can goats be used as sentinels for tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) in nonendemic areas? experimental studies and epizootiological observations.a goat flock grazing year-round on a meadow in a "tbe non-risk area" in thuringia, germany, with a history of only isolated human tbe cases was examined repeatedly for tbe virus-(tbev)-specific antibodies and tbev rna between october 2008 and december 2009. surprisingly, tbev specific antibodies were detected in one goat, which had never left this area. to compare the results of a natural contact to tbev with a defined contact to tbev, two goats were immunized experimentally. both animals develo ...201021141272
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