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the biology and molecular biology of scrapie-like diseases.the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse's) are degenerative diseases of the central nervous system which naturally affect man (creutzfeldt-jakob disease [cjd], gerstmann-sträussler syndrome [gss], kuru), sheep and goats (scrapie), cattle (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [bse]), mink (transmissible mink encephalopathy), mule deer, elk and antelope (chronic wasting disease). spongiform encephalopathies have also been diagnosed in captive species of zoo antelope and in domestic cats. mu ...19938219804
optical imaging of the ventral medullary surface across sleep-wake states.we hypothesized that spontaneous activity declines over widespread areas of the cat ventral medullary surface (vms) during rapid eye movement (rem) sleep. we assessed neural and hemodynamic activity, measured as changes in reflected 660- and 560-nm wavelength light, from the vms during sleep and waking states in five adult, unrestrained cats and in two control cats. relative to quiet sleep, overall activity declined, and variability, assessed by standard deviation, increased by 25% during rem sl ...199910516267
interleukin-1 is involved in responses to sleep deprivation in the rabbit.interleukin-1 (il-1) is hypothesized to be involved in sleep regulation. antibodies directed against interleukin-1 beta (anti-il-1 beta) were injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) into normal rabbits to determine the effects of the reduction of endogenous il-1 beta on spontaneous sleep/wake behavior. a 100 micrograms dose of anti-il-1 beta reduced non-rapid eye movements sleep (nrems) by about 20-min during the first 4-h postinjection without affecting rems, amplitudes of electroencephalograp ...19948180839
central respiratory carbon dioxide chemosensitivity does not decrease during sleep.the ventilatory response to co2 decreases during slow-wave sleep (sws) and rapid-eye-movement (rem) sleep compared with awake levels. however, it is not known to what extent this can be attributed to decreased sensitivity of the co2 chemoreflex. mechanical factors during sleep may decrease ventilatory output, or pco2 at the central chemoreceptor may not increase to the same degree as paco2, particularly during rem sleep when brain blood flow (bbf) is increased. in 10 goats, we measured the venti ...19921554210
growth hormone-releasing hormone antibodies suppress sleep and prevent enhancement of sleep after sleep deprivation.previous reports suggest that the hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (ghrh) promotes sleep, especially non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (nrems). to evaluate the role of endogenous ghrh in sleep regulation, the effects of antibodies to rat ghrh (ghrh-ab) were studied on normal sleep, brain temperature (tbr), and gh secretion in experiment i and on enhanced sleep after sleep deprivation in experiment ii. in experiment i, affinity-purified ghrh-ab (50 and 200 micrograms) raised in goats and ...19921443226
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