enterocolitis due to yersinia enterocolitica in south australia.from august 1976 to july 1977, all faecal specimens (3298) sent to the enteric department of the institute of medical and veterinary science, adelaide were selectively cultured for yersinia enterocolitica. yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from three patients with diarrhoea, one of whom acquired her infection overseas. these organisms were not isolated from faecal or lymph node material collected from a limited number of sheep and pigs found to have enteritis at the time of slaughter. enteric ...1979431980
epidemiology and control of anaplasmosis in australia.anaplasmosis occurs in those areas of northern and eastern australia infested by the cattle tick boophilus microplus but it has been studied intensively only in queensland. anaplasmosis is predominantly a disease of autumn and winter and of cattle greater than 1 year of age. the complement fixation test has been used in serological surveys of the tick-infested areas of the state. both clinical and subclinical infections occur only in tick-infested areas and they are both more frequent in bos tau ...1979553977
congenital bovine epizootic arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in australia. distribution of antibodies to akabane virus in australian cattle after the 1974 the end of the 1974 epizootic of bovine congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in south-eastern new south wales, an australia-wide serological survey (about 4,000 serums) was made to determine the ditribution of cattle possessing serum neutralising antibodies against akabane virus. eighty per cent of the serums from cattle in northern australia (western australia, northern territory, and queensland) were positive. a detailed study in the epizootic area in new south wales (particularly ...19761016149
trichostrongylus axei infection as a cause of deaths and loss of weight in sheep. 19911776938
corynetoxin poisoning in sheep in the south-east of south australia associated with annual beard grass (polypogon monspeliensis). 19911776939
the geographic distribution and host range of capillaria hepatica (bancroft) (nematoda) in australia.the geographic distribution, host range and prevalence of capillaria hepatica were recorded in 4629 house mice, mus domesticus, 263 black rats, rattus rattus, and 58 norway rats, r. norvegicus. the parasite was found at five localities, all in or near large towns along the coast. the two rattus species appeared to be the primary hosts of c. hepatica in australia. published and unpublished data on helminth infections of australian native mammals from 1162 murids (26 species), 3018 marsupials (67 ...19911787037
effects of challenge with trichostrongylid nematode larvae on immunologically resistant grazing yearling sheep in south australia.paddocks near gawler, south australia, were grazed by newly weaned sheep which received either no anthelmintic treatment, regular 3-weekly treatment or a single treatment in february. a decline in the faecal egg count of untreated sheep in autumn associated with the ingestion of infective larvae indicated that the sheep had developed a resistance to reinfection. at the end of the experiment, 10 sheep were experimentally infected with trichostrongylus vitrinus larvae to demonstrate this resistanc ...19911858285
prevalence of resistance in sheep nematode populations to benzimidazole and levamisole anthelmintics in the high rainfall areas of south australia. 19902085298
plasma glucose levels in south australian merino ewes. 19883401158
trace-elements in sheep grazing near a lead-zinc smelting complex at port pirie, south australia. 19863719149
economics of anthelmintic treatment. a field trial in sheep in south australia. 19665334078
unthriftiness of lambs and weaners in the spring and early summer in south australia. 19666005910
eperythrozoon ovis infection in south australia. 19666012533
ovine ostertagiasis. 19676069460
history of the control of some diseases of sheep and cattle in south australia. 19836347167
immunological types of lymphoproliferative disorders in a cohort: a 4-year study.immunological testing of malignant cells and serum from most cases of lymphoproliferative disorders (lpd) allows the cell type to be characterised as of b, t or "null" lymphocyte origin. regional differences in the incidence of neoplasms of these types have been reported. furthermore, most published series have drawn cases from referral institutions rather than the general population. in order to determine the true incidence of a cohort we surveyed an entire population, that of tasmania, an isla ...19826814410
the trichostrongyloid parasites of sheep in south australia and their regional distribution.the species of trichostrongyloid nematodes present in 376 sheep from different agricultural regions of the state of south australia were determined. parasites encountered in the abomasum were teladorsagia circumcincta, t. trifurcata, t. davtiani, camelostrongylus mentulatus, haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus axei. t. circumcincta was the species most commonly encountered, but c. mentulatus was widespread in arid areas. h. contortus was present in a small number of sheep only, mainly in s ...19827168719
ovine hereditary chondrodysplasia (spider syndrome) in suffolk lambs. 19938457181
genetic variation in australian merino sheep.variation at 22 gene loci was investigated in a flock of australian merino sheep using restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis. polymorphism was observed at 20 loci, including loci for wool keratin, hormone and immunoglobulin light chain genes. eleven loci yielded unambiguous genotypes suitable for population data analysis. average heterozygosity, determined from these and two monomorphic loci, was estimated as 0.107 (se = 0.024). average heterozygosity excluding all monomorphic ...19968856918
a survey of sheep flocks on kangaroo island for virulent footrot. 19968941421
molecular epidemiology of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: is900 restriction fragment length polymorphism and is1311 polymorphism analyses of isolates from animals and a human in australia.the distribution and prevalence of strains of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were determined among sheep, cattle, and other species with johne's disease in australia. a total of 328 isolates were evaluated from numerous farms in new south wales, victoria, tasmania, and south australia, australia. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of genomic dna using bsteii and an is900 probe and is1311 polymorphism analysis using pcr and restriction endonuclease analysis (pcr ...200010970365
ovine johne's disease in australia--the first 20 review the history of ovine johne's disease in australia.200111549048
profiles of currents during electrical stunning. 200111837908
high-level ivermectin resistance in a field isolate of haemonchus contortus associated with a low level of resistance in the larval stage: implications for resistance detection.the ivpro isolate of haemonchus contortus was isolated in 1999 after significant numbers of the parasite survived an ivermectin capsule treatment of grazing sheep acquiring a natural infection at prospect, nsw, australia. the isolate shows high-level resistance to ivermectin (faecal egg count is unaffected by ivermectin oral treatment at 0.2mg kg(-1)). the larval lc(50), as assessed by larval development assays (ldas), is only approximately two-fold higher than several susceptible isolates, maki ...200212237144
microbial contamination on beef and sheep carcases in south australia.a total of 523 chilled beef and lamb carcases were sampled from four abattoirs and 13 very small plants (vsps) in south australia during march 2002 in order to develop a microbiological profile of meat produced for domestic consumption within the state. aerobic viable counts (avcs) and escherichia coli counts were obtained from samples taken by sponge-sampling the muscle-adipose tissue at sites designated for each species in the microbiological guidelines to the australian standard for hygienic ...200312485752
rasch scaling paranormal belief and experience: structure and semantics of thalbourne's australian sheep-goat scale.research on the relation between demographic variables and paranormal belief remains controversial given the possible semantic distortions introduced by item and test level biases. we illustrate how rasch scaling can be used to detect such biases and to quantify their effects, using the australian sheep-goal scale as a substantive example. based on data from 1.822 respondents, this test was rasch scalable, reliable, and unbiased at the test level. consistent with other research in which unbiased ...200212585514
cross-sectional study of risk factors for the clinical expression of ovine johne's disease on new south wales explore the environmental and management risk factors that promote the clinical expression of ovine johne's disease on farms in new south wales.200415267095
the prevalence of lice on sheep and control practices in south assess the prevalence of infestations of lice in sheep flocks and to survey control practices for lice in south australia200415478729
observations of the sheath extension of the third stage, infective larvae of trichostrongylus rugatus.the length of the sheath extension of third stage (l(3)), infective larvae of trichostrongylus rugatus is reported. the total length and length of the sheath extension of l(3) recovered from the faeces of sheep originating from two localities in south australia were measured. the total length of larvae was 615-722 microm and the length of the sheath extension was 46-56 microm (mean 51.5). the larvae of t. rugatus comprised up to 72% of the larvae recovered. worm free sheep were infected with lar ...200415567044
evidence that moxidectin is a greater risk factor than ivermectin in the development of resistance to macrocyclic lactones by ostertagia spp in sheep in south eastern determine associations between resistance of ostertagia (=teladorsagia) spp to macrocyclic lactone (ml) anthelmintics and history of use of anthelmintics, by type, on commercial sheep farms in temperate regions of southern south australia and victoria, australia.200617151730
maternal alcohol intake and offspring pulse wave velocity.intrauterine exposure to alcohol may affect cardiovascular development, increasing risk of cardiovascular malformations. intrauterine exposure to light maternal alcohol intake has been reported to affect human umbilical arterial contractility, and adult sheep exposed in utero have had altered cerebrovascular reactivity. in human adults, alcohol intake affects arterial stiffness.201019864927
a survey to detect the presence of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in kangaroo island macropods.the aim of this study was to determine whether mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (m. a. paratuberculosis) infection was present in macropods grazing with infected sheep on kangaroo island in 2001-2002, and to assess the likely role of such infection in the epidemiology of ovine paratuberculosis. ileum and associated lymphatics from 482 macropods were examined using radiometric culture followed by pcr for is900 and restriction endonuclease analysis (rea) for species identification, ...201020400245
fertility in south australian commercial merino flocks: aspects of management.wide variation in reproductive performance of commercial merino flocks in south central australia is the result of genetic and environmental influences that are both amenable to change through decisions of management. relationships of reproductive traits (estrus, ovulation, fertility, fecundity, lamb survival, and lambs weaned) with variables that graziers can change or modify (strain of merino, day or month of exposure of ewes to rams, ram effect or teasing, length of the mating period, ram per ...200616256188
fertility in south australian commercial merino flocks: sources of reproductive identify reasons for low fertility in the merino in south australia, we defined the extent and sources of reproductive wastage in flocks of maiden (n=14) and mature age (n=54) merino ewes managed on 43 properties over 4 year. in a second study, reproductive wastage was examined in a very high ovulating flock of mature age south australian merino ewes heterozygous for the fecb gene, mated to lamb in either the autumn or spring. losses in the latter flock were examined in less detail than the l ...200515826674
trichostrongylid infections in sheep after rainfall during summer in southern relate trichostrongylid infections acquired by sheep during summer to prevailing weather conditions.200212398321
sampling ryegrass to assess the risk of annual ryegrass toxicity.most stock losses caused by annual ryegrass toxicity occur because stockowners unknowingly allow their stock to graze annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum) infected with the bacterium clavibacter toxicus. to help stockowners avoid losses we have developed criteria for a testing service to determine the risk of poisoning before the pasture is grazed. low, medium and high risk categories were selected using samples of dry, mature ryegrass seedheads collected by stockowners from untreated, infected past ...19938368964
new infection with corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis reduces wool production.the effect of natural corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection on wool production and quality in sheep was examined in light of evidence that artificial c pseudotuberculosis infection causes wool production loss. a toxin elisa was used to identify sheep that had been infected with c pseudotuberculosis. greasy and clean fleece weights and fibre diameter were compared in infected and uninfected sheep. c pseudotuberculosis infection caused a 3.8 to 4.8% decrease in greasy wool production and a ...19948166614
seroprevalence to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in merino stud rams in south australia.a serological survey of 2160 merino stud rams on 36 farms detected positive reactions greater than or equal to 1/100 in 42% of animals using the microscopic agglutination test (mat) to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. twenty flocks had seroprevalence values greater than 30% with 15 flocks having values > or = 60%. the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that 47% and 3% of rams on the 36 farms were positive for igg and igm antibodies, respectively. forty-five percent of hardjo reactio ...19947945098
ophthalmomyiasis due to oestrus ovis in south australia.a case of severe eye irritation caused by the larvae of oestrus ovis (the sheep nasal botfly) is reported. as this fly is widely distributed in australia, it is possible that many cases of ocular infestation by o. ovis larvae remain undetected and the eye irritation is ascribed to other causes.19836571540
a study of urolithiasis in grazing ruminants in south australia. 19744371707
coccidia in sheep in south australia.faecal samples from 136 sheep from four different locations in south australia were examined to determine the types and numbers of eimeria spp. present. coccidian oocysts were detected in 80% of the sheep and 11 different species of eimeria were identified. the species detected (and their prevalence) were e. crandallis/e. weybridgensis (76%), e. ovina (55%), e. ovinoidalis (54%), e. granulosa (49%), e. parva/e. pallida (44%), e. intricata (37%), e. ahsata (31%), e. faurei (24%), and e. punctata ...19873617424
serological survey for toxoplasma infections in sheep.a factorial-design survey was performed to determine the prevalence of specific antibody against toxoplasma in young and adult sheep from 6 areas in 3 different geoclimatic zones in south australia. serum samples obtained from 1,159 sheep belonging to 59 flocks were tested by a conventional indirect haemagglutination test (ihat) as well as by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) which used class-specific conjugates to detect both igg and igm against toxoplasma. titres greater than 64 wer ...19873606503
the prevalence and intensity of sarcocystis spp infections in sheep.a total of 864 sheep sold for slaughter throughout south australia were examined for infections with sarcocystis spp using macroscopic, microscopic and immunoserological methods of detection. macroscopic cysts were found in 6.7% of the sheep ranging in intensity from 1 to 64 cysts per carcase. morphometric studies detected 2 types of macroscopic cysts which differed in their size and cyst wall morphology. large ovoid cysts with thick primary cyst walls were identified as s. gigantea (syn. s. ovi ...19863099741
australian-german collaborative studies on the immunology of sarcocystis infections.this paper reviews a decade of collaborative studies performed between two laboratories in germany and australia on the life cycle, pathogenicity and immunology of infections by the cyst-forming sporozoan parasites sarcocystis spp. in domestic animals. experimental transmission studies demonstrated that certain parasite species could cause an acute clinical disease in sheep and pigs severely affecting their health, productivity and reproductivity. despite the high prevalence of infections found ...19921610015
the prevalence of sarcosporidiosis in australian meat animals.the prevalence of sarcocystis infectious in tasmanian sheep, cattle and pigs was assessed during february 1974. serological results indicated that over 90% of sheep and cattle were infected. macroscopic sarcocysts were found in 0.6% of lambs, 8.8% of 2- to 6-tooth (1 to 4 years old) sheep and 66% of full-mouth (4 years and older) sheep. the minimum prevalence in pigs, as determined by microscopic examination of muscle tissues, was 1.4% for animals less than 12 months old and 16.7% for animals ol ...1975812465
fertility in south australian commercial merino flocks: relationships between reproductive traits and environmental cues.high levels of reproductive loss have been reported in commercial merino flocks (n=68) from the cereal/livestock and high rainfall zones in south australia (kleemann do, walker sk. fertility in south australian commercial merino flocks: sources of reproductive wastage. theriogenology 2005;63:2075-88). relationships between reproductive traits (estrus, ovulation, fertility, fecundity, lamb survival) and environmental end points (liveweight, condition score, temperature at mating, chill index at l ...200515910923
a modified technique for the estimation of the number of infective nematode larvae present on pasture, and its application in the field under south australian conditions.a modified technique for the recovery of larvae from pasture is described involving two centrifugations of pasture washings in a solution of potassium iodide. on average, the technique recovered 96% of larvae and was simple to perform. at three sites in south australia (rainfall 550-330 mm year-1), the numbers of larvae present on pasture each month using this technique was compared with results obtained using one or four tracer sheep. the general pattern of larval availability was similar using ...19902251747
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