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survey of toxoplasma antibodies among sheep in western united states.a survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies among breeding ewes and among lambs slaughtered for food in western united states. each serum was tested by the indirect hemaglutination method, using microtiter technique. agglutination (greater than or equal to 2 +) at the 1:64 dilution was considered to be a positive reaction. of 2,164 ewes from 18 flocks tested in california, 523 (24%) were seropositive for toxoplasma gondii, with prevalence rates among flocks rangin ...1977604325
variation amongst the neutralizing epitopes of bluetongue viruses isolated in the united states in 1979-1981.neutralizing epitopes present on field isolates of bluetongue virus (btv) serotypes 10, 11, 13 and 17 were evaluated with a panel of polyclonal and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs). a total of 91 field isolates were evaluated, including 15 isolates of btv-10, 29 isolates of btv-11, 26 isolates of btv-13, and 21 isolates of btv-17. the viruses were isolated from cattle, goats, sheep, elk and deer in idaho, louisiana, nebraska and, predominantly, california, in the years 1979, 1980 and 19 ...19921379766
epidemiologic study of bluetongue virus on the tejon ranch, california: vector, host, virus relationships.culicoides gnats were monitored from april through november, 1981, on the tejon ranch, kern county. levels of gnat breeding were determined by quantitative sampling of substrate from intermittent and permanent water sources. adult populations were measured by light trap collections taken around pens holding sentinel beef cattle, dairy calves, sheep, goats and deer. adult gnats were collected in the environs of the study area, and blood samples were obtained from sentinel animals for laboratory d ...19852989907
epizootiological study of bluetongue virus infection in california livestock: an overview.an epidemiologic program was undertaken in california to study bluetongue virus (btv) infection in domestic livestock. the study was designed to determine: a) prevalence of btv infection, b) serotypes of btv actively causing infection, c) seasonality of infection and d) species infected. a total of 8,751 cattle, 14,639 sheep and 4,785 goats were tested over the 3 1/2 year study. serologically, 41% of the cattle, 42% of the sheep and 21% of the goats were positive. virologically, 2.4% of the catt ...19852989906
epidemiology of two orbiviruses in california's native wild ruminants: preliminary report.between 1978 and 1983 we collected more than 1,500 serum samples from california's native black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), 4 races of mule deer (o. h. sp.), tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes), roosevelt elk (c. e. roosevelti), pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), california bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis californiana), peninsular bighorn sheep (o. c. cremnobates) and desert bighorn sheep (o. c. nelsoni) and analyzed them for agar gel precipitating (agp) antibodies to b ...19852989899
lambing date and lamb production of spring-mated rambouillet, dorset and finnsheep ewes and their f1 crosses.the reproductive performance of 255 rambouillet (r), dorset (d), finnsheep (f) and f1 ewes born in 1978-1979 (group i) and 1979-1980 (group ii) and managed in a semiconfinement fall/winter lambing system was evaluated through 4 yr of age of all ewes and through 5 yr for a portion of group i ewes. ewes were with rams from approximately may 1 to late september each year, with a 2-wk break late in july/early august. traits considered were fertility (ewes lambed/ewes exposed), lambing date, litter s ...19863759701
investigation of cryptosporidial infection in calves in san bernardino county, california.cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the intestinal epithelium of calves, lambs, foals, pigs, and poultry. of the 500 calves studied, 95 calves had diarrhea and 20 (21.05%) of those were infected with cryptosporidium; only 8 (1.9%) of the remaining 405 nondiarrheic calves had cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces.19873679970
bluetongue in the united states.the virus of bluetongue (bt) was 1st isolated and identified in the us in 1952 from sheep in california. a disease in sheep in texas (soremuzzle) was observed in 1947, reported in 1952 and similarities to bt were discussed. it is possible bt existed in texas for several years prior to that time. there are 23 immunologic serotypes of bt, and 5 are known to occur in the us. these are types 10, 11, 13, 17 and 2, the latter having been recognized only in 1983 in cattle in florida. in the us, bt was ...19852989874
[remarkable domestic animal breeds in california].in the united states, especially in california, there is a surprising variety of farm animal breeds. this multitude of different forms is a result of the history of this state. some breeds came from other countries, others were developed from feral animals and yet others were created in this state by crossing and selective breeding. several of these breeds soon attained a high level of performance and they were exported to many other countries. others remained primitive landraces with special ad ...19902080497
spatial and seasonal distribution of potential vectors of hemorrhagic disease viruses to peninsular bighorn sheep in the santa rosa mountains of southern california.blood-feeding midges (culicoides sp. and leptoconops sp.) were sampled in the santa rosa mountains, riverside county, california (usa), to determine which species might be involved in the transmission of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses to peninsular bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates). host-seeking midges were sampled with co2-baited suction traps over a period of 30 mo. nineteen species of culicoides and seven of leptoconops were collected. five of the culicoides sp ...19921602570
basis for regulation of selenium supplements in animal diets.selenium was discovered 174 yr ago but, until 1957, was given little notice by biologists or was vilified as an agent that caused toxicity in grazing ruminants and horses in the northern great plains. after its status as an essential nutrient was established, se received intense scrutiny, and hundreds of papers have been published dealing with its metabolic functions and the consequences of a se deficiency. because regions of se deficiency are so extensive in the united states, great efforts hav ...19921474028
abomasal dilatation and emptying defect in a flock of suffolk ewes.abomasal dilatation and emptying defect was identified in 14 of 130 suffolk sheep from a single flock in northern california. abomasal dilatation and emptying defect was diagnosed in 13 of the sheep between november 1986 and april 1987. all affected sheep were ewes and in all, the condition developed during the lambing season. clinical signs consisted of chronic anorexia and weight loss. laboratory data from affected ewes reflected concurrent disease and was not helpful in diagnosis of the disea ...19883215813
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild and domestic animals in northern california.wild and domestic animals from 3 geographic-climatologic areas in northern california were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii. a total of 2,796 serum samples representing 37 species of wild mammals, 35 species of wild birds, and 5 species of domestic animals were tested by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 1,174 wild mammal serums tested, 10.8% were positive, which compared with 14.7% of the 1,221 domestic mammal serums. of 229 wild carnivores tested, 45% were seropositive, inc ...1976977457
an evolving pattern of human hydatid disease transmission in the united states.echinococcus granulosus infection was being acquired in the contiguous united states by virginia sharecroppers and small-holders by the turn of the century. the last recorded human infection from that general area was diagnosed in 1947. by 1920 human infections were also being acquired in the lower mississippi valley. apparently, infection in both of these areas was maintained chiefly in swine. by 1940 a third transmission area definitely existed in the central valley of california, with its res ...1977329700
antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and coxiella burneti among students and other personnel in veterinary colleges in california and brazil. 19744606228
the outlook for low volume insecticidal applications in california mosquito control. 19695393207
california goats with a disease resembling enzootic ataxia or swayback.in a retrospective study typical signs and lesions of enzootic ataxia or swayback were found in 16 young dairy goats from eight widely scattered herds in california. in addition to the constant appearance of chromatolytic neurons in brainstem and spinal cord, and myelin deficiency in certain tracts of the cord, cerebellar hypoplasia was found frequently. liver copper was subnormal in six of nine kids tested. the disease is viewed as a developmental defect in which failure of neuronal perikaryon ...1978566481
ophthalmomyiasis externa in california. 19863953074
california serogroup virus infections in wisconsin domestic animals.a serologic survey and experimental virus transmission studies were done to assess the role of domestic animals as amplifier hosts of la crosse (lacv) and jamestown canyon (jcv) viruses. serum from 319 cows, 88 dogs, 122 equines, 47 swine, 10 goats, and 4 cats were tested for neutralizing antibody to lacv, jcv, trivittatus (tvtv), and snowshoe hare (sshv) viruses. antibody prevalences of lacv, tvtv, and sshv were less than 10% in all species. antibody to jcv was detected in all species except ca ...19883189702
survey of desert bighorn sheep in california for exposure to selected infectious diseases.from february 1983 to june 1985, 188 desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni, = 161 and oc cremnobates, = 27) from 18 herds in 17 mountain ranges and one captive herd were caught, marked, and had blood, fecal, and nasal mucus samples collected. nasal swab specimens were cultured bacteriologically and virologically specifically for parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus. bacterial flora differed from herd to herd. pathogenic pneumophilic bacteria (eg, pasteurella sp) seldom were found. parainfluenza- ...19853878356
analysis of the genomes of bluetongue viruses recovered from different states of the united states and at different times.the ribonucleic acid (rna) genomes of the original representatives of the four serotypes of bluetongue virus (btv) isolated from the united states (btv-10, btv-11, btv-13 and btv-17) have been analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. ten double-stranded rna species were resolved for each virus and categorized into the size classes of large (l segments #1-3), medium (m segments #4-6) and small (s segments #7-10). minor electrophoretic mobility differences were observed for the m5 and s10 r ...19826278927
hydatid disease is endemic in california.hydatid disease, a parasitic infection of global importance and a condition for which there is no known medical treatment, is established endemically in the central valley of california. only further study will reveal whether or not the infection is now spreading or intensifying or is remaining fairly stable at a relatively low level of endemicity. california physicians should be aware of its presence and the fact that in most sheep-raising areas of the world it constitutes a problem of major me ...19724638400
analysis of the genomes of bluetongue virus serotype 10 vaccines and a recent btv-10 isolate from washington.the 10 double-stranded rna gene segments of 2 vaccinal strains of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 10 that are used in the united states (btv ca8 california and bt-8 colorado), and a btv-10 isolate recently obtained from infected sheep in washington (state) were characterized by oligonucleotide fingerprint analyses. it was determined that although the 2 btv-10 vaccinal strains are genotypically distinct, they are closely related both to each other and to the united states prototype btv-10 virus. ...19836299144
canary grass (phalaris sp) toxicosis in sheep in california. 19883372321
experimental reproduction of hairy fleece and chorea in california lambs. 19724673104
insects feeding on desert bighorn sheep, domestic rabbits, and japanese quail in the santa rosa mountains of southern california.desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates), a domestic rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), and japanese quail (coturnix japonica) were used as bait animals to collect blood-feeding flies in an area of active blue-tongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus transmission. precipitin tests were used to confirm the blood source where feasible. eight species of culicoides, members of the leptoconops kerteszi group, simulium spp., anopheles franciscanus, and stomoxys calcitrans were collected f ...19921512887
serologic survey for brucellosis in feral swine, wild ruminants, and black bear of california, 1977 to 1989.a retrospective analysis of brucellosis serologic testing results in eight wildlife species in california from 1977 to 1989 was done. samples were collected from 5,398 live-captured or hunter-killed animals and tested by combinations of up to six serologic tests for antibodies to brucella spp. twenty-three of 611 (3.8%) feral swine (sus scrofa), one of 180 (0.6%) black bear (ursus americanus), one of 355 (0.3%) california mule deer (odocoileus hemionus californicus), and one of 1,613 (0.06%) bla ...19921512866
staggers induced by consumption of perennial ryegrass in cattle and sheep from northern california.staggers was diagnosed in sheep and cattle from the northern california coast. the diagnosis was made on the basis of history of ingestion of perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne) stubble, clinical signs of transient ataxia, which was aggravated by stimulation, and nearly complete recovery after removal of ryegrass as the primary forage. morbidity was high, but death did not occur in any affected animals. the toxic endophyte, acremonium lolii, was in most lower leaf sheaths from the ryegrass. inje ...19911917658
measurement of disease in animal populations based on interviews. 19724673368
exposure to psoroptes sp. mites is common among bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) populations in california.sera (n = 806) from 50 populations of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in california (usa) were evaluated for antibodies to psoroptes sp. mites using a kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). test values for each sample were determined to be either positive or negative at each of two elisa cutoff values that provided either 100% sensitivity (low cutoff) or 100% specificity (high cutoff), respectively. one hundred sixty-eight (20.8%) sera were seropositive at the low cutoff value, and 8 ...19921474651
culicoides boydi (diptera: ceratopogonidae): a potential vector of hemorrhagic disease viruses to desert bighorn sheep in southern california.culicoides boydi new species is described from riverside county, ca. a taxonomic key, table of numerical characters, and female wing photographs are presented to distinguish it from the three other species of the culicoides pusillus species group of the subgenus avaritia. brief notes are presented on its biology and distribution and suspected vector potential in the transmission of bluetongue virus to desert bighorn sheep in california.19921334151
a survey for toxoplasma gondii antibodies in deer and other wildlife on a sheep range.blood samples were obtained from native mammals and birds on a sheep range (hopland field station) in northern california. serums were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 382 deer that were tested from 1964 to 1973, 77 (20%) were seropositive for t gondii. among 36 serums representing 6 species of wild carnivores (badgers, bobcats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and skunks), 18 (50%) were seropositive. all of the 5 bobcats tested were seropositive, wit ...19751176348
anthelmintic efficiency of oxfendazole in california lambs.oxfendazole, methyl 5(6)-phenylsulfinyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate, was given by oral drench (5 mg/kg) to california lambs harboring natural infections of gastrointestinal nematodes. ninety-nine percent of adult ostertagia circumcincta, ostertagia trifurcata, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus vitrinus, trichostrongylus colubriformis, nematodirus filicollis, and nematodirus spathiger were removed by the anthelmintic.1977921025
selenium in animal nutrition: the oregon and san joaquin valley (california) experiences--examples of correctable deficiencies in livestock.white muscle disease and other selenium deficiency syndromes, once extremely common in young calves and lambs in oregon, especially in the areas of volcanic origin east of the cascade mountain range, prompted extensive investigations in the oregon agricultural experiment station that resulted in the implementation of large-scale selenium supplementation programs. although selenium deficiency in livestock is consequently now rare in oregon, selenium-deficient soils and attendant selenium deficien ...19892484399
hydatid disease in california. study of hospital records, 1960 through 1969. 19715167186
wyominia tetoni (cestoda: thysanosomatinae) from bighorn sheep in washington.in washington, eitht california bighorn sheep, ovis canadensis californiana, were necropsied to ascertain age and general physical condition. four were found to harbor wyominia tetoni.19751142552
bluetongue disease and the molecular epidemiology of viruses from the western united states.prototype and field isolates of united states bluetongue viruses were evaluated for genetic heterogeneity by sequence analyses. prototype viruses btv 2, 10, 11, 13 and 17 from the united states, btv 10 vaccine virus, and field isolates of btv 10 and 17 from california were analyzed. gene segment 2 from btv 10 and 17 isolated in 1980-81 and 1990 was sequenced along with gene segment 9 from btv 10 isolates. the wisconsin package was used to analyze nucleotide sequences and to predict amino acid co ...19968800543
ovine fascioliasis in california. 19715166003
the occurrence of echinococcus granulosus in coyotes (canis latrans) in the central valley of california. 19705534027
external ophthalmomyiasis caused by estrus ovis.external ophthalmomyiasis occurred in a 16-year-old white girl who was infected on catalina island, an endemic area for the sheep bot fly. with the patient under topical anesthesia, we isolated the larva, estrus ovis, removed it with jewelers' forceps, and examined it with light and scanning electron microscopy. the patient responded well to a treatment regimen of corticosteroids and antibiotics.1977596393
clonal distribution of the three alleles of the gal(alpha1-4)gal-specific adhesin gene papg among escherichia coli strains from patients with bacteremia.the three alleles of papg, the gal(alpha1-4)gal-specific adhesin gene of escherichia coli p fimbriae, were detected in 101 (54%) of 187 e. coli bacteremia isolates from boston, long beach, california, and nairobi, kenya, by a polymerase chain reaction-based assay, and their distribution was compared with clonal structure and other bacterial and host characteristics. allele ii predominated overall (57% of papg+ strains, vs. 32% for iii and 2% for i). allele distribution differed significantly bet ...19989498444
prevalence of echinococcus granulosus hydatid in california deer. 19705534029
bluetongue virus in exotic ruminants. 19734355046
the relationship of exposure rate and exposure time to radiation injury in sheep. 19685634982
prevalence of antibodies of selected infectious disease agents in the peninsular desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates) of the santa rosa mountains, california. 19826285010
unthriftiness, hairy fleece, and tremors in newborn lambs. 19725062611
enzootic ataxia in california lambs. 19715107321
hydatid disease transmission in california. a study of the basque connection.a descriptive epidemiologic and anthropologic study was designed to determine by field observation and interview the extent of basque involvement in the sheep industry of california, the nature of the sheep and dog husbandry practices of california basques as they might influence echinococus granulosus transmission, and the "folk knowledge" of hydatid disease possessed by california basques, particularly as it might indicate the early presence of this infection in california and provide evidence ...19751180253
characterization of an anaplasma ovis isolate from desert bighorn sheep in southern california.to understand the role of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in the epidemiology of anaplasmosis, we recovered a field isolate from a suspected enzootic area in southern california (usa). whole blood was collected from three desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni) and inoculated into a susceptible splenectomized domestic sheep, calf and a susceptible spleen-intact bighorn sheep. no infection occurred in the calf, but a detectable infection developed in both the domestic sheep and bighorn she ...19938258851
medicated feed as a preventive for pneumonia in california range lambs. 19734683799
q fever--california, georgia, pennsylvania, and tennessee, 2000-2001.q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium coxiella burnetii. the most common reservoirs are domesticated ruminants, primarily cattle, sheep, and goats. humans acquire q fever typically by inhaling aerosols or contaminated dusts derived from infected animals or animal products. its highly infectious nature and aerosol route of transmission make c. burnetii a possible agent of bioterrorism. although up to 60% of initial infections are asymptomatic, acute disease can manifest as a relat ...200212403408
a retrospective serologic survey for anaplasma spp. infection in three bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) populations in california.using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, we determined the prevalence of anaplasma-reactive antibody in three herds of bighorn sheep, each a different subspecies and occupying a different habitat in california (usa). antibodies to anaplasma spp. were identified in none of twenty california bighorn (ovis canadensis californiana) sampled from the mt. baxter herd, 11 of 17 peninsular bighorn (o. canadensis cremnobates) sampled in the santa rosa mountains, and all 20 desert bighorn (o. canadensis ...19938258852
identification of transmission foci of hydatid disease in california. 19694977534
seroprevalence of two babesia spp. isolates in selected bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) populations in california.sera from 111 bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) and 95 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were tested using an indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibodies to two isolates of babesia spp. recently obtained from these hosts in california (usa). the study populations were from six locations: three areas of real or potential sympatry of bighorn sheep and deer, one area with deer only, and two areas with bighorn sheep only. antibody titers from seroreactive individuals were similar with both babesial ...19958592376
ecology of bacillary hemoglobinuria. 196414126858
leptospirosis in california. 19674960757
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2002.during 2002, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,967 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 7.2% from the 7,436 cases in non-human animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 2001. more than 92% (7,375 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 7.4% (592) were in domestic species (compared with 93.3% in wild animals and 6.7% in domestic species in 2001). compared with cases reported in 2001, the numbers of ...200314690203
a survey for toxoplasma antibodies in northern california livestock and dogs. 19744825778
fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.during 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in california and washington. contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. pasteurella multocida and corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of de ...19827047767
molecular epidemiologic features of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from horses.to characterize isolates of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from horses, cattle, and sheep in colorado, kentucky, utah, and california in samples collected during perceived epidemics of infection (increased numbers of cases identified) in 2002 and 2003, and determine how closely isolates were related and their possible source.200415631043
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2003.during 2003, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the cdc. this represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. more than 91 (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 74% in domestic species in 2002). the relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons ...200415643834
geographic analysis of pathogen exposure in bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis).antibody responses were examined among 998 bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in california (usa) to determine spatial patterns of pathogen exposure. using a shifting frame analysis, a specific geographic region was delineated that contained bighorn sheep with higher (p < 0.05) levels of multiple exposure (antibodies detected against > or = two pathogens), as well as higher prevalence values for eight of ten individual pathogens. this region in southwestern california encompassed all of the peninsu ...19947933271
restriction endonuclease analysis of herpesviruses isolated from two peninsular bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates).in 1989, herpesviruses were isolated from nasal swabs taken from two peninsular bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates) in the anza-borrego desert state park, san diego county, california (usa). using restriction endonuclease analysis (rea) with pst1 enzyme, each isolate was found to be similar to the cooper strain of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv). the rea patterns of the two herpesviruses from bighorn sheep were typical of either field strains or vaccine strains of ibrv com ...19938383254
hydatid disease in the central valley of california. transmission of infection among dogs, sheep, and man in kern county. 19705465773
new ruminant hosts and wider geographic range identified for babesia odocoilei (emerson and wright 1970).babesia odocoilei was found to infect two previously unknown host species, desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni) and musk oxen (ovibos moschatus), both of which are members of the family bovidae. previously, b. odocoilei has been reported in only cervidae hosts. new geographic regions where b. odocoilei infections have not been reported previously include pennsylvania and new york, where fatal babesiosis has occurred in reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus); new hampshire, where elk (ce ...200516456156
q fever hazards from sheep and goats used in research.two recent outbreaks of q fever in research institutions prompted the authors to review extant data, in an effort to delineate hazards to humans from small ruminants used in research. prevalence of q fever antibodies was 24% among 2097 sheep and 57% among 1475 goats from various sources. in a facility using sheep for prenatal research, in which an epidemic of human q fever later occurred, antibody prevalence among sheep was 77%, with larger than usual proportions of high (greater than or equal t ...19827073323
desert bighorn sheep mortality due to presumptive type c botulism in california.during a routine telemetry flight of the mojave desert (california, usa) in august 1995, mortality signals were detected from two of 12 radio-collared female desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in the vicinity of old dad peak in san bernardino county (california). a series of field investigations determined that at least 45 bighorn sheep had died near two artificial water catchments (guzzlers), including 13 bighorn sheep which had presumably drowned in a guzzler tank. samples from water conta ...200010682765
the serologic prevalence of q fever (coxiella burnetii) complement-fixing antibodies in the peninsular bighorn sheep of southern california.q fever is a rare illness in the southern california desert. during the past 34 years only 6 patients have been diagnosed with the disease at the eisenhower medical center, a referral center for much of the desert and surrounding mountains. in all but 2 instances, q fever was identified in patients who have been in contact with imported domestic sheep who are brought to the desert to graze and lamb in the fall and winter. the sheep are sent back to idaho, wyoming, and montana in the spring. with ...200616896140
survey of chronic sinusitis-induced skull anomalies in desert bighorn sheep.bone anomalies were found in 20% of 630 skulls from desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) representing populations of california bighorn (o canadensis californiana), lower california bighorn (o canadensis cremnobates), mexican bighorn (o canadensis mexicana), and nelson bighorn (o canadensis nelsoni) that are native to arizona, california, nevada, new mexico, and utah. the anomalies were extremely diverse, ranging from osteonecrosis within the matrix of the paranasal sinuses to extensive lysis ...19817327996
pathogen exposure patterns among sympatric populations of bighorn sheep, mule deer and cattle.we sampled sympatric bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis, n = 31), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus, n = 38), and domestic cattle (n = 26) in the san bernadino mountains of southern california (usa) for the presence of psoroptes spp. mites and for serologic evidence of exposure to bluetongue virus (btv) and babesia spp. from 1991 through 1994, psoroptes spp. infestations were found on 12 (44%) of 27 bighorn sheep. no mites were found on mule deer or cattle. the btv serum antibody prevalence in a cohort ...19979131583
the distribution of dermacentor hunteri and anaplasma sp. in desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis).the ixodid tick dermacentor hunteri has been collected intermittently this century, primarily from desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis). anaplasma spp. are intraerythrocytic rickettsial parasites of ungulates and are vectored in the western united states by ticks of the genus dermacentor. we tested the hypotheses that d. hunteri would be found infesting all populations of desert bighorn, and that all infested populations would be seropositive for anaplasma sp. dermacentor hunteri was found on ...19979057693
description of an epidemic simulation model for use in evaluating strategies to control an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.to develop a spatial epidemic model to simulate intraherd and interherd transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus.200312602589
results of epidemic simulation modeling to evaluate strategies to control an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.to assess estimated effectiveness of control and eradication procedures for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in a region of california.200312602590
characterization of a new adenovirus isolated from black-tailed deer in california.an adenovirus associated with systemic and localized vascular damage was demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in a newly recognized epizootic hemorrhagic disease in california black-tailed deer. in this study, we describe the cultural, physicochemical and serological characteristics of a virus isolated from lung using neonatal white-tail deer lung and turbinate cell cultures. the virus had the cultural, morphological and physicochemical characteristics of mem ...200111504424
early records of hydated disease in california. 19734736906
isolation and in vitro cultivation of babesia parasites from free-ranging desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in california.protozoal parasites of the genus babesia were isolated for the first time from free-ranging desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) populations in california by in vitro culture of host blood. these naturally infected animals did not have microscopically detectable parasitemia at the time blood was collected for parasite cultivation. three isolates of small babesia parasites were cultured from different sample groups of bighorn sheep, and 2 isolates of ...19938437062
q fever in the southern california desert: epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment.despite the absence of a natural reservoir for q fever in the desert of southern california, six cases have been identified during the past 32 years. during that period of time, two areas have been used by northern sheep ranchers from idaho and wyoming to import sheep to an area in the coachella valley through 1985. thereafter, because of housing development, the sheep area was moved to blythe along the colorado river. all but two of these patients probably acquired infection by coxiella burneti ...200616837704
emergence of a tetracycline-resistant campylobacter jejuni clone associated with outbreaks of ovine abortion in the united states.campylobacter infection is one of the major causes of ovine abortions worldwide. historically, campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was the major cause of campylobacter-associated abortion in sheep; however, campylobacter jejuni is increasingly associated with sheep abortions. we examined the species distribution, genotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of abortion-associated campylobacter isolates obtained from multiple lambing seasons on different farms in iowa, idaho, south dakota, and cali ...200818322054
comparative molecular characterization of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis of different origin.ribotyping and susceptibility to 17 antimicrobial agents were used to compare 37 isolates of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (28 from horses, 1 from cattle, 3 from sheep and 5 from goats) derived from various types of lesions, and different geographic locations. according to the presence of nitrate reductase, all but one isolate from horses reduced nitrate (nitrate-positive), whereas all isolates from sheep and goats were unable to reduce nitrate (nitrate-negative). the ribotype of the nitrat ...19989695286
bayesian modeling of animal- and herd-level prevalences.we reviewed bayesian approaches for animal-level and herd-level prevalence estimation based on cross-sectional sampling designs and demonstrated fitting of these models using the winbugs software. we considered estimation of infection prevalence based on use of a single diagnostic test applied to a single herd with binomial and hypergeometric sampling. we then considered multiple herds under binomial sampling with the primary goal of estimating the prevalence distribution and the proportion of i ...200415579338
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2001.during 2001, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,437 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of < 1% from 7,364 cases in nonhuman animals and 5 human cases reported in 2000. more than 93% (6,939 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.7% (497 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93.0% in wild animals and 6.9% in domestic species in 2000). the number of cases reported in 2001 increased among bats, cat ...200212494966
survey for the arthropod vectors and mammalian hosts of ricky mountain spotted fever and plague at fort ord, california. 19734719297
farm and animal exposures and pediatric brain tumors: results from the united states west coast childhood brain tumor study.nineteen counties from san francisco and los angeles, california and seattle, washington were the united states sites for a large population-based case-control study of childhood brain tumors (cbts), sponsored by the national cancer institute. cbt patients who were < 20 years of age and were diagnosed between 1984 and 1991 were reported to each region's cancer registry. the 801 control subjects were obtained by random digit dial and were frequency-matched to the 540 cbt patients in san francisco ...19989752988
a serologic survey of mycoplasma putrefaciens infection in goats.the prevalence of mycoplasma putrefaciens infection in goat populations in mendocino and sonoma counties of northern california was studied, using the plate and tube agglutination tests. on a county basis, mendocino had a higher antibody prevalence (13%) than sonoma (10%). the overall antibody prevalence among the 377 goat serum samples tested was 11%. there was no statistical evidence to show any significant difference in prevalence on the basis of herd size. of the common goat breeds in califo ...19817325445
meat preparation and colorectal adenomas in a large sigmoidoscopy-based case-control study in california (united states).the often observed association between red meat and colorectal cancer could be due in part to mutagens, such as heterocyclic amines (hca), that are present in cooked meat. hcas are highly mutagenic and cause intestinal tumors in animals. the hypothesis that hcas are also carcinogenic to humans remains to be substantiated in epidemiologic studies. we determined the associations of meat preparation and frequency of intake (proxy variables for hca exposure, since hca concentration depends on the ty ...19979134241
dermacentor hunteri (acari: ixodidae): seasonal variation in questing adults and on-host juvenile stages, and host associations and feeding behavior of larvae and nymphs.dermacentor hunteri bishopp is the only completely desert adapted tick in the nearctic realm, and chiefly parasitizes desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis shaw) as an adult. the remainder of its life history has been unknown. we conducted field investigations in the sonoran desert of the temporal and spatial variation of adult host-seeking ticks and of the host associations of juvenile ticks. additionally, the feeding success of juvenile ticks was assessed in the laboratory. adult ticks were fo ...19989835699
origin of the australian shepherd dog (german collie) 19807353993
hepatogenous photosensitization of sheep in california associated with ingestion of tribulus terrestris (puncture vine). 19947948218
a dynamic, optimal disease control model for foot-and-mouth-disease: ii. model results and policy implications.a dynamic optimization model was used to search for optimal strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the three-county region in the central valley of california. the model minimized total regional epidemic cost by choosing the levels of depopulation of diagnosed herds, preemptive depopulation, and vaccination. impacts of limited carcass disposal capacity and vaccination were also examined, and the shadow value, the implicit value of each capacity, was estimated. the model found that ...200717280730
direct and indirect contact rates among beef, dairy, goat, sheep, and swine herds in three california counties, with reference to control of potential foot-and-mouth disease transmission.to estimate direct and indirect contact rates on livestock facilities and distance traveled between herd contacts.200111453490
heterogeneity of the l2 gene of field isolates of bluetongue virus serotype 17 from the san joaquin valley of california.genome segment 2 (l2) from six field isolates of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 17 was sequenced by cycling sequencing after the amplification of the viral cdna by the polymerase chain reaction. the viruses were isolated from sheep, cattle and a goat in the san joaquin valley of california during the years 1981 and 1990. these viruses exhibit divergent patterns of neutralization with btv 17-specific monoclonal antibodies. the six l2 genes of the btv 17 field isolates all encode a protein of 955 ...19948165870
a dynamic, optimal disease control model for foot-and-mouth disease: i. model description.a dynamic optimization model was developed and used to evaluate alternative foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control strategies. the model chose daily control strategies of depopulation and vaccination that minimized total regional cost for the entire epidemic duration, given disease dynamics and resource constraints. the disease dynamics and the impacts of control strategies on these dynamics were characterized in a set of difference equations; effects of movement restrictions on the disease dynami ...200717280729
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2006.during 2006, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the cdc, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1. ...200717696853
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus skin infections from an elephant calf--san diego, california, 2008.methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) infections are a major cause of human skin and soft tissue infections in the united states. mrsa colonization and infection also have been observed in turtles, bats, seals, sheep, rabbits, rodents, cats, dogs, pigs, birds, horses, and cattle, and mrsa infections with an epidemiologic link to animal contact have been reported in veterinary personnel, pet owners, and farm animal workers. on january 29, 2008, the county of san diego health and huma ...200919265780
biosecurity practices and travel history of individuals exhibiting livestock at the 2005 california state fair.to determine biosecurity practices and travel history of individuals exhibiting livestock at the 2005 california state fair.200717696860
polymorphism and transcription at the p44-1/p44-18 genomic locus in anaplasma phagocytophilum strains from diverse geographic regions.a polymorphic multigene family (p44) of anaplasma phagocytophilum encodes the immunodominant 44-kda major outer membrane proteins. with p44-specific pcr and gene-specific probes, p44-1 was found in all human isolates from new york state but not in isolates from minnesota, whereas p44-18 and two other p44 species were found in isolates from both regions. we therefore sequenced the genomic locus corresponding to the p44-1/p44-18 tandem locus of a. phagocytophilum hz in 14 other geographically dive ...200415385454
pleistocene to historic shifts in bald eagle diets on the channel islands, california.studies of current interactions among species, their prey, and environmental factors are essential for mitigating immediate threats to population viability, but the true range of behavioral and ecological flexibility can be determined only through research on deeper timescales. ecological data spanning centuries to millennia provide important contextual information for long-term management strategies, especially for species that now are living in relict populations. here we use a variety of meth ...201020439737
population subdivision among desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) ewes revealed by mitochondrial dna analysis.we used behavioural observations and mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequence analysis to examine demographic and genetic structure within and among home-range groups of desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) ewes in the peninsular ranges of southern california, usa. we identified substantial genetic variation in the first 515 bp of the mtdna control region and determined that seven haplotypes were distributed in a nonrandom fashion among these ewe subpopulations. although a significant (p < 0.01) amo ...19999919700
phylogenetic relationships of human and wildlife piroplasm isolates in the western united states inferred from the 18s nuclear small subunit rna gene.the 18s nuclear small subunit ribosomal rna gene of piroplasms from wildlife and human cases of babesiosis in the western usa were isolated by pcr and sequenced. phylogenetic analyses of these sequences and comparisons with sequences from other babesia and theileria species revealed that piroplasm isolates from the human cases were indistinguishable from some of the isolates from the western wildlife species, most notably the isolates from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus). these results suggest t ...200010840978
an ecologic study comparing distribution of pasteurella trehalosi and mannheimia haemolytica between sierra nevada bighorn sheep, white mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.the prevalence and phenotypic variability of pasteurella and mannheimia isolates from sierra nevada bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis sierrae), white mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (ovis aries) from california, usa, were compared. the white mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the sierra nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. the domestic sheep flocks ...200919901369
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