive group had igg levels in excess of 180 units/ml (approximating to a dye test titre of 1:1300) compared to 1% of the hiv-negative group. there was no correlation b ...19911801345
association of cervical ectopy with heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus: results of a study of couples in nairobi, kenya.to identify risk factors involved in heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), a cross-sectional study of hiv-seropositive men and their spouses was conducted in nairobi, kenya. of 70 spouses, 40 (57%) were seropositive and 30 (43%) were seronegative for hiv. in univariate analysis, the presence of cervical ectopy (odds ratio, 4.7; p = .006) was the only statistically significant variable associated with hiv infection in women. after controlling for possible confounding va ...19911869844
genital ulceration as a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus infection.among 115 heterosexual men who presented with genital ulcers to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in nairobi, kenya, the prevalence of serum antibody to hiv was 16.5%. a past history of genital ulcers was reported by 12 (63%) of 19 men with antibody to hiv versus 30 (31%) of 96 without antibody (p = 0.008). hiv infection was also positively associated with lack of circumcision, but was not associated with the etiology of the current genital ulcer. logistic regression analysis (adjusted for a ...19883128996
mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in nairobi. 19957594693
contraceptive use and the risk of hiv infection in nairobi, kenya.to determine: (a) the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (hiv-1) infection among women attending family planning clinics in nairobi; and (b) the associations between contraceptive use and hiv infection.19957698385
clinical and immunological markers in kenyan pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without hiv-1.amongst newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 44% were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). pulmonary tuberculosis patients with hiv-1 presented more frequently with lymphadenopathy and diarrhoea than those without hiv-1. peripheral blood cd4+ counts were significantly lower in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis with hiv-1 than those with pulmonary tuberculosis alone, p = 0.0292. cd4+ lymphocyte counts, lymphadenopathy and bcg scar could serve as indicators of hiv-1 ...19947835258
human immunodeficiency virus infection in long-distance truck drivers in east africa.a cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection among long-distance truck drivers in kenya.19948002691
neuropsychiatric hiv-1 infection study: in kenya and zaire cross-sectional phase i and ii.the objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and natural history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) associated psychiatric, neuropsychological and neurological abnormalities. a total of 408 subjects were recruited in nairobi and kinshasa. the study consisted of a cross sectional phase and a longitudinal follow up. assessment was made by a data collection instrument including six modules. the intercentre and intracentre reliability in the use of the each module have been ...19958556777
herpes zoster as the initial presentation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in kenya.we conducted a prospective observational study to determine the clinical features, the degree of immunosuppression, and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection associated with herpes zoster in kenya. the study included 196 hiv-1 positive individuals and 34 hiv-1 negative individuals between the ages of 16 and 50 years who presented to a referral clinic in nairobi. comparison of the clinical characteristics in the two groups found that the duration of illness in th ...19958645797
genetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains in kenya: a comparison using phylogenetic analysis and a combinatorial melting assay.we surveyed human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) subtype distribution from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) collected in 1995 from 24 hiv-1-infected kenyan residents (specimens from predominantly male truck drivers and female sex workers near mombasa and nairobi). processed lysates from the pbmc samples were used for env amplification, directly sequenced, and analyzed by phylogenetic analysis. envelope amplification products were also used for analysis in a polymerase chain reaction (pcr ...199910082116
subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and disease stage among women in nairobi, kenya.in sub-saharan africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. the distribution of different subtypes within african populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. thus, africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of viruses from different subtypes on a population basis. in this setting, it is also possible to address whether infection with a particular s ...199910196337
effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of hiv-1: a randomized clinical trial.transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) is known to occur through breastfeeding, but the magnitude of risk has not been precisely defined. whether breast milk hiv-1 transmission risk exceeds the potential risk of formula-associated diarrheal mortality in developing countries is unknown.200010703779
[integration of std services. how to reach and involve men and women].in kenya, a sexually transmitted disease (std) program implemented in 10 medical centers in nairobi allows nurses to diagnose syphilis based on symptoms, have blood tests conducted to confirm syphilis, prescribe treatment, and provide counseling. about 5% of pregnant women in kenya have syphilis but do not know that they are infected or are afraid to seek sexually transmitted disease treatment in health centers. this program tests all pregnant women for syphilis during the prenatal examination ...199512291921
brain abscess at the kenyatta nationai, hospital, nairobi.to study the aetiology, mode of presentation and outcome following treatment of brain abscesses at the kenyatta national hospital, nairobi.200012858933
association of levels of hiv-1-infected breast milk cells and risk of mother-to-child transmission.understanding how the level of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1)-infected breast milk cells (bmcs) affects hiv transmission via breast-feeding can shed light on the mechanism of infection and aid in establishing effective interventions. the proportion of infected cells to total cells was measured in serial breast milk samples collected from 291 hiv-1-infected women in nairobi, kenya, by use of real-time dna polymerase chain reaction amplification of bmcs. the number of infected bmcs pe ...200415499546
prevalence of hepatitis a, b, c and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity among patients with acute icteric hepatitis at the kenyatta national hospital, nairobi.to determine the prevalence of hepatitis a, b, c and hiv seropositivity among patients with acute icteric hepatitis.200415884283
genetic analysis of hiv-1 subtypes in nairobi, kenya.genetic analysis of a viral infection helps in following its spread in a given population, in tracking the routes of infection and, where applicable, in vaccine design. additionally, sequence analysis of the viral genome provides information about patterns of genetic divergence that may have occurred during viral evolution.200818784834
public-private mix for control of tuberculosis and tb-hiv in nairobi, kenya: outcomes, opportunities and obstacles.nairobi, the capital of kenya.200818926037
comparison of cd4 cell count, viral load, and other markers for the prediction of mortality among hiv-1-infected kenyan pregnant women.there are limited data regarding the relative merits of biomarkers as predictors of mortality or time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (art).200919317628
relative hiv resistance in kenyan sex workers is not due to an altered prevalence or mucosal immune impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.chronic infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) increases hiv susceptibility, perhaps due to hsv-2-associated increases in activated mucosal immune cells. a small number of kenyan female sex workers (fsws) exhibit relative hiv resistance. we examined whether relative hiv resistance was related to differences in the prevalence or mucosal immune impact of hsv-2. participants were recruited from an open cohort of hiv-uninfected fsws in nairobi, kenya. women who had been practicing sex work ...200919925401
prevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies in blood donors at the national blood transfusion centre, nairobi.cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection in susceptible patients is associated with serious morbidity and a high mortality. transmission of cytomegalovirus infection through blood transfusion is markedly reduced by transfusion of cmv seronegative blood products, or by transfusion of leucodepleted blood products.200921591511
herpes simplex virus type 2, genital ulcers and hiv-1 disease progression in postpartum women.co-infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) has been associated with increased hiv-1 rna levels and immune activation, two predictors of hiv-1 progression. the impact of hsv-2 on clinical outcomes among hiv-1 infected pregnant women is unclear.201121637835
high prevalence of genetically similar hiv-1 recombinants among infected sex workers in nairobi, kenya.hiv-1, a highly diverse infectious agent, shows the greatest sequence diversity in highly exposed individuals, including greater levels of recombination. hiv-1 diversity in nairobi, kenya was examined in 240 individuals, including both those with high and low exposure to hiv. sequence analysis of a 590 nucleotide proviral region encompassing vpu and part of env revealed that most viruses were clade a1 (70%), while both clade d (9%) and clade c (6%) virus were also observed, as was recombinant vi ...200819032067
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