brucella cultures typed by the who brucellosis centre at the commonwealth serum laboratories, melbourne.results of the typing of brucella cultures received at the who brucellosis centre, csl, melbourne, from 1968-1976 are presented. the distribution of the biotypes of cultures recovered throughout australia is shown on a host and state basis and atypical cultures are discussed. cultures identified from australia were br. abortus, biotypes 1, 2 and 4 and strain 19; br. suis, biotype 1 and br. ovis. br. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3 were recorded only as exotic human infections from the mediterrane ...1978105700
efficacies of thiabendazole and levamisole against sheep nematodes in western victoria. 1979475689
an epidemiological investigation of ovine fascioliasis (fasciola hepatica) on both irrigated and non-irrigated pastures in northern victoria. 1979533488
infections associated with ovine perinatal mortality in victoria.the occurrence of infections associated with perinatal mortality was investigated. in 1970, carcasses from 94 flocks distributed throughout victoria were examined by microbiological and histopathological techniques. carcasses from 4 of the same flocks were similarly examined in 1971. widespread occurrence of listeria monocytogenes and campylobacter fetus was demonstrated with l. monocytogenes being recognised in 25% of the flocks examined. no other bacterial pathogens commonly associated with ov ...1975809028
the prevalence of sarcosporidiosis in australian meat animals.the prevalence of sarcocystis infectious in tasmanian sheep, cattle and pigs was assessed during february 1974. serological results indicated that over 90% of sheep and cattle were infected. macroscopic sarcocysts were found in 0.6% of lambs, 8.8% of 2- to 6-tooth (1 to 4 years old) sheep and 66% of full-mouth (4 years and older) sheep. the minimum prevalence in pigs, as determined by microscopic examination of muscle tissues, was 1.4% for animals less than 12 months old and 16.7% for animals ol ...1975812465
atypical mycoplasmas from sheep in great britain and australia identified as mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.representative strains of "lacy-colony" mycoplasmas isolated from sheep in great britain and victoria (australia) were classified as m ovipneumoniae following comparison with strain y98 of this species. the taxonomic description of m ovipneumoniae is extended and y98 is proposed as the type strain. a brief description is given of the isolation of m ovipneumoniae from sheep in east anglia.1976936439
an economic analysis of two schemes for the anthelmintic control of helminthiasis in weaned lambs.the economic benefit obtained from 2 schemes for the strategic control of helminthiasis in weaned lambs has been assessed in the western district of victoria. the results were compared with those from sheep in control groups which were given a single anthelmintic treatment during an outbreak of helminthosis. mortality in sheep receiving the critical treatment scheme of 2 appropriately timed anthelmintic treatments was 12%, compared with 22% in the group receiving the traditional series of summer ...1976938355
congenital bovine epizootic arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in australia. distribution of antibodies to akabane virus in australian cattle after the 1974 the end of the 1974 epizootic of bovine congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in south-eastern new south wales, an australia-wide serological survey (about 4,000 serums) was made to determine the ditribution of cattle possessing serum neutralising antibodies against akabane virus. eighty per cent of the serums from cattle in northern australia (western australia, northern territory, and queensland) were positive. a detailed study in the epizootic area in new south wales (particularly ...19761016149
selenium-responsive unthriftiness of young merino sheep in central victoria.a trial was carried out to determine whether selenium responsive unthriftiness existed on a property in the strathbogie ranges of central victoria where unthriftiness of young sheep has been a problem for 10 to 20 years. white muscle disease had been diagnosed on the property in the previous year and on other properties in the area. eighty merino ewes and lambs were allotted to one of 4 groups in a 2 x 2 factorial designed trial in which sodium selenite (0.1 mg/kg) was given orally to ewes and/o ...19751200935
trace element deficiency in sheep in east gippsland, victoria. 19921288478
eradication of actively spreading ovine footrot. 19912043088
review of animal mycoses in australia.this review covers the available literature on the mycoses of animals in australia since the last review published in 1967. of the cutaneous infections, dermatophytoses have been recorded in a wide range of animals: cattle, horses, goats, pigs, sheep, cats, dogs, mice, guinea-pigs, rabbits, a lion, kangaroos, a camel, koalas and wallabies. these infections were caused by several species and varieties of the genera, microsporum and trichophyton. eight agents of ringworms have been recorded in the ...19902233984
some aspects of stray dog behaviour in an urban fringe area. 19892930391
genetic architecture and adaptation: quantitative analysis of sheep and refuse tip populations of the australian sheep blowfly, lucilia cuprina.phenotypic differentiation between geographic areas and between sheep and adjacent refuse tip populations was assessed by quantitative analysis of population samples of l. cuprina from new south wales (lismore) and victoria (mansfield). in addition the genetic structure of populations has been defined and compared by biometrical analysis techniques. for all morphological and fitness characters examined significant phenotypic differentiation was observed both between geographic localities and bet ...19873274653
the prevalence of eperythrozoon ovis infection in weaner and adult sheep in north eastern victoria.a survey of weaner (6 to 12 months) and adult sheep for the presence of eperythrozoon ovis antibodies using an immunofluorescent antibody assay was carried out. in 22 shires in north eastern victoria over 2 years infection was demonstrated in 10% and 51% of weaner and adult sheep respectively.19863527135
a survey of professional activities of veterinary graduates in victoria. 19724404828
ingestion of metacercariae by grazing sheep on irrigated pasture in northern victoria. 19744413883
ovine cysticercosis and canine taeniasis in victoria. 19724640754
investigations in victoria into hypomagnesaemia in ruminants. 19724674380
grass tetany: the mineral and species status of sixteen pastures in north-eastern victoria and southern new south wales. 19744852185
the incidence of tapeworms in rural dogs in victoria. 19715102653
prenatal losses in border leicester-merino cross ewes in victoria. 19715106532
observations on mortality in lambs in victoria associated with eperythrozoon ovis. 19715171271
the incidence and clinical significance of eperythrozoon ovis infections of sheep in victoria. 19695393083
the effect of eperythrozoon ovis infection on body weight gain and haematology of lambs in victoria. 19695393084
a survey of hairy shaker disease (border disease, hypomyelinogenesis congenita) in sheep.a survey by mail in 1979 of 995 sheep farmers in victoria enquiring as to the occurrence of hairy shaker disease (hsd) in lambs on their farms resulted in a 48% response. a total of 17 farms reported the presence of hsd. one hundred and eleven ewes produced lambs with hsd representing a small proportion only of the ewes (0.8%) on these farms and an even smaller percentage of the total ewes (0.03%) in the survey. abortions were not prevalent on the majority of farms reporting hsd. there was no ev ...19846497789
anthelmintic resistance and sheep management practices in south western victoria.twenty-eight farms in 7 shires in south western victoria were selected and tested for presence of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes between november 1979 and june 1981. mean faecal egg counts of sheep were less than 100 strongyloid eggs/g on 11 farms. faecal egg count reduction tests were conducted on the remaining 17 farms and thiabendazole was less than 90% efficient in reducing egg counts in sheep from 5 (29%) of these farms. thiabendazole-resistant teladorsagia circumcincta were identified a ...19846508667
the isolation of a field strain of haemonchus contortus in queensland showing multiple anthelmintic resistance.following the apparent failure of levamisole to control infections of haemonchus contortus in sheep at lawes in south eastern queensland, a strain of this parasite was isolated at the animal research institute, yeerongpilly. this strain was used to infect sheep at yeerongpilly and the merrindale research station, victoria where four experiments to classify the resistance pattern of the parasite were carried out. resistance to thiabendazole was first suspected in 1969, and these experiments confi ...19817259650
an outbreak of listerial meningo-encephalitis in outbreak of ovine listerial meningo-encephalitis on sheep farms in eastern gippsland, victoria, during winter and spring 1978, is recorded. cases were confirmed by histology of brain or by culture of listeria monocytogenes from sheep on 21 farms. the morbidity rate in affected flocks ranged from 0.2% to 8.0%, and the case fatality rate was almost 100%. the peak incidence of disease followed a period of continuous heavy rain and flooding of grazing pasture, and the majority of affected flocks ...19817259653
characterisation of australian ovine adenovirus isolates.we have characterised two groups of adenoviruses isolated from sheep in australia. restriction endonuclease maps for enzymes bamhi, clai, sali, smai and sphi have been determined for the genome of ovine adenoviruses related to bovine adenovirus serotype 7 (bav 7) from sheep in western australia. although previously serotyped as bav 7 these isolates are different from bovine isolates of bav 7 based on comparison with published restriction endonuclease profiles and maps of bav 7 cattle isolates. a ...19947975153
resistance of fasciola hepatica to triclabendazole. 19958534235
effects of two pasture systems on faecal nematode egg counts in breeding ewes. 19968894025
transmission of hydatid disease to sheep from wild dogs in victoria, tapeworms and metacestodes of echinococcus granulosus were found commonly in wildlife on crown land (alpine national park or state forest) in the area around mansfield, victoria. a total of 756 sheep from 32 farms in the areas were examined at slaughter. seventeen of the farms (group a) adjoined crown land and wild dogs commonly entered these farms and killed sheep. a high prevalence of hydatid infection was found in sheep from 15 of these farms. serology and arecoline purging failed to id ...19969024871
drainage a factor in anthrax outbreak. 19979196812
veterinarians and the promotion of food safety on the farm. 19979247690
comparison of the omp i gene of chlamydia psittaci between isolates in victorian koalas and other animal species.the objective of this study is to compare the strain of chlamydia causing genital infection in koalas from victoria with isolates from other animal species.19979293340
improving the profits of wool-growing farms. 19979406630
changes in productivity and profitability of wool-growing farms that follow recommendations from agricultural and veterinary estimate the changes in productivity and profitability in a group of wool-growing farms as they adopted major recommendations from agricultural and veterinary studies. farms: four wool-growing farms in south western victoria were selected from the clients of the mackinnon project, a farm consultancy service run from the university of melbourne. each farm had closely followed recommended procedures, kept comprehensive financial and physical records and had been clients for at least 5 years. th ...19979406631
differentiation of australian isolates of mycobacterium paratuberculosis using pulsed-field gel examine strain variation amongst australian isolates of mycobacterium paratuberculosis.19979469224
effectiveness of small workshops for improving farmers' knowledge about ovine determine sheep farmers' attitudes to and beliefs about ovine footrot, and to improve their knowledge about the diagnosis, control and eradication of this disease.199910376104
anthrax explodes in an australian summer.anthrax occurred on 83 properties in an area of north central victoria between 26 january and 26 march in the summer of 1997. anthrax had not been recorded in the outbreak area since records were initiated in 1914, although anthrax did occur in the general area in the 1880s to 1890s. standard australian control measures were applied to the properties, including quarantine, tracing movements of animals on and off affected properties, secure disposal of carcases by burning, enhanced surveillance o ...199910475947
incidental lesions in the brains of sheep and goats. 199910812408
molecular epidemiology of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: is900 restriction fragment length polymorphism and is1311 polymorphism analyses of isolates from animals and a human in australia.the distribution and prevalence of strains of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were determined among sheep, cattle, and other species with johne's disease in australia. a total of 328 isolates were evaluated from numerous farms in new south wales, victoria, tasmania, and south australia, australia. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of genomic dna using bsteii and an is900 probe and is1311 polymorphism analysis using pcr and restriction endonuclease analysis (pcr ...200010970365
effects of tail amputation and treatment with an albendazole controlled-release capsule on the health and productivity of prime assess the effects of tail amputation and treatment with albendazole controlled-release capsule (crc) on the health and productivity of prime lambs.200011194472
sensitivity and specificity of two serological tests for the detection of ovine determine the sensitivity and specificity of an absorbed elisa and an agid test for the detection of clinical and subclinical paratuberculosis in sheep.200011194475
ovine johne's disease in australia--the first 20 review the history of ovine johne's disease in australia.200111549048
the integration of grazing management and summer treatments for the control of trichostrongylid infections in merino compare two strategies for the preparation of pastures that have reduced trichostrongylid infections during winter and spring for merino weaners.200212398320
the efficacy of formulations of triclabendazole and ivermectin in combination against liver fluke (fasciola hepatica) and gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle and sheep and sucking lice species in assess the efficacy of two formulations of triclabendazole and ivermectin in combination against liver fluke (fasciola hepatica), gastro-intestinal nematodes and sucking louse species in cattle and sheep.200212465830
efficacy of the prophylactic use of thiamine and pyridoxine in sheep during an outbreak of phalaris aquatica 'polioencephalomalacia-like sudden death' poisoning. 200315080478
prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis and usage of caseous lymphadenitis vaccines in sheep estimate the prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis (cla), determine the current usage of vaccines against cla and to measure the effectiveness of these vaccines on sheep farms.200315084020
in vitro oncosphere-killing assays to determine immunity to the larvae of taenia pisiformis, taenia ovis, taenia saginata, and taenia solium.taeniid cestodes infect humans and livestock, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, as well as economic loss. substantial progress has been made toward the production of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis in livestock animals. further development of these vaccines would be aided if a reliable in vitro test were available to measure host-protective immune responses in vaccinated animals. here, we describe in vitro oncosphere-killing assays for the quantification of host-protective ...200616729683
evidence that moxidectin is a greater risk factor than ivermectin in the development of resistance to macrocyclic lactones by ostertagia spp in sheep in south eastern determine associations between resistance of ostertagia (=teladorsagia) spp to macrocyclic lactone (ml) anthelmintics and history of use of anthelmintics, by type, on commercial sheep farms in temperate regions of southern south australia and victoria, australia.200617151730
sheep in wolf's clothing: host nestling vocalizations resemble their cowbird competitor's.nestlings of many avian brood parasites are virtuosos at mimicking host nestling vocalizations, which, like egg mimicry, presumably ensures acceptance by host parents. having been accepted, parasitic nestlings then often exaggerate the aspects of the host's display to increase parental care. host nestlings may, in turn, exaggerate their vocalizations to keep up with the parasite, though this possibility has not been evaluated. we experimentally parasitized song sparrow (melospiza melodia) nests ...200818252675
worm infections in high and low bodyweight merino ewes during winter and compare infections of gastrointestinal nematodes in 2-year-old ('maiden') spring-lambing merino ewes in the upper and lower 25% of body weights (bw) at joining.200919245622
a combined microscopic-molecular method for the diagnosis of strongylid infections in sheep.we evaluated a combined microscopic-molecular approach for the diagnosis of key strongylid infections in sheep using panels of well-defined control and test samples. the method established is based on the separation of nematode eggs from faecal samples using a salt flotation procedure, the extraction and column-purification of genomic dna, followed by real-time pcr and melting-curve analysis. specific and semi-quantitative amplification from (a minimum of 0.1-2.0pg) genomic dna of haemonchus con ...200919328802
long-acting moxidectin for the control of trichostrongylid infections of sheep in south-eastern compare the effectiveness of a single long-acting injection of moxidectin, given in either summer or winter, with a two-summer ('standard') treatment strategy for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in spring-lambing merino ewes.200919335466
the impact of experimental hypoperfusion on subsequent kidney investigate the short- and medium-term renal hemodynamic and functional responses to both short and sustained hypoperfusion.201020049587
minimising the development of anthelmintic resistance, and optimising the use of the novel anthelmintic monepantel, for the sustainable control of nematode parasites in australian sheep grazing compare the risk of different treatment scenarios on selecting for anthelmintic resistance on australian sheep farms.201121495986
an examination of the selenium nutrition of sheep in victoria.the selenium nutrition of sheep throughout victoria was assessed by a survey of the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in 708 flocks. it was shown that the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in sheep had a seasonal variation with lowest levels in the spring. the enzyme activity was correlated with the blood selenium concentration. areas where blood selenium was less than 0.03 micrograms/ml in spring were defined. sheep with low selenium nutrition were grazing pastures in the high rainfall ...19807436915
interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern australia.dingoes/wild dogs (canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. we used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of victoria, south-eastern australia. the nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. diet overlap be ...201525790230
disease control during the colonial period in australia.the first permanent european settlers of australia arrived in 1788 to establish a penal colony at sydney, new south wales (nsw). as the colony grew and wool production increased, more free settlers and emancipists developed farming in inland australia. during the 1840s veterinarians commenced arriving in small numbers but they were not closely associated with the development and execution of disease control programs, which was left to lay inspectors of stock. the arrival of william tyson kendall ...201121696369
on the causes of variability in amounts of airborne grass pollen in melbourne, melbourne, australia, airborne grass pollen is the predominant cause of hay fever (seasonal rhinitis) during late spring and early summer, with levels of airborne grass pollen also influencing hospital admissions for asthma. in order to improve predictions of conditions that are potentially hazardous to susceptible individuals, we have sought to better understand the causes of diurnal, intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability of atmospheric grass pollen concentrations (apc) by analysing ...201020814699
age and nutrition influence the concentrations of three branched chain fatty acids in sheep fat from australian abattoirs.the characteristic mutton odour, associated with the cooked meat of older sheep, can be problematic for some consumers who find the odour disagreeable. branch chain fatty acids (bcfas) are considered to be the main determinants of mutton odour. in this study, the aim was to identify the factors influencing the bcfa content of animals at abattoirs in australia. samples of subcutaneous fat from over the chump (gluteus medius) were collected from 533 sheep carcasses at abattoirs in new south wales, ...201020696535
lythrum hyssopifolia (lesser loosestrife) poisoning of sheep in document an ovine disease attributed to the consumption of lythrum hyssopifolia (lesser loosestrife).200919930161
trialling a web-based spatial information management tool with land managers in victoria, australia.a prototype web-based spatial information management tool (called efarmer) was tested for its useability and usefulness by 46 land managers and 5 extension staff in victoria, australia. participants had a range of enterprises (dairy, beef/sheep grazing, cropping, lifestyle land use), property sizes and computer ownership and expertise. a follow up study was conducted with 12 dairy farmers, where features regarding assessment of nutrient losses from paddocks (farm nutrient loss index, fnli) were ...200919828225
risk factors for post-weaning mortality of merino sheep in south-eastern measure associations between body weight, growth rate, sex, time of shearing and post-weaning mortality of merino sheep.200919673844
relationship of body condition score, live weight, stocking rate and grazing system to the mortality of angora goats from hypothermia and their use in the assessment of welfare risks.body condition scoring is widely used for sheep and cattle but the practice is included in only one code of practice for the welfare of goats in australia. there is no published scientific evidence to support or defend its use in the assessment of welfare risks to farmed goats.200818271817
preventing pressure ulcers with the australian medical sheepskin: an open-label randomised controlled estimate the effectiveness of a new high-performance australian medical sheepskin (meeting australian standard 4480.1-1998) in preventing pressure ulcers in a general hospital population at low to moderate risk of these ulcers.200415059051
preventing pressure ulcers. 200415059047
psychosocial investigation of individual and community responses to the experience of ovine johne's disease in rural victoria.this paper explores the psychosocial outcomes for individuals and communities in rural victoria who experienced the outbreak of ovine johne's disease (ojd).200415023222
pilus elisa and an anamnestic test for the diagnosis of virulent ovine footrot and its application in a disease control program in nepal.the immunological memory (anamnestic) responses in sheep recovered from virulent footrot (vfr) can be aroused by subcutaneous injection of outer membrane protein (omp) antigens of dichelobacter nodosus. the magnitude of this response is directly correlated to the highest antibody response attained during infection and memory lasts at least a year after recovery from vfr. however, some older animals show non-specific responses to omp antigens. in this study an evaluation of d. nodosus pilus antig ...200111230927
experiences with vaccination and epidemiological investigations on an anthrax outbreak in australia in 1997.between january and february 1997, there was a severe outbreak of anthrax on 83 properties in north-central victoria, australia. vaccination was used as a major tool to control the outbreak by establishing a vaccination buffer zone 30 km by 20 km. in all, 78, 649 cattle in 457 herds were vaccinated in a three week program. in the face of the outbreak, there was a delay before vaccination was able to stop deaths. in the 10 days following vaccination 144 cases of confirmed anthrax occurred and 38 ...199910475972
the return to coree: the surgical connection.samuel wilson purchased coree in 1865. in 1874 he donated 30000 pound sterling to melbourne university to build the wilson hall, used for ceremonial occasions including medical graduation. samuel mccaughey purchased coree in 1881. in 1919 he left large bequests used by sydney university to found the first chair of surgery. this was held by frances percival sandes from 1921 to 1928. david mccaughey died of general peritonitis at coree in 1899, his son samuel married una mckellar who was thomas du ...199910030818
the characteristics and causes of sheep losses in the victorian mallee.the extent and causes of sheep losses in the semi-arid mallee region of north-western victoria were assessed by interviewing the owners of 79 randomly selected farms running 241 flocks in 1987/88 and 245 flocks in 1988/89. mean annual losses were higher in ram flocks (21%) than in ewe flocks (7%), in flocks of non-merino sheep (rams 24%, ewes 11%, weaners 5%) than in merino (rams 11%, ewes 6%, wethers 4%, weaners 4%) and in ewe flocks 3 or more years old (10%) than in young ewe flocks (3.5%). in ...19958585847
relationship between clinical manifestations of footrot and specific dna products of dichelobacter nodosus amplified through pcr.a total of 141 dichelobacter nodosus isolates from 46 merino sheep farms with various clinical forms of footrot was examined by the gelatin gel test and the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using virulent (vf2 and vr2) and benign (bf and br) specific primers. isolates from sheep with virulent and high intermediate footrot usually produced relatively thermostable proteases, but a decreasing proportion of the isolates from sheep with medium and low intermediate or benign footrot had thermostable pr ...19958525095
white liver disease of sheep.outbreaks of ovine white liver disease (wld) on 7 farms in eastern victoria were investigated. most occurred in late spring and mainly affected lambs 3 to 6 months old, with a morbidity of 20 to 100% and mortality of 8 to 15%. clinically affected lambs showed illthrift, emaciation and bilateral, serous, ocular discharge. clinical pathology showed mild anaemia, elevated serum liver enzymes (ggt, oct, ast) and low levels of serum vitamin b12. grossly, the livers were pale, fatty and friable; micro ...19827138431
dieldrin and diazinon resistance in populations of the australian sheep blowfly, lucilia cuprina, from sheep-grazing areas and rubbish tips.populations of l. cuprina collected from adjacent sheep-grazing areas and rubbish tips in victoria (mansfield and warrnambool) and new south wales (lismore) were tested for resistance to the insecticides diazinon and dieldrin. populations from sheep-grazing areas had a significantly higher diazinon rop-1 allele frequency than those from adjacent tips with the victorian populations being more resistant than those from lismore. victorian sheep and tip populations had similar gene frequencies at th ...19846536262
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