plasma thyroxine concentrations in grazing sheep in several areas of australia.plasma thyroxine concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples from 691 lactating ewes in 26 areas of new south wales, queensland, western australia and tasmania. sheep sampled in new south wales and tasmania had significantly lower plasma thyroxine values (4.0 and 4.3 microgram/100 ml respectively) than those sampled in queensland and western australia (5.4 and 5.3 microgram/100 ml respectively). however, sheep in some districts in southern queensland also had low plasma th ...1978567054
letter: the occurrence of eperythrozoon ovis in queensland. 1976962744
congenital bovine epizootic arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in australia. distribution of antibodies to akabane virus in australian cattle after the 1974 the end of the 1974 epizootic of bovine congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in south-eastern new south wales, an australia-wide serological survey (about 4,000 serums) was made to determine the ditribution of cattle possessing serum neutralising antibodies against akabane virus. eighty per cent of the serums from cattle in northern australia (western australia, northern territory, and queensland) were positive. a detailed study in the epizootic area in new south wales (particularly ...19761016149
suspected botulism in three intensively managed australian cattle herds.serious outbreaks of a paralytic disease in cattle occurring in the spring and summer of 1988 were investigated on three farms in south eastern queensland, australia. on one farm 237 (31 per cent) of 770 cattle died, on the second 109 (40 per cent) of 271 cattle died and on the third 30 (8 per cent) of 380 cows died. botulism was suspected on the basis of the clinical signs, the lack of significant pathology, a failure to incriminate other agents and a positive feeding trial in one sheep. labora ...19921609468
factors affecting the natural transmission of bovine leukaemia virus infection in queensland dairy herds.natural transmission of bovine leukaemia virus (blv) infection in south-eastern queensland dairy herds was slow in 2 herds with a low to moderate (13 to 22%) prevalence of infection. infection spread much more rapidly in a herd that had a higher prevalence (42%) when first tested. in a 13 month study of this herd, the cumulative incidence of infection was 24%. in one herd new infections were confined almost entirely to calves of uninfected dams. following the end of feeding bulk milk to calves, ...19911656925
serological assessment of chlamydial infection in the koala by a slide eia technique.a rapid and simplified slide enzyme immunosorbent assay (eia) was developed for the diagnosis of chlamydial infection in the koala. hela 229 cells infected with koala strain chlamydia psittaci were fixed on the surface of multiwell slides and used as the antigen. the assay consisted of first reacting koala antiserum with the fixed c psittaci antigen, followed by reaction with biotinylated rabbit anti-koala igg, abc reagent and substrate. the chlamydial eia antibody titres obtained were compared ...19911807246
incidence of aeromonas and listeria spp. in red meat and milk samples in brisbane, australia.a total of 150 samples, 50 each of beef, lamb and pork from 10 local retail stores in brisbane metropolitan area as well as 150 raw bovine bulk milk tank samples obtained from queensland united foods (quf), were examined for the presence of aeromonas and listeria spp. over a period of 1 year. different sets of enrichment and plating media were used to recover the organisms with subsequent identification using conventional biochemical and serotyping techniques. a total of 509 isolates consisting ...19911904764
the prevalence of sarcosporidiosis in australian meat animals.the prevalence of sarcocystis infectious in tasmanian sheep, cattle and pigs was assessed during february 1974. serological results indicated that over 90% of sheep and cattle were infected. macroscopic sarcocysts were found in 0.6% of lambs, 8.8% of 2- to 6-tooth (1 to 4 years old) sheep and 66% of full-mouth (4 years and older) sheep. the minimum prevalence in pigs, as determined by microscopic examination of muscle tissues, was 1.4% for animals less than 12 months old and 16.7% for animals ol ...1975812465
experimental infection of culicoides brevitarsis from south-east queensland with three serotypes of bluetongue virus.laboratory-reared c. brevitarsis (biting midges) were fed on sheep which had been experimentally infected with bluetongue serotype 1 (csiro 156), bluetongue serotype 20 (csiro 19) or bluetongue serotype 21 (csiro 154), or on cattle experimentally infected with bluetongue serotype 20 (csiro 19). approximately 77 000 c. brevitarsis were exposed to sheep and 9000 to cattle. the average percentage feeding on sheep was 54% and on cattle 47%. in attempts to transmit virus by bite 3360 c. brevitarsis w ...19852998313
haemonchus-free trichostrongylid illthrift in unweaned lambs in south eastern queensland. 19854026721
echinococcus granulosus in farm dogs and dingoes in south eastern queensland.twenty-nine farms with a prevalence of greater than 20% of hydatidosis in cattle were visited in south eastern queensland between august and december 1982. all farms carried beef cattle but none sheep. twenty-four had dingoes and wallabies but only 8 had feral pigs. on 17 farms either macropods were killed for dog food or dogs were suspected of hunting macropods or scavenging their carcases. purge samples were collected from 45 dogs from 23 of the 29 farms visited. the australian sylvatic strain ...19854084146
a survey for arbovirus antibodies in pigs and sheep in queensland. 19724655386
a rickettsia-like organism from a water-rat, hydromys chrysogaster, from brisbane. 19674864429
a survey of antibody to 10 arboviruses (koongol group, mapputta group and ungrouped) isolated in queensland. 19705533929
psittacosis lymphogranuloma polyarthritis of sheep in queensland. 19685751649
johne's disease in sheep.johne's disease was identified in sheep flocks on 6 farms in one area of the central tablelands of new south wales. the sources of infection were not determined and no common source of all infections was identified. the disease was not diagnosed in cattle that were run on 4 of the farms.19846497808
ovine nasal zygomycosis caused by conidiobolus incongruus.about 700 sheep died on 52 farms in north-western new south wales and south-western queensland over a 3 mo period. affected animals had a marked asymmetrical swelling of the face, extending from the nostril to just anterior to the eyes. they lost condition rapidly and died within 7 to 10 days. at necropsy there was a unilateral severe necrogranulomatous rhinitis with extension of inflammation into the adjacent subcutaneous tissue, nasal septum and hard palate. metastatic lesions were present in ...19921445069
phylogenetic characterisation of bluetongue viruses from naturally-infected insects, cattle and sheep in australia.the polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of bluetongue virus (btv) in a number of clinical and insect samples collected in the northern territory of australia. sequence analyses of the amplified btv genes differentiated endemic australian and exotic viruses. two potential exotic btv were detected as a result of pcr analyses of blood from sentinel animals and of the insect vector, culicoides wadai. the detection of btv in c wadai was the first direct demonstration of the pres ...19948048903
isolation and structure determination of terminalin a toxic condensed tannin from terminalia oblongata.terminalia oblongata (yellow wood) is a small deciduous tree growing over an area of central queensland that supports a large proportion of this state's cattle population. cattle and sheep that consume yellow wood leaves are poisoned and die. severe losses of these animals can occur, and this problem is considered the main cause of economic loss to the cattle industry in the area apart from drought. a new toxic condensed tannin, terminalin was isolated from terminalia oblongata. its structure wa ...19948087436
the use of discriminant analysis in predicting the distribution of bluetongue virus in queensland, australia.the climatic variables that were most useful in classifying the infection status of queensland cattle herds with bluetongue virus were assessed using stepwise linear discriminant analysis. a discriminant function that included average annual rainfall and average daily maximum temperature was found to correctly classify 82.6% of uninfected herds and 72.4% of infected herds. overall, the infection status of 74.1% of herds was correctly classified. the spatial distribution of infected herds was fou ...19948091641
wildlife reservoir for human hydatidosis. 19968668088
antibodies to bluetongue and related orbiviruses in sheep and goats in bluetongue virus-endemic areas of northern and central queensland. 19958787524
effect of adjuvants on antibody responses of sheep immunised with recombinant pili from dichelobacter compare the effects of two oil emulsion adjuvants (incomplete freunds adjuvant and a proprietary oil adjuvant), deae-dextran, l-tyrosine particles and quil a on the humoral immune responses of sheep immunised with recombinant pili of dichelobacter nodosus (strain a).19969006863
observations on squamous cell carcinomas of sheep in queensland, australia.observations were made over a 4-year period on squamous cell carcinomas on the ear and other areas poorly covered by hair or wool, sheep pastured in the hot, dry environment of north-western queensland. overall incidence in the flock was higher than in flocks kept at greater latitudes. increased incidence with advancing age was demonstrated, and ewes appeared to be more susceptible than wethers. metastases were observed in 4 of 33 affected ewes (12%) submitted to detailed necropsy examination. m ...1977831756
q fever in a queensland epidemiological study of q fever infection in a brisbane meatworks was undertaken. a retrospective 10-year study (1968 to 1977) revealed an average annual incidence of 1% for the nine years excluding 1969, while an outbreak with a 7.9% incidence occurred in 1969. no seasonal distribution was found. results indicated that cattle form the major source of coxiella burneti (infectious agent of q fever) in the meatworks and that the highest risk of infection exists on the cattle slaughter floor. t ...19807402154
vectors of bluetongue virus in australia.two of the 5 serotypes of bluetongue virus (btv) known from australia have been isolated from field collected insects. serotype 20 was isolated in 1975 from a mixed pool of 214 insects containing several culicoides species. serotype 1 has been isolated from c. (avaritia) fulvus sen & das gupta collected at beatrice hill in the northern territory and from c. (avaritia) brevitarsis kieffer collected at peachester in southeast queensland. all other isolates of bluetongue (bt) group viruses have bee ...19852989850
pathology of reproductive tracts of merino rams in north western queensland. 19892590142
trends in the use of pesticides and pesticide residues on queensland determine the amounts of organophosphorous and synthetic pyrethroid residues on queensland wool sampled between 1995 and 1997, and to study if pesticide use changed during the period.19989830571
pesticide use and residues on queensland determine practices for control of louse infestation and blowfly strike in queensland sheep flocks that are associated with organophosphorous and synthetic pyrethroid residues on wool.19989862064
residues of insect growth regulators on queensland wool. 19989830572
detection of calves persistently infected with bovine pestivirus in a sample of dairy calves in south-eastern determine the proportion and incidence of calves persistently infected with bovine pestivirus in calves (n = 1521) supplied to the tick fever research centre and to assess the test regime to detect calves persistently infected with bovine pestivirus.19979325544
the epidemiology of melioidosis in australia and papua new guinea.melioidosis was first described in australia in an outbreak in sheep in 1949 in north queensland (22 degrees s). human melioidosis was first described from townsville (19 degrees s) in 1950. melioidosis is hyperendemic in the top end of the northern territory (nt) and as in parts of northeastern thailand it is the commonest cause of fatal community-acquired septicemic pneumonia. in the 9 years since 1989 the prospective nt melioidosis study at royal darwin hospital (12 degrees s) has documented ...200010674639
animal melioidosis in australia.melioidosis was first diagnosed in australia in sheep in 1949. while it has been considered endemic in tropical australia, there have been animal outbreaks in southwest western australia and southern queensland. infection occurs in many species, with both latency and a wide range of clinical manifestations. some species may develop melioidosis only if immunocompromised. sheep and goats are particularly susceptible, resulting in the requirement for pasteurisation of tropical commercial goat's mil ...200010674644
shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli in sheep and pre-slaughter lambs in eastern australia.sheep and lambs from 14 farms in southern queensland and one from central new south wales were surveyed to determine the prevalence of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec). stec, isolated from 45% of 144 sheep faeces collected on the farms and 36% of 72 lamb faeces from abattoir yards, were tested for the presence of genes encoding virulence factors. most (64%) of the 117 stec isolates contained shiga toxin 1 and 2 genes, 22% contained those encoding shiga toxin 1, and 14% contained gen ...199910347885
time-space clustering of reported blowfly strike in queensland sheep flocks.the reported occurrence of blowfly strike in 57 sheep flocks in queensland, australia, was investigated for time-space clustering in an exploratory study using knox's method. flystrike occurrence peaked in late spring and early summer, with an additional late-autumn peak in southern-queensland flocks. a total of 1596 case-pairs was examined. significant clustering (p = 0.07) was only detected for case-pairs occurring within 3 months and 150 km of each other; 164 case-pairs were declared close co ...200010782597
inspection of wool lots at sales as a diagnostic test for louse infestation.the accuracy of visual inspection of wool lots for lice as a test for louse infestation was estimated using information provided by 178 woolgrowers in queensland, australia. the estimated sensitivity of inspection was 36% (95% confidence interval, 19-58%) and the specificity was 95% (95% ci, 88-98%). accuracy was influenced by timing, after shearing, of pesticide application for louse control and by class of pesticide last applied after shearing. visual inspection was less sensitive (29%) if pes ...200010828518
forecasting blowfly strike in queensland sheep flocks.the occurrence of blowfly strike between 1993 and 1999, derived from the reported use of pesticides for flystrike control, was investigated in 247 sheep flocks in queensland, australia using autoregressive techniques. although there was a small increase (0. 0016 per year) in flystrike incidence during the study period, this long-term linear trend was not significant (p=0.53). the occurrence of flystrike was best described by an autoregressive model that included flystrike in the previous 2 month ...200010996743
progress in national control and assurance programs for ovine johne's disease in australia.since the detection of ovine johne's disease in australia in 1980, 578 flocks have been diagnosed as infected, with 442 of these still infected. the disease was initially believed to be confined to the central tablelands area of nsw, but has subsequently been shown to be more widely distributed. sheep strains of m. paratuberculosis are known to infect sheep and goats in south-eastern australia. although sheep strains have recently been identified in some cattle in australia, epidemiological evid ...200011118726
prevalence and clustering of louse infestation in queensland sheep flocks.information provided by wool growers in queensland, australia between 1995 and 1997 was used to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of louse (bovicola ovis) infestation in sheep flocks. the estimated prevalence of louse-infested flocks was 40% (95% confidence interval, 35-46%). although the prevalence of infestation was higher in western regions (41-50%) compared to the south region of queensland (31%), the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). significant (p = 0.02 ...199910348104
verotoxin-producing escherichia coli from the faeces of sheep, calves and pigs. 19979140657
gender and drought: experiences of australian women in the drought of the 1990s.a unique collaborative, sociological study undertaken during 1995-7, explored the social construction of drought as a disaster, looking at farm families in two australian states: queensland (beef producers) and new south wales (sheep/wheat producers). a decision was made to interview the women and men separately to test our hypothesis that there would be gender issues in any analysis of a disaster, but particularly one which has had so much long-term impact on individuals, families and communiti ...200010718013
a postal survey of blowfly strike occurrence in two queensland describe the occurrence of blowfly strike in sheep flocks in two shires located in south-eastern queensland.200111789913
serotypes of verotoxin-producing (shiga toxin-producing) escherichia coli isolated from healthy sheep.using pcr techniques shiga toxin-producing strains of escherichia coli were isolated from the faeces of 45 out of 101 healthy sheep. these strains were serotyped and found to include o5:h-, o91:h- and o163:h19, which had previously been reported as being associated with human disease including haemolytic uraemic syndrome.200010660253
sheep blowfly strike reduction using a synthetic lure system.the effectiveness of a synthetic lure system to reduce the incidence of blowfly strike in sheep flocks was assessed, using randomised field trials. four field trials used eight total groups of sheep randomised to treatment (flytrap) or control on two properties in southern queensland between 1999 and 2001. treatment consisted of the operation of flytraps in paddocks as per manufacturer's recommendations. all sheep were inspected physically each month for flystrikes. flytraps were associated with ...200312719014
the clinical differentiation of nervous and muscular locomotor disorders of sheep in australia.many of the nervous and muscular locomotor disorders that affect sheep throughout australia are commonly referred to as "staggers" syndromes. the range of clinical signs displayed by sheep suffering these disorders is sufficiently diverse to enable each syndrome to be graded into one of 5 progressive clinical groups. the first group, the limb paresis syndromes, includes the primary myopathies associated with the ingestion of ixiolaena brevicompta, malva parviflora, and trachymene ochracea, as we ...19958526819
blowfly strike in sheep flocks as an example of the use of a time-space scan statistic to control confounding.the use of a time-space scan statistic--defined by a cylindrical window with a circular geographic base and height corresponding to time--was investigated as a method of detecting clustering in veterinary epidemiology whilst controlling confounding. the example data set consisted of farmer-recorded occurrence of body strike and breech strike between august 1998 and may 1999 in 26 sheep flocks located in two local government areas of southeastern queensland, australia. this information was derive ...200111267689
use of interpolated climatic parameters to predict risk of blowfly-strike in queensland sheep flocks.the risk of blowfly-strike was investigated in 160 sheep flocks in queensland, australia. the association between blowfly-strike--measured by the use of pesticides in response to flystrike reported by flock managers during the period 1994-1997--and interpolated rainfall and temperature data was examined using survival analysis and stepwise regression. the statistical model explaining the most variation in risk of blowfly-strike included average maximum temperature and its second-order polynomial ...200111267693
surveys to assess the amount of pesticide in wool and the use of pesticides by woolgrowers in measure the amounts of pesticide residue in wool grown in queensland between 1997 and 1999, and to describe the use of pesticides for the control of lice infestations and blowfly strike in queensland sheep flocks.200111432004
characterization of moxidectin resistant trichostrongylus colubriformis and haemonchus contortus.the development of moxidectin resistance (mox-r) in sheep parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes already carrying multiple resistances to other anthelmintic groups has made control of these strains very difficult. the anthelmintic resistance patterns of mox-r strains of trichostrongylus colubriformis and haemonchus contortus were characterized to provide an insight into the remaining role of anthelmintics in the control of such strains. homozygous mox-r individuals of both genera were unaffected b ...200415725536
studies of arthropod-borne virus infections in queensland. iv. further serological investigations of antibodies to group b arboviruses in man and animals. 196414150749
rapid identification of virulence genes in enterotoxigenic escherichia coli isolates associated with diarrhoea in queensland identify virulence genes in enterotoxigenic e coli (etec) isolates associated with diarrhoea in neonatal, 1 to 3 week-old and weaned pigs in southeast queensland.200515957392
identification of the glycosidase inhibitors swainsonine and calystegine b2 in weir vine (ipomoea sp. q6 [aff. calobra]) and correlation with toxicity.the polyhydroxy alkaloid glycosidase inhibitors swainsonine [1] and calystegine b2 [6] have been identified as constituents of the seeds of the australian plant ipomoea sp. q6 [aff. calobra] (weir vine) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by their biological activity as inhibitors of specific glycosidases. this plant, which is known only from a small area of southern queensland, has been reported to produce a neurological disorder when consumed by livestock. the extract of the seeds show ...19957673932
bioassay-derived androgenic and estrogenic activity in municipal sewage in australia and new zealand.raw sewage and sewage at various stages of treatment were sampled from 15 municipal sewage treatment plants in south queensland (australia) and canterbury (new zealand). estrogenic and androgenic activities were determined with sheep estrogen receptor and rainbow trout androgen receptor binding assays, respectively. selected estrogenic chemicals were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the raw sewage influents contained significant levels of both estrogenic (<4-185 ng/l estrad ...200616169080
serological studies of australian and papua new guinean cattle and australian sheep for the presence of antibodies against bluetongue group viruses.following isolation of a virus (csiro19) from insects in australia and its identification as bluetongue virus serotype 20 (btv20), a nationwide survey of antibodies in cattle and sheep sera was undertaken. initial studies using the serum neutralization (sn) test showed that the distribution of btv20 antibodies in cattle was confined to the northern part of australia. group-reactive antibody tests (agar gel diffusion precipitin, agdp, and complement-fixation, cf) showed group-reactive cattle sera ...19836306901
longitudinal study of veterinary students and veterinarians: effects of growing up on a farm with compare the career paths of veterinarians who had grown up on farms with animals with those of veterinarians from other backgrounds, during the first 15 years after they graduated.200717615044
availability of gastro-intestinal nematode larvae to sheep following winter contamination of pasture with six nematode species on the northern tablelands of new south wales.this experiment was designed to determine the infective consequences of winter pasture contamination by sheep infected with 6 species of trichostrongylid gastro-intestinal nematode (gin) at armidale in the new england region of nsw. ten helminthologically inert pasture plots were contaminated using 'donor' sheep harbouring artificial infections of haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus colubriformis, trichostrongylus vitrinus, trichostrongylus axei, nematodirus spathiger and teladorsagia circumc ...200919070435
role of avian predators in lamb mortality in queensland. 19655893344
a meatworks survey of bovine hydatidosis in southern queensland.a meatworks survey was undertaken in 1981-82 to define the distribution and prevalence of hydatidosis in beef cattle in southern queensland. hydatid cysts, mostly degenerate, were found in 14.6% of the 22,916 animals examined. the endemic area was to the east of a line approximating the 500 mm isohyet. prevalence varied with age and origin of cattle, but not sex. prevalence increased linearly with age, at least up to 4 years. prevalence on the east coast ranged from 4.3% in yearlings to 52.2% in ...19853876827
epidemiology and control of anaplasmosis in australia.anaplasmosis occurs in those areas of northern and eastern australia infested by the cattle tick boophilus microplus but it has been studied intensively only in queensland. anaplasmosis is predominantly a disease of autumn and winter and of cattle greater than 1 year of age. the complement fixation test has been used in serological surveys of the tick-infested areas of the state. both clinical and subclinical infections occur only in tick-infested areas and they are both more frequent in bos tau ...1979553977
nitrate-nitrite toxicity in cattle and sheep grazing dactyloctenium radulans (button grass) in stockyards.hungry cattle and sheep introduced to stockyards containing a dominant or pure growth of dactyloctenium radulans (button grass) suffered acute nitrate-nitrite toxicity in four incidents in inland queensland between 1993 and 2001. deaths ranged from 16 to 44%. methaemoglobinaemia was noted at necropsies in all incidents. an aqueous humour sample from one dead steer contained 75 mg nitrate/l and from one dead sheep contained 100 mg nitrate and 50 mg nitrite/l (normal = ca 5 mg nitrate/l). both lus ...200415887389
an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in young rusa deer (cervus timorensis).on the basis of clinical signs and histological findings eight 9-month-old male rusa deer (cervus timorensis) were diagnosed with sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever. following a variable course involving rectal temperatures around 40.5 degrees c, depression, inappetence, diarrhoea, corneal opacity and hypopyon all animals died or were euthanased over a 5-week period. severe multifocal vasculitis, mainly periglomerular and in the arcuate vessels were consistent histological findings which ...19979406629
epidemiological aspects of urolithiasis in domestic animals in queensland. 19863800799
undergraduate veterinary students' perceptions of the usefulness, focus, and application of epidemiology before and after epidemiology courses.student perception of the relevance of a topic is known to influence learning outcomes. to determine student perceptions of the usefulness, focus, and application of epidemiology, we conducted a study at two australian veterinary schools in 2005. veterinary students in year 3 at the university of sydney and in year 5 at the university of queensland completed a self-administered questionnaire at the commencement and conclusion of an epidemiology course. at both universities, while over 95% of stu ...200920054079
serological survey of the prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in rams in sheep flocks in new south wales.serum samples from 5724 rams on 534 farms in new south wales were tested in the indirect fluorescent antibody test for toxoplasmosis. nine per cent of rams had titres of 64 or higher and 41% of flocks had either one or more rams with a titre of 64 or higher. there were significant differences in the geographical distribution of infected flocks, ranging from 57.8% of flocks infected on the tablelands to 41% on the slopes and 22.4% on the plains. there were significantly more infected commercial f ...19826760848
physiological responses of australian merino wethers exposed to high heat load.twelve 9-mo-old merino wethers (30.4 -¦ 3.2 kg bw) were used in a crossover study to investigate the heat tolerance of australian merino sheep by testing their physiological responses to repeated heat loads that occurred during summer months. wethers were randomly divided into 2 groups of 6 wethers each, housed individually in an environmental chamber, and subjected to 2 d of thermoneutral conditions followed by either 7 d of thermoneutral (tnc; [maximum temperature, t(max) 24-¦c, minimum temper ...201121841087
the magnitude of reproductive wastage to lamb marking in 30 merino flocks in south-west queensland.thirty groups of merino ewes in 6 districts of south-west queensland were studied between 1976 and 1985 to determine the magnitude of reproductive wastage to lamb making. relatively high pregnancy rates (77 to 100%, mean 93%) and a wide range of lamb marking percentages (10 to 115%, mean 78%) were recorded. the mean reproductive wastage due to failure to mate and failure to lamb was low (1.6 and 3.4% respectively) in 8 flocks where harnessed rams were used. this indicated that loss of lambs from ...19892775062
the extent and cause of perinatal lamb mortality in 3 flocks of merino sheep.autopsies were performed on lamb carcases from 2 groups of merino ewes lambing in paddocks in spring 1978 and from 1 group lambing in pens in 1980 in southwest queensland. these showed that the main causes of death were starvation due to failure of the lamb to obtain milk, problems at parturition causing death during or shortly after birth and, in some cases, predation. the majority of lambs died within 1 week of birth with the highest mortalities occurring in the lighter lambs. in the pen study ...19892775061
brucella cultures typed by the who brucellosis centre at the commonwealth serum laboratories, melbourne.results of the typing of brucella cultures received at the who brucellosis centre, csl, melbourne, from 1968-1976 are presented. the distribution of the biotypes of cultures recovered throughout australia is shown on a host and state basis and atypical cultures are discussed. cultures identified from australia were br. abortus, biotypes 1, 2 and 4 and strain 19; br. suis, biotype 1 and br. ovis. br. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3 were recorded only as exotic human infections from the mediterrane ...1978105700
parasites of sheep dogs in the charleville district, queensland. 19912069545
the geographic distribution and host range of capillaria hepatica (bancroft) (nematoda) in australia.the geographic distribution, host range and prevalence of capillaria hepatica were recorded in 4629 house mice, mus domesticus, 263 black rats, rattus rattus, and 58 norway rats, r. norvegicus. the parasite was found at five localities, all in or near large towns along the coast. the two rattus species appeared to be the primary hosts of c. hepatica in australia. published and unpublished data on helminth infections of australian native mammals from 1162 murids (26 species), 3018 marsupials (67 ...19911787037
a reconsideration of the echinococcus granulosus strain situation in australia following rflp analysis of cystic material.restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis, previously shown to be a relatively simple and reproducible method for distinguishing discrete strains of e. granulosus, could not discriminate between e. granulosus originating from central queensland macropod marsupials, australian mainland sheep or united kingdom sheep. furthermore, sheep cyst material from tasmania and the australian mainland was indistinguishable using this approach. as a result of this dna analysis, the existence of ...19911680829
heart leaf poison bush (gastrolobium grandiflorum) toxicity in a western queensland sheep flock. 19921609506
a genetic comparison of human and wildlife isolates of echinococcus granulosus in queensland: public health test the hypothesis that the hydatid parasite infecting macropods and dingoes in queensland is a sylvatic strain of echinococcus granulosus, distinct from the domestic strain which produces cysts in sheep and humans.19921346467
secondary photosensitisation of sheep grazing bambatsi grass (panicum coloratum var makarikariense). 19902085302
coral record of increased sediment flux to the inner great barrier reef since european settlement.the effect of european settlement on water quality in the great barrier reef of australia is a long-standing and controversial issue. erosion and sediment transport in river catchments in this region have increased substantially since european settlement, but the magnitude of these changes remains uncertain. here we report analyses of ba/ca ratios in long-lived porites coral from havannah reef--a site on the inner great barrier reef that is influenced by flood plumes from the burdekin river--to ...200312610621
the estimated prevalence of johne's disease infected sheep flocks in estimate the likely geographical distribution and flock-prevalence of ovine johne's disease (ojd) in australia.200212537142
ovine johne's disease in australia--the first 20 review the history of ovine johne's disease in australia.200111549048
effectiveness of a synthetic lure to reduce blowfly strike incidence: preliminary observations.the effectiveness of a synthetic lure system (lucitrap) to reduce blowfly strike incidence was assessed in a field trial conducted on two properties located in southern queensland, australia. nine hundred and fifty sheep were randomised to treatment (one or more lucitrap per 100 sheep) and control paddocks. sheep were physically inspected for flystrike each month between august 1999 and may 2000. on one property, the risk of flystrike in the control group was 1.86 times (95% confidence interval, ...200111337129
techniques for analysis of disease clustering in space and in time in veterinary epidemiology.techniques to describe and investigate clustering of disease in space - the nearest-neighbour test, autocorrelation, cuzick-and-edwards' test and the spatial scan statistic - and in time - the ederer-myers-mantel test and the temporal scan statistic - are reviewed. the application of these techniques in veterinary epidemiology is demonstrated by the analysis of a data set describing the occurrence of blowfly strike - both body strike and breech strike - between august 1998 and may 1999 in 33 com ...200010821965
the incidence of thiabendazole resistance in field populations of haemonchus contortus on the northern tablelands of new south wales.a survey was undertaken to assess the incidence of thiabendazole resistance in field populations of h. contortus in sheep flocks on 40 farms distributed throughout the sheep grazing area of the northern tablelands of new south wales. treatment with thiabendazole at 66 mg/kg reduced h. contortus ova output by 96-100% in 18 flocks while in the remaining 22 there was a range of responses down to levels where the anthelmintic was without apparent effect. factors which may contribute to the high inci ...1979543833
composition of chemical attractants affects trap catches of the australian sheep blowfly, lucilia cuprina, and other blowflies.numbers of lucilia cuprina (australian sheep blowfly), chrysomya spp., and calliphora spp. blowflies caught on sticky traps baited with various synthetic attractants or a standard liver/sodium sulfide attractant in western queensland were recorded. numbers of each genus collected were influenced by the composition of the chemical attractants. attractant mixtures based on 2-mercaptoethanol, indole, butanoic/pentanoic acid, and a sodium sulfide solution gave 5- to 20-fold higher l. cuprina catches ...200415260228
an historical perspective on early progress of queensland water fluoridation 1945-1954: sheep, climate and sugar.queensland's virtual rejection of artificial water fluoridation sets it apart from other australian states, yet the early fluoride environs has been scantily recorded.200415293815
efficacy of an advanced sewage treatment plant in southeast queensland, australia, to remove estrogenic chemicals.the estrogenicity profile of domestic sewage during treatment at a medium-sized (3800 ep) advanced biological nutrient removal plant in queensland, australia, was characterized using a sheep estrogen receptor binding assay (erba) and the mcf-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay (e-screen). the raw influent was highly estrogenic (20-54 ng/l eeq), and primary treatment resulted in a slight increase in estrogenicity that was detected in one of the assays (6-80 ng/l). concurrent chemical analysi ...200516124315
the isolation of a field strain of haemonchus contortus in queensland showing multiple anthelmintic resistance.following the apparent failure of levamisole to control infections of haemonchus contortus in sheep at lawes in south eastern queensland, a strain of this parasite was isolated at the animal research institute, yeerongpilly. this strain was used to infect sheep at yeerongpilly and the merrindale research station, victoria where four experiments to classify the resistance pattern of the parasite were carried out. resistance to thiabendazole was first suspected in 1969, and these experiments confi ...19817259650
strategic use of crutching and dicyclanil to protect unmulesed sheep against breech test strategies for the application of dicyclanil and mid-season crutching to maximise protection of unmulesed sheep against breech strike.200919335467
an outbreak of clostridium perfringens and the enforcement of food safety standards.investigation and management of a possible foodborne outbreak notified to the brisbane northside population health unit aimed to determine the likely source of the outbreak and prevent the same scenario from recurring. environmental health officers inspected the implicated premises and collected legal samples prior to the 1st outbreak control team meeting. interview evidence was carefully documented. inspection revealed large quantities of meat dishes being allowed to cool at room temperature ov ...200819374276
the relative contributions of t. colubriformis, t. vitrinus, t. axei and t. rugatus to sheep infected with trichostrongylus spp. on the northern tablelands of new south wales.this survey was designed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution and the relative contributions of trichostrongylus colubriformis, trichostrongylus vitrinus, trichostrongylus axei and trichostrongylus rugatus to sheep infected with trichostrongylus spp. on the northern tablelands of nsw. thirty completed larval cultures were collected from a commercial parasitology laboratory servicing the northern tablelands of nsw between june and december 2007. cultures were selected at random from ...200919632782
association of microsatellite polymorphisms with immune responses to a killed mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine in merino study the association of polymorphisms at five microsatellite loci with immune responses to a killed mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) vaccine.201020927174
molecular identification of methanogenic archaea from sheep in queensland, australia reveal more uncultured novel archaea.molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in sheep in queensland, australia was investigated using 16s rrna gene libraries prepared from pooled rumen contents from nine merino sheep. a total of 78 clones were identified revealing 26 different sequences. of these 26 sequences, eight sequences (15 clones) were 95-100% similar to cultivated methanogens belonging to the orders methanobacteriales and methanomicrobiales, and the remaining 18 phylotypes (63 clones) were 72-75% similar to thermoplasma ac ...200616765859
a study of the foodborne pathogens: campylobacter, listeria and yersinia, in faeces from slaughter-age cattle and sheep in a study of faeces from 475 slaughter-age cattle and sheep from 19 herds or flocks, campylobacter species (c. jejuni and c. coli) were cultured from all production systems studied and from 73.7 per cent (14/19) of herds or flocks. within individual properties there was a higher prevalence in cattle than in sheep, with campylobacter being most commonly isolated from feedlot cattle. the median prevalences and ranges were: for dairy cattle, six per cent (0-24%), feedlot beef cattle, 58 per cent ( ...200312926738
longitudinal study of veterinarians from entry to the veterinary course to ten years after graduation: career map out the career paths of veterinarians during their first 10 years after graduation, and to determine if this could have been predicted at entry to the veterinary course.200212224614
isolation of verocytotoxin-producing escherichia coli from mutton carcases. 19989631709
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