ureaplasm spp isolated from ewes in northern ireland. 1979473544
the treatment of myxoedema with raw sheep thyroid gland and its introduction into practice in county londonderry in 1892. 19921377843
clinical q fever in northern ireland 1962-1989.q fever was diagnosed in 443 patients in northern ireland between 1962 and 1989. from 1986 onwards there was an increase, which peaked in 1989 with 107 cases of whom 47 were infected in ballycastle, co antrim. there were three outbreaks and 21 clusters of patients with q fever. most cases were in april and may which correlated with the peak lambing and calving season. q fever mainly affected males in the 40-49 year old age group. county antrim had the highest prevalence rate of 40/100,000 popula ...19902278109
survey of levels of propetamphos and diazinon used to control sheep scab in northern a result of an increase in the incidence of sheep scab in northern ireland, the concentrations of propetamphos and diazinon were measured during 1987 and 1988 in fleece and liquid dip samples from selected flocks, including some in which inadequate dipping was suspected. sixty-five per cent and 68 per cent of the liquid dip samples contained less than the manufacturer's recommended maintenance concentrations for propetamphos and diazinon respectively. the concentrations found in fleece were a ...19902327045
infectious agents in respiratory disease of housed, fattening lambs in northern ireland.a two-year longitudinal, microbiological and pathological survey of respiratory disease in lambs housed for fattening at three-and-a-half to four months of age was undertaken. in the first year samples of nasal mucus and blood were taken from lambs each week for the first nine weeks after entry to a fattening unit and each week one lamb was examined post mortem. in the second year two additional fattening units were included in the survey, when samples of blood and nasal mucus were taken from la ...19883381463
should chernobyl bring down the price of british lamb? 19863750769
a survey of the viruses of farm animals in northern ireland. 19724345989
the epidemiology of fascioliasis in northern ireland. 19705528583
preliminary investigations of the use of calcium cyanamide as a molluscicide to control fascioliasis in northern ireland. 19705528584
assessments of the molluscicide n-tritylmorpholine in the control of fascioliasis in northern ireland. 19705528644
the stormont "wet day" forecasting system for fascioliasis. 19705530281
a further season of epidermiological studies of fasciola hepatica infections in sheep. 19676067628
survey for antibodies to respiratory viruses in two groups of sheep in northern ireland.two hundred serum samples from texel and texel crossbred sheep (non-indigenous breeds) and 200 from indigenous northern ireland breeds (mainly blackface, cheviot and border leicester crosses) were tested for antibodies to parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus (subgroups 1 and 2), influenza type a, maedi-visna virus and bovine virus diarrhoea virus. the percentage of animals with antibodies to parainfluenza virus 3 (50 to 56 per cent) and adenovirus ...19846095511
persistance of ureaplasma genital infection in naturally-infected ewes. 19846466956
serovar identification of leptospires of the australis serogroup isolated from free-living and domestic species in the united kingdom.eighteen isolates from the australis serogroup from free-living and domestic animals were identified using the cross agglutination absorption test. serovar muenchen was found only in england and wales in wood mice, short tailed and bank voles, a grey squirrel and a pig. serovar bratislava was found in hedgehogs in england, wales and northern ireland and also in a brown rat from northern ireland. serovar bratislava was isolated from sheep in both england and northern ireland and from horses in no ...19836622847
experimental production of vulvitis in ewes with a ureaplasma isolate. 19827112878
an outbreak of aujeszky's disease in sheep in northern outbreak of aujeszky's disease occurred in a flock of 160 ewes which had been shorn and housed adjacent to pigs which were excreting aujeszky's disease virus. the 29 affected sheep developed either the classical 'mad itch' signs associated with aujeszky's disease in ruminants or signs of encephalitis. aujeszky's disease virus was isolated from the central nervous system of the affected ewes. five farm cats also became ill and died. histological lesions of viral encephalitis were observed in o ...19957676579
pasteurella haemolytica serotypes isolated in northern ireland during 1989-1991.pasteurella haemolytica isolates from clinical veterinary samples were serotyped over a three year period to determine the distribution of strains in northern ireland, to compare the results with the recorded distribution in the remainder of great britain and to extend information on the geographical prevalence of the serotypes. four hundred and nine typable and 91 untypable strains were isolated from 490 animal cases. from 127 typable cattle isolates, the commonest serotype was a1, most frequen ...19938111616
chlamydia psittaci infection in sheep in northern ireland. 19938488651
cooling down over cloning. 19989449862
effects of stocking density on lambs being transported by road.lambs were transported for 24 hours during summer and winter at a range of stocking densities. shorn lambs of mean liveweight 39.5 kg were transported at densities of 0.448, 0.513, 0.602 and 0.769 m2/100 kg in july and fully-fleeced lambs of 37.3 kg mean liveweight were transported at densities of 0.613, 0.680, 0.775 and 0.909 m2/100 kg in february. fewer lambs lay down and rested at high stocking densities and there was a marked increase in the plasma levels of creatine kinase at the highest st ...19989618873
emerging diseases. hunt for mad cow in sheep reassuring.experts on brain-riddling spongiform diseases have grown steadily more uneasy over signs that so-called mad cow disease or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse), which is linked to a lethal human illness, may be lurking in sheep. a study in the 10 august issue of nature now offers evidence that bse is not rampant in sheep after all, although scientists are far from ready to let their guard down.200010960311
incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw sheep and goats' milk in england, wales and northern ireland.a blind survey of 104 raw sheep and goats' milk samples (90 goat, 14 sheeps) from bulk tanks on farms throughout england, wales and northern ireland was carried out over a 5-month period (january-may 1998) in order to determine the incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis. each milk sample (100 ml) was divided into two 50ml portions. one portion was decontaminated with 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride for 5h before culture on slopes of herrold's egg yolk medium and in bactec radiometric med ...200111230934
pestiviral infections in sheep and pigs in northern ireland.serological surveys were carried out to determine the prevalence of pestiviral infections in sheep and pigs in northern ireland. sera from 918 ewes in 92 flocks from 10 regions were tested by elisa for antibodies to border disease virus and positive results were obtained from 49 ewes (5.3 per cent) in 28 flocks (30.4 per cent). there were highly significant geographical variations in its flock prevalence ranging from 0 per cent in the enniskillen region to 70 per cent in the coleraine region. th ...200112503593
is mad cow disease caused by a bacteria?transmissible spongioform enchephalopathies (tse's), include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called bse or "mad cow disease"), creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) in humans, and scrapie in sheep. they remain a mystery, their cause hotly debated. but between 1994 and 1996, 12 people in england came down with cjd, the human form of mad cow, and all had eaten beef from suspect cows. current mad cow diagnosis lies solely in the detection of late appearing "prions", an acronym for hypothesized, ge ...200415325025
national scrapie plans - the flock register. 200515937246
mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in lake catchments, in river water abstracted for domestic use, and in effluent from domestic sewage treatment works: diverse opportunities for environmental cycling and human exposure.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from infected animals enters surface waters and rivers in runoff from contaminated pastures. we studied the river tywi in south wales, united kingdom, whose catchment comprises 1,100 km2 containing more than a million dairy and beef cattle and more than 1.3 million sheep. the river tywi is abstracted for the domestic water supply. between august 2002 and april 2003, 48 of 70 (68.8%) twice-weekly river water samples tested positive by is900 pcr. in rive ...200616751517
comparisons of original laboratory results and retrospective analysis by real-time reverse transcriptase-pcr of virological samples collected from confirmed cases of foot-and-mouth disease in the uk in 2001.there were 2030 designated cases of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) during the course of the epidemic in the uk in 2001 (including four from northern ireland). samples from 1720 of the infected premises (ips) were received in the laboratory and examined for either the presence of fmd virus (virological samples from 1421 ips) or both fmd virus and antibody (virological and serological samples from 255 ips) or antibody alone (from 44 ips). the time taken to issue final diagnostic results ranged from ...200616980522
evidence for transplacental and contact transmission of bluetongue virus in cattle.this paper presents evidence that a field strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (btv-8) was transmitted transplacentally and that it was also spread by a direct contact route. twenty pregnant heifers were imported from the netherlands into northern ireland during the midge-free season. tests before and after the animals were imported showed that eight of them had antibodies to bluetongue virus, but no viral rna was detected in any of them by reverse transcriptase-pcr (rt-pcr). two of the seropos ...200818708653
bluetongue--where are we now? 200818931359
[bluetongue virus serotype 8 in healthy young calves].following the detection in northern ireland of bluetongue serotype-8 (btv-8) pcr-positive calves born from pcr-negative but seropositive heifers imported from the netherlands, an investigation was started to determine whether pcr-positive calves were born in the first quarter of 2008 in the netherlands. blood samples were collected on 43 dairy farms from 388 cow-calf combinations. all calves were at least 10-days-old and had been born after 1 january 2008. in total, 229 cows had had a btv-8 infe ...200819133436
coxiella burnetii (q fever) seroprevalence in cattle.human cases of q fever appear to be common in northern ireland compared to the rest of the british isles. the purpose of this study was to describe the seroepidemiology of coxiella burnetii infection in cattle in northern ireland in terms of seroprevalence and determinants of infection. a total of 5182 animals (from a stratified systematic random sample of 273 herds) were tested with a commercial c. burnetii phase 2 igg elisa. a total of 6.2% of animals and 48.4% of herds tested positively. resu ...201019480726
northern ireland disease surveillance, july to september 2010. 201021262691
q fever in the united kingdom and britain, q fever in man was first reported in 1949. two years later a serological survey of cattle revealed a prevalence of infection of 2.1%. in the 1970's prevalences of 4.5% and 3.1% were encountered respectively in cows that had aborted or calved normally in central england. in sheep, antibodies to c. burnetii have been detected in approximately 2.8% of sera examined for diagnostic purposes and 0.6% of sheep awaiting export. since 1975 fewer than 10 incidents of c. burnetii associated dis ...19873324568
species of gastro-intestinal helminths of lambs in northern ireland. 19725082160
evidence for serotypic variation among bovine rotaviruses.eight field strains of calf rotavirus from the u.k. were compared by neutralisation tests, using convalescent and hyperimmune antisera. seven of these strains cross-reacted and were considered to be of one serotype, while the 8th was distinguished by a greater than 20-fold two-way difference in neutralisation titre suggesting a second serotype. three widely-distributed reference strains (u.k., northern ireland and lincoln) cross-reacted with the strains in the dominant serotype, as did 33 of 42 ...19846320775
northern ireland disease surveillance, april to june 2011. 201121936069
contamination of headwater streams in the united kingdom by oestrogenic hormones from livestock farms.most studies of hormonal activity in rivers have focused on inputs from sewage treatment works (stw), and their consequences for endocrine disruption in fish. it is possible that livestock is contributing to this hormonal activity in rivers. this study represents a search for evidence of steroid hormone contamination in streams associated with livestock farms. the majority of the 10 sites selected were streams running through dairy farms, although some examples of beef, sheep and pigs were inclu ...200616542709
breeding programmes for tse resistance in british sheep. i. assessing the impact on prion protein (prp) genotype frequencies.from april 2005, member states of the european union were required to implement a compulsory breeding programme for resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) in sheep as part of measures to eradicate tses from national flocks. in this paper, we assessed the impact of four different breeding strategies on prion protein (prp) genotype frequencies using a mathematical model which describes in detail gene flow in the british sheep flock. these strategies ranged from the minimum ...200616169614
contamination and compensation: gruinard as a 'menace to the mainland'.the decades-long contamination of gruinard island by anthrax is now a well-known part of the history of biological weapons (bw) development, as well as that of military encroachments in the scottish highlands and islands (and the authorities' rather less persistent efforts at damage limitation). some accounts have included the related episode, reportedly well-remembered by local people, of anthrax contamination on the mainland close to gruinard. this occurred in 1942--43, when bw experiments wer ...200415688884
relating national veterinary services to the country's livestock industry: case studies from four countries--great britain, botswana, perú, and the end of ww ii, the british government of the time decided that it was essential for britain to become self-sufficient in food. in consequence there was a large investment in services to agriculture and in particular many new veterinary investigation centers were opened to help farmers produce more animal products. the upsurge in world trade led the government of mrs. thatcher to decide that livestock was just another commodity and so there has been a massive scaling down of money available ...200212381561
current attitudes and future influences on meat consumption in the u.k.a survey of 1018 u.k. residents was conducted using the basic structure of the theory of reasoned action along with scenarios of possible future events investigating meat-eating and vegetarianism. over a quarter (28%) of the sample considered themselves to be reducing meat consumption although a comparison of present and retrospective meat consumption indicated that less than a quarter of this group had cut down on a variety of meats in their diets over the past year. the attitudes related to pr ...19938239634
distribution of ureaplasmas in the urogenital tract of ewes. 19817344258
isolation of acholeplasma oculi in northern ireland. 19817336542
q fever in northern ireland. 19685644160
congenital and delayed swayback in lambs in northern ireland. 19725073594
johne's disease in sheep in northern ireland. 19725049480
serological surveillance for maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in northern ireland.the results of serological testing for maedi-visna virus infection in indigenous and non-indigenous sheep in northern ireland, over a five year period (1980 to 1984) are presented. in tests carried out in 1980 and 1981 on pedigree breeds, 10 reactors were identified on seven farms and maedi-visna virus was isolated on three occasions from leucocyte cultures. none of the animals showed clinical signs of maedi-visna and all the reactors were subsequently destroyed. nine of the reactors were import ...19863010539
molecular biology lies down with the lamb. 19902371561
phosphorus cycles of forest and upland grassland ecosystems and some effects of land management practices.the distribution of phosphorus capital and net annual transfers of phosphorus between the major components of two unfertilized phosphorus-deficient uk ecosystems, an oak--ash woodland in the lake district and an agrostis-festuca grassland in snowdonia (both on acid brown-earth soils), have been estimted in terms of kg p ha--1. in both ecosystems less than 3% of the phosphorus, totalling 1890 kg p ha--1 and 3040 kg p ha--1 for the woodland and grassland, respectively, is contained in the living b ...1977357119
northern ireland disease surveillance report: northern ireland disease surveillance, october to december 2010. 201121634063
choosing appropriate space allowances for slaughter pigs transported by road: a the united kingdom pigs can spend up to 11 hours in transit to slaughter but on average travel for two to three hours. in the past, international journeys have lasted up to 40 hours and have been over 900 miles long. there is evidence that pigs, like calves and sheep, but unlike adult cattle, prefer to lie down if provided with suitable conditions, particularly bedding, on the vehicle. they will, however, sometimes stand during short journeys, possibly when excessive vibration or uncomfortabl ...19989602513
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