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immunologic markers of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are time-dependent and illness-specific.since prevalent cohorts may be biased by the duration of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection (onset bias), it is useful to assess the potential predictive value of markers in incident cohorts of hiv-positive subjects for whom the date of seroconversion is known or can reliably be estimated. of 131 homosexual men with hiv-1 seroconversion from new york city and washington, dc, who were evaluated annually beginning in 1982, 60 developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) by the end ...19921384311
mortality trends in a cohort of homosexual men in new york city, 1978-1988.trends in mortality related to infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and to other causes were examined from 1978 to 1988 in a cohort of 8,906 homosexual men who participated in studies of hepatitis b virus infection in the late 1970s in new york city. hiv-related mortality rates increased from 1 per 10,000 person-years in 1980 to 181 per 10,000 person-years in 1986, followed by a plateau from 1986 to 1988. the standardized mortality ratio among white men in the cohort was 3.7 ...19921442731
prevalence of hiv infection in childbearing women in the united states. surveillance using newborn blood samples.a national, population-based survey was initiated in 1988 to measure the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in women giving birth to infants in the united states. following standardized procedures, residual dried-blood specimens collected on filter paper for newborn metabolic screening were tested anonymously in state public health laboratories for maternal antibody to hiv. as of september 1990, annual survey data were available from 38 states and the district of columbia ...19912002571
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.a report entitled "kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocytosis carinii pneumonia among homosexual men in new york city and california" in the mmwr in july 1981 alerted the world to the appearance of a completely new disease. the opportunistic infections and cancers occurring in these patients had previously only been seen in patients who were immunosuppressed. homosexual men were the first as a major risk group to be identified. others quickly followed. the pattern of occurrence clearly indicated an infe ...19892599843
cocaine injection and ethnicity in parenteral drug users during the early years of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) epidemic in new york city.parenteral drug users have a high prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), the etiologic agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids). new york city has had a prolonged and extensive epidemic of hiv infection and aids. in this study, we analyze, in relation to antibody to hiv (anti-hiv), available data from sera from parenteral drug users collected in new york city during 1978 through 1983 in the course of studies of liver disease. among parenteral users of both he ...19892614398
hepatitis d virus and human immunodeficiency virus antibodies in parenteral drug abusers who are hepatitis b surface antigen positive.we studied unselected, hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag)-positive parenteral drug abusers for antibody to hepatitis d virus (anti-hd) and antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). the prevalences of anti-hd and antibody to hiv were 67% and 58%, respectively, and there was no association between positivity for these two markers. in a logistic regression model, anti-hd was associated with older age (p = .001), longer duration of drug abuse (p = .045), and the presence of liver disease (p = ...19883171227
serosurvey of human immunodeficiency virus infection in parturients. implications for human immunodeficiency virus testing programs of pregnant women.although perinatal transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) is well documented, seroprevalence rates of hiv in populations of women of reproductive age have not yet been reported. to determine the seroprevalence of hiv in childbearing women from a population with a high incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, cord blood samples were collected from 602 infants delivered at an inner-city municipal hospital in new york. demographic and hiv risk factor information was also col ...19873312662
sex, drugs, and syringe exchange in new york city: women's experiences.the sex and drug human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) risk factors of drug-injecting women participating in new york city syringe exchange programs were studied and racial/ethnic differences examined. african-american women reported injecting least frequently and had lower rates of injecting with borrowed or used syringes. women attending syringe exchange reported high levels of sexual risk behavior, and syringe exchange provides an opportunity for a sexual risk reduction intervention. women were ...19957657943
multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in patients without hiv infection.investigations of outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis have found low rates of treatment response and very high mortality, and they have mainly involved patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. for patients without hiv infection, one study reported an overall rate of response to treatment of 56 percent, and the mortality from tuberculosis was 22 percent. we investigated treatment response and mortality rates in 26 hiv-negative patients in new york with multid ...19957666876
the effectiveness of video-based interventions in promoting condom acquisition among std clinic patients.this study examined the effectiveness of video-based patient education interventions on promoting condom use among men and women seeking services at a large public std clinic in new york city.19957624818
hiv prevalence and sexual behavior in a cohort of new york city gay men (aged 18-24).an ethnically diverse cohort (n = 174) of new york city gay men (aged 18-24) was studied to determine human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) prevalence and to document sexual behavior patterns. blood tests of 87 men showed an hiv prevalence of 9%, but only 3% of the previously tested men (n = 77) reported knowledge of a positive test result at baseline interview. an annual hiv seroconversion rate of 2% was observed. ethnic minority men were more likely to test hiv positive. in addition, the median n ...19957834405
developmental and service needs of school-age children with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a descriptive study.to describe the developmental functioning and service needs of a group of school-age children with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection.19947526329
neoplastic complications of htlv-iii infection. lymphomas and solid tumors.neoplastic disease arose in 29 of 200 patients infected with human t lymphotropic virus type iii (htlv-iii) seen at a suburban hospital. seventeen patients had kaposi's sarcoma, one of whom also had colon carcinoma. nine patients had lymphoproliferative disorders (seven lymphomas, one t suppressor cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and one multiple myeloma), including three with concomitant kaposi's sarcoma and one with colon cancer. one other patient had colon cancer, one had a seminoma, and on ...19873493690
human immunodeficiency virus infections among civilian applicants for united states military service, october 1985 to march 1986. demographic factors associated with seropositivity.during the six months from october 1985 through march 1986, blood samples from 306,061 civilian applicants for military service from the united states were tested for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). four hundred sixty subjects were positive for the antibody as determined by western (immune) blot reactivity. the mean prevalence of hiv infection in this population of teenagers and young adults was thus 1.50 per 1000. according to multivariate analysis, the following demographic ...19873474519
human immunodeficiency virus infection care is unavailable to inmates on release from jail.the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) seroprevalence in urban jails is higher than that in the general community.19948000561
maternal-newborn human immunodeficiency virus infection in harlem.to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection and its association with illicit drug use for mothers being delivered of infants at an inner-city municipal hospital.19948044255
low occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection among dental professionals.we studied 1309 dental professionals (1132 dentists, 131 hygienists, and 46 assistants) without behavioral risk factors for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) to determine their occupational risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). subjects completed questionnaires on behavior; type, duration, and location of their dental practice; infection-control practices; and estimated numbers of potential occupational exposures to hiv. serum samples were tested for antibodies ...19883422106
prevalence of hiv infection in new york call girls.in order to evaluate the frequency of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) among promiscuous heterosexuals, we studied the prevalence of hiv infection among a group of predominantly caucasian call girls and women working for escort services and massage parlors in new york city. in the 78 subjects studied, the mean age was 31.6 years and the mean duration of prostitution was 5.1 years. study participants each had a median of 200 different sexual partners in the preceding year ...19883216302
high seroprevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus in a brooklyn maintenance hemodialysis unit: preliminary observations.a preliminary study of 86 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in an urban unit serving a large number of intravenous drug addicts revealed that the hiv seroprevalence rate was 27% (27 of 70 screened). twenty-three of 26 (89%) positive patients were intravenous addicts, and the remaining four included haitian immigrants and gay men. there were no false positive elisa reactions against hiv. no patient without a risk factor for hiv was seropositive, indicating an absence of nosocomial spre ...19883196508
insight into the infection dynamics of the aids epidemic: a birth cohort analysis of new york city aids mortality.the authors analyzed the secular trends of new york city acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) mortality from 1980 through the first quarter of 1991 using birth cohort techniques to provide insight into reasons for temporal changes in growth of the epidemic. by disaggregating aids mortality data into composite birth cohorts, the authors determined that the slowing in the growth of the epidemic is a result of a leveling or decline in aids deaths in male birth cohorts born before 1950 and a co ...19938266911
risk factors for infection with human immunodeficiency virus among intravenous drug abusers in new york city.we report here the results of a survey of 308 intravenous drug abusers recruited from hospital-based methadone maintenance or drug detoxification programmes located in manhattan, new york city. complete interviews and serological analyses for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) using both enzyme-linked immunosorbent and western blot assays were obtained from 290 (94%) of the subjects. hiv antibodies were found by both assays in 147 (50.7%) of the tested subjects; conflicting results ...19873122788
sexual behavior changes and hiv antibody in a cohort of new york city gay men.a sample of 357 gay/bisexual men, ages 20 to 65, were interviewed in 1985 regarding their sexual patterns over the course of the aids (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) epidemic. within four months after the interview, men were tested for antibody to hiv (human immunodeficiency virus) and 36 per cent were found positive. cessation of receptive anal intercourse was associated with hiv negative antibody status, (or greater than 3.0). reducing the number of sexual partners, becoming monogamous, o ...19892929813
prospective study of human immunodeficiency virus infection and pregnancy outcomes in intravenous drug users.to determine the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection on pregnancy outcomes, we prospectively studied female intravenous drug users in a methadone program in new york city. of 191 women with hiv status known prior to pregnancy, 17 (24%) of 70 seropositives and 26 (22%) of 121 seronegatives became pregnant during 28 months of follow-up. including 54 additional women first tested for hiv antibody after becoming pregnant, 125 pregnancies were studied in 97 women (39 seropositive, ...19892915455
trends in age at the first medical evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus infection among infants born to infected mothers. new york city pediatric spectrum of hiv disease clinical consortium.to evaluate the trends in age at the first medical evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection among infants enrolled in the pediatric spectrum of disease study born to mothers infected with hiv.19968704882
a prospective study of syphilis and hiv infection among injection drug users receiving methadone in the bronx, ny.the purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in injection drug users.19968712270
human immunodeficiency virus infection in a cohort of intravenous drug users in new york city. demographic, behavioral, and clinical features.in 1985, 454 intravenous drug users were recruited from among patients scheduled for physical examination in methadone treatment clinics in new york city. a questionnaire was administered, and serum was collected for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) serology. the hiv seroinfection rate was 60.6%, with antibody and antigen detected in 58.4% and 4.3%, respectively, of the population. nineteen percent of 307 subjects were in group iii or group iv of the centers for disease control (cdc) classific ...19892797531
review of human immunodeficiency virus infection in women in the united states.in this review, available human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) seroprevalence data are presented for united states women attending clinics related to reproductive health and for women in other settings. at family planning clinics, prenatal clinics, and in delivery room settings (cord blood testing), studies that have not targeted women at high risk for hiv infection have shown prevalence rates ranging from 0-4.3%. higher rates (greater than 1%) have been observed in more urban areas--newark, new y ...19892682415
a seroprevalence survey for human immunodeficiency virus antibody in mentally retarded adults.the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection among adults who are mentally retarded is not known. policies for those in residential settings are being established despite incomplete information. knowledge regarding hiv seroprevalence would enable administrators to make more effective policy decisions concerning testing and hiv prevention. discarded sera from mentally retarded adults were anonymously tested for hiv antibody. sera were collected from a health facility in westches ...19902314720
therapy may explain recent deficits in aids incidence.since the middle of 1987, fewer consistently defined aids cases have been reported than expected among homosexual and bisexual men in the united states. this "aids deficit" was greater among homosexual and bisexual men in new york city, san francisco, and los angeles, but was also striking among all homosexual and bisexual men in the united states. deficits were virtually absent among intravenous drug users (ivdus) in the united states. three independent sources of data--placebo-controlled trial ...19902313558
hiv infection in state hospitals: case reports and long-term management strategies.issues facing state psychiatric hospitals as a result of the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) are illustrated by five cases. these issues include use of universal precautions to prevent transmission of hiv, medical diagnosis and management of hiv-infected patients, management of threatening behavior by infected patients, management of patients' sexual behavior, and discharge planning. the authors suggest that institutions will be required to ensure that sexual behavior between pati ...19902303216
progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is influenced by cd4 t-lymphocyte count and time since seroconversion.progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) varies considerably and may be influenced by factors such as age, smoking, number of male partners per year, and cd4 t-lymphocyte count. the loss of cd4 lymphocytes is known to be the dominant factor in the progression to aids. however, it is unclear whether the effect of the cd4 lymphocyte count is of such importance that persons with similar cd4 cell counts who have been infe ...19979098180
effect of knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus infection status on sexual activity among homosexual men.one hundred thirty-four homosexual men from a prospective cohort study of aids risk from new york city and washington d.c. and 139 homosexual men from a similar cohort in copenhagen and aarhus, denmark were questioned regarding their sexual practices and knowledge of their human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) status over the previous 12 months. seventy percent of danish men and 63% of u.s. men participated in anal intercourse during the previous 12 months. knowledge of one's own hiv status by itse ...19902293644
rifampin-monoresistant tuberculosis in new york city, 1993-1994.all new york city patients whose cultures yielded mycobacterium tuberculosis with isolated resistance to rifampin in 1993 and 1994 were included in this study. of the 96 patients, 48 (50%) had primary resistance, 32 (33%) had acquired resistance, and 16 (17%) had unclassified resistance; 66% had histories of illicit drug use, and 79% were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). the median time to emergence of resistance was 40 weeks among the 32 patients with acquired resistance. each ...19979431396
human immunodeficiency virus among trauma patients in new york city.to determine the hiv seroprevalence rates in relation to the demographic characteristics of victims, cause of death, and toxicology findings in a sample of victims of violence and accidents who presented to emergency departments before death.19989701297
postexposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus: frequency of initiation and completion of newly recommended regimen.recent evidence demonstrating the efficacy of zidovudine, as well as experience with protease inhibitors, led to revision of recommendations for occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus-infected blood. at our hospital, this resulted in significant increases in rates of reported exposures and prophylaxis initiation. among 10 healthcare workers given three-drug, protease-inhibitor-containing regimens, five completed 4 weeks, two completed 4 weeks of two drugs, and three stopped due t ...19989702574
treatment choice for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit at risk for aids.many infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units are the children of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv); they have approximately a 30% risk of infection. to investigate attitudes surrounding treatment for such newborns, we conducted a survey of professionals at six neonatal intensive care units in new york city. a significant proportion of the 247 respondents recommended less aggressive treatment for non-hiv-related conditions for infants at risk for hiv compared wi ...19912033769
cumulative aids incidence and altered mortality from mycobacterial disease: new jersey.changes in mycobacterial disease mortality between 1980 and 1986 were examined among new jersey residents aged 25 to 44 using single cause of death data. the demographic group with the highest cumulative incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids) (non-white residents of the four urban counties adjacent to new york city) sustained an increase of 10.1 deaths/100,000 men/yr and 3.1 deaths/100,000 women/yr. groups with lower cumulative incidence of aids sustained smaller increases in my ...19912008983
disseminated tuberculosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome era.to assess the influence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv)-induced immunodeficiency on the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of disseminated tuberculosis (tb), we studied 79 patients presenting in 1984 through 1987 with miliary or focal disseminated disease due to mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as 4 additional non-hiv patients diagnosed after 1987. clinically defined acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) or aids-related complex (arc) was present in 51 (group 1). ...19911952449
childbearing and contraceptive-use plans among women at high risk for hiv infection--selected u.s. sites, 1989-1991.from september 1990 through august 1991, 2655 (49%) of the 5457 women reported with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) in the united states had been injecting-drug users (idus), and 1136 (21%) had had sexual intercourse with men who were idus (1). during the same period, 413 (56%) of the 735 children (aged less than 13 years) reported with aids were born to mothers who were either idus (38%) or sex partners of idus (18%) (1). even though messages and services regarding prevention of human ...19921738361
forecasts of the costs of medical care for persons with hiv: 1992-1995.this study concludes that the cumulative (national) cost of treating all persons with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) rose considerably over the past year and will continue to rise over the next several years. it is forecast that the cumulative cost of treating all persons with hiv will increase 48% from 1992 to 1995 (from $10.3 billion to $15.2 billion). it is estimated that the average yearly cost of treating a person with aids is $38,300 and of treating an infected person without aids ...19921356925
antibodies to discontinuous or conformationally sensitive epitopes on the gp120 glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are highly prevalent in sera of infected humans.we have used an indirect-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate the reactivity of sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1)-infected humans with native recombinant gp120 (hiv-1 iiib or sf-2) or with the gp120 molecule (iiib or sf-2) denatured by being boiled in the presence of dithiothreitol with or without sodium dodecyl sulfate. denaturation of iiib gp120 reduced the titers of sera from randomly selected donors by at least 100-fold, suggesting that the majority of ...19937678308
identifying newborn babies who test positive for the human immunodeficiency virus. 19947857445
cd4+ t-lymphocyte counts among seronegative heterosexual partners of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. 19937902867
prevalence of human t cell lymphotropic virus (htlv) types i and ii and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections among persons with hansen's disease in new york city.one-hundred seven consecutive patients attending a new york hansen's disease clinic from november 1990 through june 1991 were tested for retroviruses. this cohort included 58 patients diagnosed with hansen's disease after the onset of the aids epidemic, 54 of whom immigrated to the united states before diagnosis of hansen's disease (median, 7 years). the overall rate (1.9%) of human t cell lymphotropic virus (htlv) type i infection was low. two (3.6%) of 55 caribbean-born patients had polymerase ...19947930695
bleach use and hiv seroconversion among new york city injection drug users.we employed a nested case-control study design to evaluate the efficacy of bleach-cleaning of needles and syringes among injecting drug users (idus) as a means of preventing human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. sixteen hiv-seroconverters who responded to bleach use questions and who reported injecting with shared or used equipment in the 6 months prior to their first positive visit were compared with 89 controls. controls had remained hiv-seronegative at two or more visits, reported inj ...19948207647
screening for human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted diseases in an inner-city colposcopy clinic.among patients attending an inner-city colposcopy clinic, the prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis was 22/375 (5.0%), neisseria gonorrhoeae, 3/375 (0.8%), and seropositivity for syphilis, 10/375 (2.7%). in addition, 13/261 (5.0%) of asymptomatic women agreeing to voluntary human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1) antibody screening were hiv-1 seropositive. our data support incorporating screening for and education on sexually transmitted diseases and hiv into the work of our colposcopy clinic.19938232380
hiv transmission.a presentation at the 39th interscience conference on antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy (icaac) noted that people with genital warts have significantly higher levels of semen viral load than those without warts. genital warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (hpv) and are very common among the general population. higher levels of hiv in semen may expose partners of hiv-positive men with genital warts to a greater risk of becoming infected. another session presented statistics showing t ...199911367261
aging cohort of perinatally human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in new york city. new york city pediatric surveillance of disease consortium.new york city (nyc) pediatricians are now caring for fewer hiv-infected infants and more school age children and adolescents than earlier in the epidemic.200111368109
human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity in adolescents with syphilis.the purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection among inner-city, minority group adolescents.19938414857
human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescents: the first 50 patients in a new york city program.to address the unique manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) among adolescents aged 13 through 21 years, a comprehensive evaluation and treatment program for high-risk and hiv-positive adolescents was developed in new york city in 1987. among hiv-infected youth, mean age of testing was 18.2 years. one third of the hiv-positive patients were female and four fifths were african-american or hispanic. no significant differences were found between hiv-positive (n = 50) and hiv-negative ...19938464659
hiv screening and counseling for intravenous drug abuse patients. staff and patient attitudes.at least one third of patients enrolled in a methadone maintenance treatment program are willing to comply voluntarily with screening for and counseling about human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). a questionnaire about knowledge, attitudes, and behavior concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was answered anonymously by 79% (46) of the clinical staff and 67% (868) of the enrolled patients. on their own initiative, 21% of the patients had already received voluntary anonymous hiv screening and ...19892909023
quality of life and risk perception among predominantly heterosexual, minority individuals with hiv/aids.the objective of this study was to examine the quality-of-life concerns of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected individuals and to assess their perceptions of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids) and the need for safer sex, in light of treatment advances. respondents were recruited from seven aids service organizations in new york city, and the total sample consisted of 196 hiv-infected individuals. the sample consisted largely of heterosexual, african americans, and latinos. respon ...200111587634
the incidence and epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection in 320 patients treated in an inner-city hemodialysis center.from january 1, 1986 through june 30, 1989, 320 maintenance hemodialysis patients treated at the brookdale hospital medical center were tested for the presence of antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and western blot assays. thirty-nine patients (12%) tested positive for hiv antibody (hiv+) with both the elisa and western blot, 24 (62%) of whom were known intravenous drug abusers (ivda). of the remaining non-ivda patients, unantic ...19902368703
factors associated with urban gay men's treatment initiation decisions for hiv infection.while a public health emphasis on primary prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection continues, it is recognized that large numbers of individuals are already infected. efforts at secondary prevention focus on early medical intervention and may be effective in slowing progression to a diagnosis of aids. understanding the factors that promote or impede seropositive individuals from receiving prompt medical treatment and complying with treatment regimens is essential to prolonging ...19921642958
newborn screening for human immunodeficiency virus infection in the bronx, ny, and evolving public health policy.new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of hiv infection continue to propel changes in public understanding of hiv infection and the administration of public health law. over the past decade, new york state has moved from a policy of blind newborn screening for seroprevalence data to mandatory hiv testing as part of the statewide newborn screening (nbs) program. a new statewide program of expedited hiv testing (48-hr turnaround results) of pregnant women and newborns (whose hiv status is unk ...199910874985
re: "determinants of hiv disease progression among homosexual men registered in the tricontinental seroconverter study" and "progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection among homosexual men in hepatitis b vaccine trial cohorts in amsterdam, new york city, and san francisco, 1978-1991". 19968610669
proposed antiretroviral therapy guidelines for prophylaxis of occupationally related hiv seroconversion: a practical approach.recent research indicates that antiretroviral prophylaxis significantly reduces occupationally related human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) seroconversion. this article outlines principles on which guidelines were based for treating aggressively those healthcare workers (hcws) exposed to hiv occupationally at the catholic medical center in jamaica, new york. these recommendations attempt to provide hcws with the best possible available antiretroviral therapy to treat occupational hiv seroconversio ...19968899443
health-related quality of life of hiv-infected women: evidence for the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the medical outcomes study short-form 20.the purpose of this study was to assess the reliability, validity and responsiveness of a health-related quality of life (hrqol) instrument, the medical outcomes short-form 20-item general health survey (mos sf-20), in a sample of women with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). longitudinal data were collected on 202 hiv-infected women without aids who were receiving care at kings county hospital or suny health sciences center, brooklyn, new york. internal consistency results showed acceptabl ...19968901366
hiv risk behaviors and obstacles to condom use among puerto rican men in new york city who have sex with men.this paper describes the sexual risk behaviors of puerto rican men who have sex with men and their perceived obstacles to condom use.19968916531
the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in new york city: the importance of nosocomial transmission and laboratory error.during the 1980s, new york city experienced a rapid increase of tuberculosis cases, more than 40% of which were human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-associated.19968959143
early detection of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) type 1 infection using hiv rna amplification and detection. new york city perinatal hiv transmission collaborative study.early diagnosis of perinatally transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv) infection can guide early interventions. hiv coculture and dna polymerase chain reaction (dna-pcr) detect few hiv-infected infants at birth and 90%-100% by age 3 months. because extracellular hiv rna may appear soon after infection, a plasma hiv rna assay was compared with dna-pcr for early detection of perinatally infected infants. blood-draw specimens (108) obtained at the same time from 49 hiv-infected infant ...19979041350
impact of haart on causes of death of persons with late-stage aids.the increasing use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (haarts) has changed the course of aids-related illnesses and enhanced the quality of life of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and may have changed the causes of deaths in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids).200010855998
surveillance for penicillin-nonsusceptible streptococcus pneumoniae--new york city, 1995.streptococcus pneumoniae has become a leading cause of bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media in the united states. persons at increased risk include young children, immunocompromised persons, and the elderly. until 1987, s. pneumoniae was uniformly susceptible to penicillin; since then, in the united states, there has been increased identification of penicillin-nonsusceptible s. pneumoniae (pnsp) (defined as minimum inhibitory concentration [mic] to penicillin > or = 0.1 microgram/ ...19979132581
female injecting drug users: human immunodeficiency virus risk behavior and intervention needs.injecting drug use and heterosexual contact are the major exposure categories for women acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) risk perception, perceived seriousness of hiv, drug use self-efficacy, sexual self-efficacy, and social support for hiv/aids risk behavior among female injecting drug users (idus). a random sample of 140 female idus was interviewed using a structured questionnair ...19989838760
human immunodeficiency virus-associated pericardial effusion: report of 40 cases and review of the literature.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-associated pericardial effusion is common. we present its clinical features, cause, and prognosis on the basis of a review of 40 cases at a single public hospital.199910047635
hepatitis c virus and human immunodeficiency virus-1 co-infection in former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment.to investigate hepatitis c (hcv) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1) prevalence in former opiate or heroin addicts currently in methadone maintenance treatment (mmt).200212296502
fungal keratitis at the new york eye and ear infirmary.this study was designed to review the clinical experience at our institution with fungal keratitis during a 16-year period.200616633023
self-esteem and optimism in men and women infected with hiv.self-esteem and optimism have been associated with appraisal and outcomes in a variety of situations. the degree to which the contribution of self-esteem and optimism to outcomes over time is accounted for by the differences in threat (primary) or resource (secondary) appraisal has not been established in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv).200011009121
the probable source of both the primary multidrug-resistant (mdr) hiv-1 strain found in a patient with rapid progression to aids and a second recombinant mdr strain found in a chronically hiv-1-infected patient.rapid progression to aids after acute infection with a multidrug-resistant (mdr), dual-tropic strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) was reported in a new york city man (hereafter referred to as "nyc") who has sex with men. the probable source of this hiv-1 (hereafter referred to as "ct01") and the development of a recombinant mdr hiv-1 in the source's partner (hereafter referred to as "ct02") are described.200717396993
new york city pharmacists' attitudes toward sale of needles/syringes to injection drug users before implementation of law expanding syringe access.in may 2000, new york state passed legislation permitting the sale, purchase, and possession of up to 10 needles and syringes (hereafter "syringes") without a prescription, intended to reduce blood-borne pathogen transmission among injection drug users (idus). to obtain baseline data on pharmacists' attitudes and practices related to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) prevention and idus, a telephone survey was administered to 130 pharmacists systematically selected in new york city. less than h ...200011194317
incidence and persistence of staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in a community sample of hiv-infected and -uninfected drug users.a longitudinal study of 282 community-based drug users was conducted from february 1999 through september 2000. both the incidence (15.0 cases per 100 person-years at risk; 95% confidence interval, 10.2-20.7 cases per 100 person-years at risk) and persistence of staphylococcus aureus carriage were increased among human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-seropositive individuals.200717599312
influenza a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus: an outbreak of infection at a residential facility in new york city.although annual influenza vaccination is recommended for persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), data are limited regarding the epidemiology of influenza or the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in this population. we investigated a 1996 outbreak of infection with influenza a at a residential facility for persons with aids. we interviewed 118 residents and employees, reviewed 65 resident medical records, and collected serum samples for measurement of influenza anti ...200111360221
hiv-1 seroprevalence and risk behaviors in an urban african-american community cohort.previous attempts at obtaining population estimates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) seroprevalence have been beset by problems of cooperation bias. as part of the fourth round of study with an urban african-american community cohort, the following investigation was aimed at assessing hiv-1 prevalence and the relative importance of sex and drug injection as risk factors in infection.19938214226
ourselves, our bodies, our realities: an hiv prevention intervention for women with severe mental illness.this paper describes a 10-session behavioral intervention introducing female-initiated methods of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) prevention to reduce vulnerability to hiv infection for women with severe mental illness. in a pilot test of the intervention, 35 women were randomly placed in the experimental intervention group or an hiv education control. subjective norms, intentions to use, perceived efficacy, and attitudes toward the male condom, female condom, and a microbicide were assessed ...200111368195
prevalence of the t215y mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected pregnant women in a new york cohort, 1995--1999.from 1997 through 1999, the prevalence of the zidovudine resistance mutation t215y was 9.7% among pregnant women, and the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) load in those with resistant virus was higher than that measured in women with wild-type hiv-1. all mutations were noted in women with zidovudine experience, which suggests that monotherapy may not be adequate prophylaxis for vertical transmission of hiv-1 infection in the current era.200111389511
sexual transmission risk among noninjecting heroin users infected with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis c virus.to assess whether human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected and/or hepatitis c virus (hcv)-infected noninjecting heroin users (nius) are a potential sexual transmission bridge to "lower risk" partners, 180 hiv- or hcv-infected nius recruited in new york city were interviewed about their sexual behaviors and partnerships. sixty-two percent were former injecting drug users (idus). partners reported not to be hiv infected, idus, or men who have sex with men were defined as lower risk. among 54 hi ...200111443564
implementation of expedited human immunodeficiency virus testing of women delivering infants in a large new york city hospital.since august 1999, new york has required expedited human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) testing of pregnant women in labor or their newborns, with results available within 48 hours if no intrapregnancy test result was available. we documented the frequency and circumstances of expedited hiv testing, the time required for a result to be available, and hospital factors associated with different intervals.200312738161
persistence of a highly resistant strain of tuberculosis in new york city during 1990-1999.one multidrug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis (mdrtb) strain, strain w, caused several nosocomial outbreaks in new york city (nyc) during 1 january 1990-31 july 1993. we reviewed all mdrtb cases verified during 1 august 1993-31 december 1999 that had isolates with either this dna pattern or a variant of this strain, and we compared them to the outbreak cases. of 427 dna-confirmed cases from 1990-1999, 161 (37%) were from 1 august 1993-31 december 1999; these 161 cases, from 56 hospitals and ...200312870116
relapse in persons treated for drug-susceptible tuberculosis in a population with high coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus in new york city.the optimal duration of tuberculosis treatment for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) has been debated. a cohort of 4571 culture-positive drug-susceptible patients who received > or =24 weeks of standard 4-drug tuberculosis treatment were assessed to determine the incidence of tuberculosis relapse. tuberculosis "recurrence" was defined as having a positive culture < 30 days after the last treatment date and "relapse" as having a positive culture > or =30 days after the last ...200111595988
syringe exchange programs --- united states, 2008.persons who inject drugs should use a new, sterile needle and syringe for each injection. syringe exchange programs (seps) provide free sterile syringes and collect used syringes from injection-drug users (idus) to reduce transmission of bloodborne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), hepatitis b virus, and hepatitis c virus (hcv). as of march 2009, a total of 184 seps were known to be operating in 36 states, the district of columbia (dc), and puerto rico (north american syri ...201021085091
preventing hiv in injection drug users: choosing the best mix of interventions for the population.injection drug users (idus) transmit the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) via both needle sharing and sex. this analysis explores the effects of population risk behaviors, intervention effectiveness, intervention costs, and budget and capacity constraints when allocating funds between two prevention programs to maximize effectiveness. the two interventions, methadone maintenance and street outreach, address different types of risk behavior. we developed a model of the spread of hiv and divided ...200312930884
associations between herpes simplex virus type 2 and hcv with hiv among injecting drug users in new york city.objectives. we examined relationships between herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), a biomarker for sexual risk, and hcv, a biomarker for injecting risk, with hiv among injecting drug users (idus) who began injecting after large-scale expansion of syringe exchange programs in new york city. methods. we recruited 337 heroin and cocaine users who began injecting in 1995 or later from persons entering drug detoxification. we administered a structured interview covering drug use and hiv risk behavior ...201121566021
residential status and hiv risk behaviors among puerto rican drug injectors in new york and puerto rico.this article investigates the association between residential status and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) risk behaviors among island and new york puerto rican injection drug users (idus). we assigned 561 subjects from new york city and 312 from puerto rico to five residential status categories: living in parent's home, living in own home, living in other's home, living in temporary housing (hotel, single-room occupancy [sro] hotels), and homeless (living in streets/shelters). dependent variab ...200111727885
transforming the meaning of hiv/aids in recovery from substance use: a qualitative study of hiv-positive women in new york.recovery from substance use is a vital concern for many women with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids). this qualitative study explores the meaning of women's hiv infection for their transition from drug use to recovery. interviews were conducted with 15 female clients of a drug treatment program and aids nursing home in new york city. for most participants, hiv did not constitute the main reason for starting their recovery. the dual diagnosis program, h ...200516019998
use of complementary and alternative medicine by parents of children with hiv infection and asthma and well children.although the use of complementary and alternative medicine (cam) in children is increasing, little is known about its use in children with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. this study investigated the use of cam by parents of children with hiv infection (h), children with asthma (a), and well children (w). our hypothesis was that parents of the h group are more likely to use cam than parents of the w or a group because of the nature and severity of the illness.200516217978
recurrent major depressive disorder among human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-positive and hiv-negative intravenous drug users: findings of a 3-year longitudinal study.a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the association between human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection, history of major depressive disorder (mdd), and persistent or recurrent mdd among intravenous drug users. psychiatric disorders were assessed in a sample of hiv-positive (hiv+) and hiv-negative (hiv-) intravenous drug users every 6 months for 3 years. results indicated that hiv status and baseline mdd independently predicted persistent or recurrent episodes of mdd after gender, ...19999924874
aids in the developing countries.without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. as a present-day killer, aids in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. first, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of aids cases. on this basis, bermuda, french g ...198810287933
self-reported legal needs of women with or at risk for hiv infection. the her study group.women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection are often poor and members of racial or ethnic minorities. in addition to legal concerns that might be common among persons with similar sociodemographic characteristics, hiv infection adds the potential of possible stigma and discrimination, as well as the prospect of illness and increased mortality. to determine women's perceptions of need for and access to legal services and whether such perceptions are affected by hiv infection, ...199910609593
insurance coverage, usual source of care, and receipt of clinically indicated care for comorbid conditions among adults living with human immunodeficiency virus.associations of insurance coverage and source of care with use of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-related health, mental health, and substance abuse services are examined in a large, diverse, highly active antiretroviral therapy-era cohort.200515778643
a novel index of elevated risk of inpatient hospital admission immediately following outpatient surgery.patients with increasing comorbidities are at increased risk of admission to an inpatient facility after outpatient surgery.200717372051
expedited human immunodeficiency virus testing of mothers and newborns with unknown hiv status at time of labor and delivery.new york state introduced the first statewide program in the u.s. of expedited hiv testing (48-hour turn-around results) of mothers with unknown hiv status at the time of labor or delivery and their newborns on august 1, 1999. we evaluated the results of this program during its first 5 months at lincoln medical and mental health center (lincoln hospital) in the bronx, new york. there were 1,274 total live birth deliveries between august 1 and december 31, 1999. the hiv infection status of 539 mo ...200011155432
effects of behavioral intervention on substance use among people living with hiv: the healthy living project randomized controlled study.reductions in substance use were examined in response to an intensive intervention with people living with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) (plh).200818494840
antiretroviral drug resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected source patients for occupational exposures to healthcare workers.to assess the prevalence of hiv antiretroviral resistance among source patients for occupational hiv exposures.200314587931
custody plans among parents living with human immunodeficiency virus infection.to describe and to examine predictors of making custody plans by parents living with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection.200415066871
the impact of new york city's 1975 fiscal crisis on the tuberculosis, hiv, and homicide syndemic.in 1975, new york city experienced a fiscal crisis rooted in long-term political and economic changes in the city. budget and policy decisions designed to alleviate this fiscal crisis contributed to the subsequent epidemics of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection, and homicide in new york city. because these conditions share underlying social determinants, we consider them a syndemic, i.e., all 3 combined to create an excess disease burden on the population. cuts in service ...200616449588
the effect of ethnicity and maternal birthplace on small-for-gestational-age deliveries to hiv-infected women.to examine the relative role of ethnicity and maternal birthplace on small-for-gestational-age (sga) deliveries of a cohort of mothers in new york who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus.200211937623
rapid hiv testing in emergency departments--three u.s. sites, january 2005-march 2006.approximately one fourth of the estimated 1 million persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in the united states are unaware that they are infected with hiv and at risk for transmitting the virus to others. in april 2003, cdc announced a new initiative, advancing hiv prevention: new strategies for a changing epidemic, aimed at reducing barriers to early diagnosis of hiv infection and increasing access of persons infected with hiv to medical care and prevention services. a priority ...200717585288
same-sex attraction disclosure to health care providers among new york city men who have sex with men: implications for hiv testing approaches.while the centers for disease control and prevention recommends at least annual human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) screening for men who have sex with men (msm), a large number of hiv infections among this population go unrecognized. we examined the association between disclosing to their medical providers (eg, physicians, nurses, physician assistants) same-sex attraction and self-reported hiv testing among msm in new york city, new york.200818625927
gender and age patterns in hsv-2 and hiv infection among non-injecting drug users in new york city.to examine prevalence of and associations between herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection and hiv infection among never-injecting heroin and cocaine drug users (nidus) in new york city.201020838366
an evaluation of a medical outreach program targeting unstably housed hiv-infected individuals.the objective of this study was to evaluate a medical outreach program that targets unstably housed human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected individuals. one hundred sixty-one cross-sectional interviews were conducted prior to and after establishing a medical outreach program in single room occupancy hotels. participants' mean age was 42 years; 58% were men, 95% minority, and 59% active substance users. the postintervention group was more likely to have a regular health care provider (p = 0.0 ...200515741714
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