possible windborne spread of bluetongue to portugal, june-july 1956.the possible sources for the epidemic of bluetongue in portugal at the beginning of july 1956 were examined. introduction through authorized importation of domestic or wild ruminants was not feasible, since no cattle, sheep or goats were imported and the wild ruminants were confined to lisbon zoo, which was too far from the initial outbreaks. weather maps were examined to see if the wind could have carried infected culicoides midges from north africa. on 21 june 1956 infected midges in morocco c ...1978212475
spatial distribution of culicoides species in portugal in relation to the transmission of african horse sickness and bluetongue viruses.surveillance of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) biting midge vectors was carried out at 87 sites within a 50 x 50 km grid distributed across portugal, using light trap collections at the time of peak midge abundance. culicoides imicola (kieffer) made up 66% of the 55 937 culicoides in these summer collections. it was highly abundant in the central eastern portion of portugal, between 37 degrees 5' n and 41 degrees 5' n, and in a band across to the lisbon peninsula (at around 38 degrees 5' ...200312823834
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