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preliminary survey of domestic animals of the sudan for precipitating antibodies to rift valley fever virus.in a preliminary seroepidemiological survey a total of 780 serum samples derived from various domestic animals of the sudan were examined for rift valley fever (rvf) virus precipitating antibodies. the incidence was approximately 34.3% in sheep, 33.2% in cattle, 22% in goats, 7.9% in camels and 4% in donkeys. the findings indicated that rvf is mainly prevalent in the rich savanna areas of the south as well as the irrigated areas close to the nile in the north. circumstantial evidence suggests th ...19846512261
domestic and wild animals naturally infected with schistosoma mansoni in the gezira irrigated scheme, sudan.domestic and wild animals were examined for natural infection with human schistosomiasis in northern gezira, sudan. postmortem examination of animals in a number of slaughterhouses revealed no infections in either sheep or goats but schistosoma mansoni worms were found in two of the 98 cattle examined. nile rats (arvicanthus niloticus) were trapped and stray dogs were shot and examined for evidence of schistosome infection. the infection rate in nile rats was 4.9% (8/164) and in dogs 27.3% (15/5 ...19854032533
age specific prevalence and intensity of schistosoma bovis infection in sudanese desert sheep in the white nile province.a survey of ovine schistosomiasis was carried out in a schistosoma bovis enzootic area in the central sudan. three hundred desert sheep, representing different age groups, were screened for infection, using pitchford's faecal egg counting technique. no infection was detected in animals under one year old, but from the age of 18 months onward, the prevalence increased progressively from around 20 per cent to 60 per cent in six-year-old sheep, and this was accompanied by an increase in infection i ...19836622838
results of serological examination for leptospirosis of domestic and wild animals in the upper nile province (sudan).195 domestic and 766 wild animals were serologically examined for leptospirosis. cattle was found to be positive at titres 1 greater than or equal to 400 in 63.5%, namely 50.6% for tarassovi, 17.1% for sejroe-hebdomadis, 9.4% for bataviae, 1.2-3.5% for icterohaemorrhagiae, cynopteri, autumnalis, australis, pomona and grippotyphosa. sera from 35 animals reacted with the serovars from two or more serogroups. of 7 sheep 1 was positive for pomona and 18 goats proved to be negative. 10.2% of wild mam ...19892809189
detection of antibodies to leishmania donovani in animals in a kala-azar endemic region in eastern sudan: a preliminary report.the prevalence of antibodies against leishmania donovani in selected domestic and wild animal species in 2 villages in sudan with active l. donovani transmission in humans was investigated. screening of domestic animals (donkeys, cows, sheep, goats, camels and dogs) with the direct agglutination test (dat) detected reaction rates above the cut-off titres in donkeys (68.7%), cows (21.4%) and goats (8.5%), and which were also found in wild rats (5.5%). sera of sheep, camels and dogs had a weak agg ...200010748894
current situation of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) in the sudan.the current situation of ppr in sudan was investigated. a total of 61 tissue samples were collected from various ppr suspected outbreaks in sheep in sudan during 2008. collected tissue samples were tested for ppr antigen using icelisa, ppr antigen was detected in 26 out of 61 samples (42.6%). highest antigen detection rate was in specimens collected from western sudan. a total of 1198 serum samples were collected from sheep (n = 500), camels (n = 392), and goats (n = 306) from different areas in ...201019548103
ticks (acari:ixodidae) of the blue and white nile ecosystems in the sudan with particular reference to the rhipicephalus sanguineus group.twenty-four adult ixodid tick species, infesting livestock and some wildlife hosts along the blue and white nile in the sudan, were identified. three species, boophilus geigyi, rhipicephalus camicasi and r. bergeoni, were recorded for the first time from the sudan. tick numbers on indigenous breeds of cattle (bos indicus) were relatively low, ranging between 17.1 and 40.5 per animal. young cattle grazing with the herd carried significantly fewer ticks than older animals. with the exception of b. ...19873331134
survey of theileria lestoquardi antibodies among sudanese sheep.the prevalence of theileria lestoquardi antibodies in sudanese sheep from nine geographical areas in sudan was determined using indirect fluorescent antibody "ifa" test. out of 315 samples examined, 51 (16.2%) were found positive and ranged between 23.4% in river nile state and 10% in kasala and darfour provinces with an overall prevalence of 16.2% indicating widespread distribution of the infection. we also report on presence of antibodies reactive to theileria annulata in sheep sera.200312559715
real lives 2: sudan.the great sudan famine of the mid-1980s caused social dislocation and political chaos which ultimately toppled the long-time military leader. hundreds of thousands of farmers and pastoralists were displaced, driven from the western provinces into urban feeding stations and squatter settlements. camps at abu zayd and mwellih near umdurman filled with over 100,000 refugees in a matter of months, while camps at ed debba on the nile river's nubian reach filled with tribesmen desperate to sell shee ...199412319114
managing the wetlands. people and rivers: africa.at the current population growth rate in africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in africa is erratic. africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-saharan africa. sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. major rivers (the limpopo in southern africa and the save/sabi in zimbabwe and ...199312287015
leptospirosis in the melut district--upper nile province (south sudan)--an overview.the authors examined 195 domestic animals for leptospirosis serologically in sudan (170 cattle, 7 sheep and 18 goats) and 771 wild animals (36 species) with 13 serovars from 13 serogroups. 54% of domestic animals namely, 108 cattle and 1 sheep were positive in titer levels of 1:400 and higher. cattle sera with the serovars of the serogroup icterohaemorrhagiae were 2.4% positive with cynopteri 2.4%, autumnalis 3.5%, australis 1.2%, pomona 2.9%, grippotyphosa 2.9%, hebdonadis 17.1%, bataviae 9.4% ...19892599388
brucellosis in the upper nile region--melut district, sudan (report).in the melut district, south sudan human and animal blood samples were investigated for brucella abortus and brucella melitensis. 9.2% of the investigated cattle and 16.2% of the green long-tailed monkies were brucella abortus-positive. school children revealed a 3.7% positivity rate, melut's hospital patients 5.2% and village children and adults 2.2%. however, only a small number of hospital patients was investigated. a small percentage of sheep and goats was investigated for brucella melitensi ...19883275090
isolation and transmission of cowdria ruminantium (causal agent of heartwater disease) in blue nile province, sudan.heartwater was diagnosed in sheep at the umm banein livestock research station, blue nile province, sudan. cowdria ruminantium was isolated from sheep by subinoculation of blood into a goat. adult amblyomma lepidum ticks fed as nymphs on this goat transmitted heartwater to a friesian (bos taurus) calf. brain stabilates from this calf, either snap-frozen into liquid nitrogen or frozen slowly in a deepfreezer at -70 degrees c, with dmso as cryoprotectant, were infective to cattle when inoculated s ...19846740919
incidence of q fever among cattle, sheep and goats in the upper nile province in southern sudan. 19883369066
A molecular survey on cystic echinococcosis in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state (Sudan).Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority neglected tropical disease (NTD). Therefore, CE is a neglected disease even in ...201122040487
[rift valley fever, a veterinary and medical problem (author's transl)].rift valley fever probably occurred in east and south africa for many years, where it occasionally caused sever epizootics among sheep and to a less extent in cattle and goats. particularly newborn animals fall victims to the disease, whereas the majority of pregnant ewes and cows abort. in recent years, the disease spread to the sudan and reached the nile delta in 1977, where it not only caused an epizootic but also an epidemic among the population, resulting in approximately 18,000 cases and n ...1979494210
some observations on ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting sheep in river nile province of northern sudan.five species of ixodid ticks were found in a cross-sectional survey in which 200 sheep were examined for ticks in river nile province, sudan. hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the predominant species (73.6%), whereas ticks belonging to the rhipicephalus sanguineus group (14.7%), rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (9.1%), rhipicephalus simus (2%) and hyalomma dromedarii (0.5%) were also found. the mean tick load was 11.2 per animal. in a subsequent longitudinal survey ticks were collected on a monthl ...200516300192
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