[the animal as a symbol]. 197877068
proceedings of the first international conference for the standardisation of banded karyotypes of domestic animals. university of reading reading, england. 2nd-6th august 1976. 19806103884
moderate reduction of beta-globin gene transcript by a novel mutation in the 5' untranslated region: a study of its interaction with other genotypes in two families.we have identified two individuals of greek cypriot origin with thalassemia intermedia. molecular analysis has shown that each individual is a compound heterozygote for a previously described beta zero thalassemia allele and a novel mutation, c-->g in position +33, in the 5' untranslated region of the beta globin gene. in both families the beta +33 allele is associated with the same beta haplotype (-++- ) suggesting that it is likely to be of a single origin, beta-cdnas from normal and mutant be ...19968562944
the hampshire epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease, analysis was made of the spread of foot-and-mouth disease during the epidemic in hampshire in january and february 1967. to explain the pattern of spread, it had to be postulated that virus was present seven days before the first outbreak was reported. it is suggested that the disease occurred initially in pigs fed on infected meat and that the virus was subsequently disseminated from the local abattoir, where the pigs were killed, to four farms by movement of animals, slaughterhouse waste, p ...19734511946
radio-iodine in thyroid glands of swans, farm animals and humans, also in algae and river water from the thames valley, england.a highly sensitive counting system has been used to measure radio-iodine in environmental samples from the thames valley. iodine-125 and occasionally iodine-131 have been found in the thyroid glands of most of the swans that have died on the river thames, the river wey and the grand union canal, and in algae and water samples from the thames and many of its tributaries. the presence of this activity is ascribed to the waste discarded into the drainage system by hospitals and research laboratorie ...19863945795
a silver spoon. 19873551790
the epidemiology of echinococcus granulosus in great britain. v. the status of subspecies of echinococcus granulosus in great britain.twenty-five years ago williams and sweatman suggested that in great britain there are two subspecies of echinococcus granulosus--e. granulosus granulosus and e. granulosus equinus. echinococcus granulosus granulosus does not mature either in foxes or in horses: e. granulosus equinus will mature in either. the prepatent period of e. granulosus granulosus in the definitive host is about 42 days while that of e. granulosus equinus is about 70 days. each subspecies has a characteristic morphology. m ...19892596902
infection of british deer and farm animals with epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer virus. 1977198436
caseous lymphadenitis in goats in england. 19902270637
escherichia coli o157 infection associated with a farm visitor centre.during the summer of 1994, four cases of bloody diarrhoea and/or haemolytic uraemic syndrome were reported to the consultants in communicable disease control in nottingham and leicester. one case was an adult, and there were three children aged 2 to 4 years. the initial investigation failed to reveal any common foodstuff as the cause of the outbreak, but all four cases had attended a farm visitor centre in leicestershire in the three weeks before they became ill. a further three cases were found ...19957606276
natural scrapie in goats: neuropathology.the brains of the 20 goats affected with natural scrapie received at the central veterinary-laboratory, weybridge, since 1975 were examined microscopically. lesions of a spongiform encephalopathy were found in the brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, corpus striatum, and also in the neopallium or cerebral cortex. the lesions in the neopallium have not previously been reported in natural scrapie in goats. deposits of amyloid were present in the thalamus in three of the 20 goats.19921523800
communicable disease associated with milk and dairy products in england and wales: 1983-1984.during the period 1983-1984 32 outbreaks of disease (ii in 1983 and 21 in 1984) associated with consumption of milk and dairy products and affecting at least 714 people were reported from england and wales. twenty-seven of the outbreaks were attributed to raw milk, two to contaminated pasteurised milk and one each to cheese, cream and ice-cream. twenty-two were due to salmonellas, seven to campylobacters and one each to staphylococcus aureus, yersinia enterocolitica and streptococcus zooepidemic ...19863722841
the risk of acquiring q fever on farms: a seroepidemiological determine the occupational risk of q fever.19957489053
classic pages in obstetrics and gynecology. foetal blood-gas tensions and gas transfusion through the placenta of the goat. arthur st. george mccarthy huggett. journal of physiology (london), vol. 62 pp. 373-384, 1927. 1978345818
coccidia of the domestic goat capra hircus, with notes on eimeria ovinoidalis and e. bakuensis (syn. e. ovina) from the sheep ovis aries.eimerian oocysts were found in 98% of 422 faeces samples from goats in se england. it was found that 74% of the samples contained thousands or tens of thousands of oocysts/g. kids less than 1 year old had higher oocyst counts than yearling or adult goats. nine species of eimeria were identified, and 65% of the samples contained 3-5 species. the most prevalent species were e. arloingi (94%), e. hirci (69%), e. christenseni (64%) and e. caprina (55%). e. ninakohlyakimovae (48%), e. alijevi (42%) a ...19863714300
an epidemiological study of an outbreak of q fever in a secondary school.five cases of clinical q fever were identified amongst students and staff of a somerset secondary school between 23 october 1987 and 21 december 1987. five goats which were kept at the school were found to have antibodies to coxiella burnetii phase ii. a cross-sectional study was conducted at the school in july 1988. a single cf test was used to identify evidence of prior infection, and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure variables and illness during 1987. four ...19902347385
[spongiform encephalopathies with special reference to bovine spongiform encephalopathy].in switzerland bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) was detected for the first time in november 1990. it is a transmissible disease of the central nervous system similar to creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd), gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker syndrome (gss) and kuru in man, and, in animals, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (cwd) in captive mule deer and elk of north america and transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) of farm reared mink. the infectious agent of the spongiform ence ...19921615298
benzimidazole-resistant trichostrongylus colubriformis from goats in central england. 19948036773
in-vitro culture of human hydatid material. 19806101653
the occurrence of listeria species in milk and dairy products: a national survey in england and wales.a total of 4172 samples of milk, cheese and other dairy products were examined over a 1-year period for the presence of listeria species. strains of listeria were found most frequently in soft, ripened cows milk cheese; 63 out of 769 (8.2%) samples contained listeria monocytogenes, 25 samples contained species other than l. monocytogenes, and 18 samples contained both l. monocytogenes and other listeria spp. eleven samples of pasteurized cows milk (1.1%) from four dairies contained l. monocytoge ...19911904761
seasonal variations in the semen quality of young british goats.physical characteristics of semen quality were studied over a 12 month period in 10 post pubertal, young male goats (7-19 months of age) maintained under the naturally prevailing climatic conditions characteristic of the south of england (latitude n 51 degrees 46'). semen was collected fort-nightly using an artificial vagina and an ovariectomized, oestrogenized teaser doe. the physical appearance of the ejaculates varied from a yellow or whitish-yellow colour during september-december to a cream ...19968680844
investigation of trace elements in soil as risk factors in the epidemiology of scrapie.scrapie is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of sheep and goats which is thought to be caused by a conformational change of the normal prion protein to its pathological isoform. it has been speculated that this change may be mediated by an interaction between the prion protein and various trace elements, in particular manganese and copper, and that the levels of trace elements in soils may therefore be risk factors for tses. this hypothesis was tested by comparing the level o ...200415260441
a comparison of biotypes and serotypes of campylobacter sp. isolated from patients with enteritis and from animal and environmental sources.the origin of sporadic campylobacter infections has been investigated by means of a collaborative study. from a total of 1152 cases reported in north west england in 1982, campylobacter strains isolated during one month in each quarter of the year were biotyped and serotyped. for comparison, 875 strains of campylobacter isolated from environmental and animal sources were similarly examined. most strains from human beings were campylobacter jejuni; about half of them were of three serotypes. thos ...19846501895
the saga of brucellosis: controversy over credit for linking malta fever with goats' milk. 19968813991
[the concept of tic in the history of abnormal movements].history of abnormal movements started during the 14th century. at that time the st vitus' dance was described, but the nosology of dyskinesias remained confusing during the next five centuries. the concept of tic was elaborated in france during the 18th century. it remained too large a concept however. definitive semiologies appeared at the end of the 19th century, thus allowing tics to emerge from the "chaos of choreas". the etymology of the word "tic" still remains mysterious. in 1905, meige t ...19863547545
darwin and domestication. 19684882915
verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o157 in animals on public amenity premises in england and wales, 1997 to the request of the public health authorities, 31 public amenity premises in england and wales containing animals of various species were investigated for the presence of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec) o157 between 1997 and 2007, because of putative associations with human cases. vtec o157 was confirmed in one or more species on 19 (61.3 per cent) of the premises. there were significant associations between the presence of vtec o157 and the number of species sampled, the size of the ...200919411683
quantitative estimates of the risk of new outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease as a result of burning pyres.the risk of dispersing foot-and-mouth disease virus into the atmosphere, and spreading it to susceptible holdings as a result of burning large numbers of carcases together on open pyres, has been estimated for six selected pyres burned during the 2001 outbreak in the uk. the probability of an animal or holding becoming infected was dependent on the estimated level of exposure to the virus predicted from the concentrations of virus calculated by the met office, bracknell. in general, the probabil ...200414979669
availability of medicines for sheep and goats. 19968931307
an outbreak of infection due to staphylococcus aureus phage type 80/81 in a veterinary school. 19664223580
yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a cause of ocular disease in goats. 201020511658
sources of escherichia coli o157 and experiences over the past 15 years in sheffield, the first documented outbreak of hc caused by escherichia coli o157, which occurred in the north-west usa in 1982, there was a strong association between infection and prior consumption of ground beef from a chain of fast food restaurants. foods of bovine origin, including beef, milk and dairy products, have since been implicated in many outbreaks of infection world-wide. investigations during the course of outbreaks, or at random, have shown that cattle are a major reservoir of e. coli o157. ...200010880179
descriptive epidemiology of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in great britain: the first five february 2001, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was confirmed in great britain. a major epidemic developed, which peaked around 50 cases a day in late march, declining to under 10 a day by may. by mid-july, 1849 cases had been detected. the main control measures employed were livestock movement restrictions and the rapid slaughter of infected and exposed livestock. the first detected case was in south-east england; infection was traced to a farm in north-east england to which all other cases were ...200111808655
occurrence of anthelmintic resistant nematodes on sheep farms in england and goat farms in england and wales.a survey in 1992 showed that 44 per cent of the sheep farms tested in the south west and 15 per cent of those in the north east of england had parasitic nematode worm burdens which were resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics, and that 65 per cent of the non-dairy goat farms tested in england and wales had resistant worms. ostertagia circumcincta was the main species in sheep and haemonchus contortus in goats. the resistance to benzimidazoles was diagnosed by a combination of an egg hatch assay ...19968843638
health risks associated with unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk on retail sale in england and wales. a phls dairy products working group study.a pilot study to determine the microbiological quality of unpasteurized milk from goats and ewes sampled from farm shops, health food shops, and other retail premises found that 47%, (47/100) of goats' and 50% (13/26) of ewes' milk samples failed the standards prescribed by the dairy products (hygiene) regulations 1995. in addition, staphylococcus aureus, haemolytic streptococci or enterococci, were present in excess of 10(2) c.f.u./ml in 9 (7 %) 2 (2 %) and 19 (15%) samples, respectively. salmo ...199910459642
the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in dumfries and galloway, 2001. 1: characteristics and control.the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in dumfries and galloway in south-west scotland comprised 177 infected premises (ips) in 24 geographical clusters, and ran from march 1 until may 23, 2001. initial seeding of infection was by livestock (predominantly sheep) that had passed through longtown market in adjacent cumbria. thereafter, spread within existing, and to new, clusters was associated with the movement of personnel and vehicles, with further transmission by longtown market contacts and acro ...200515751571
orf (contagious pustular dermatitis) in farmworkers: prevalence and risk factors in three areas of england.orf is a zoonotic skin disease which is commonly self-diagnosed by those who tend sheep and goats. this paper reports the prevalence, incidence and risk factors associated with the infection in a cohort of farmworkers from three areas of england, derived from the results of self-reporting and serology. twenty-three per cent of those employed or living on a sheep farm reported ever having had orf, and the antibody serological profiles indicated a prevalence of 4 per cent and an annual incidence o ...199910452390
investigation of farms linked to human patients with cryptosporidiosis in england and wales.the study investigates farms suspected of being sources of zoonotic human cryptosporidiosis. a variety of implicated farm animal species were sampled and tested to detect cryptosporidium oocysts and investigate genetic linkage with human patients. risk factor information was collected from each farm and analysed by multivariable logistic regression to detect significant associations between factors and cryptosporidium in animals. the results showed that average sample prevalence of cryptosporidi ...201020096944
outbreak of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis in golden guernsey goats in great outbreak of caprine tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis was disclosed in june 2008, affecting goats of the golden guernsey breed kept on 10 separate smallholdings in south-west wales and the west of england. following the initial diagnosis at postmortem examination, 30 goats that reacted positively to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (sicct) test, together with five in-contact animals, were euthanased and subjected to postmortem examination and mycobacterial cultu ...200919767636
some haematological data for fallow deer (dama dama) in england.the concentrations of haemoglobin, erythrocytes and leucocytes and the packed cell volume, plasma viscosity and some red cell indices were measured in the blood of 42 fallow deer and analysed with respect to age, season and sex. the mean haemoglobin concentration was greater in females than in males. in all the deer the number of leucocytes was considerably smaller than in the usual domestic mammals, namely, cats, cattle, dogs, goats, horses, pigs and sheep. plasma viscosity was statistically gr ...19827146629
verocytotoxin-producing and attaching and effacing activity of escherichia coli isolated from diseased farm livestock.between may 2005 and june 2008, strategically selected isolates of escherichia coli obtained from clinical submissions to veterinary laboratories agency (vla) regional laboratories in england and wales were serogrouped and examined by pcr for verocytotoxin (vt) production and attaching and effacing (eae) genes, both of which are zoonotic determinants. vt-encoding genes were detected in 54 (5.3 per cent) of the 1022 isolates examined. only one isolate (0.1 per cent) was identified as verocytotoxi ...201121546408
hypospadias in an abattoir survey conducted in south-west england, 15 of 6521 rams aged three to 12 months had hypospadias; in 27 others the scrotum was completely or partly divided, but they had no other abnormalities of the urinary or genital systems. the lesions observed in 11 of the rams in the abattoir survey, and in four young rams and one mature ram found during visits to farms, are described in detail. five of them had periscrotal openings of the urethra and in the other 11 the openings were in a pe ...200616766724
molecular variation, evolution and geographical distribution of louping ill virus.following the demonstration that the tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) subgroup viruses are distributed as a cline across the northern hemisphere (zanotto et al., 1995), we have analyzed the dispersal pattern of louping ill (li) virus, the most westerly located member in the cline. a total number of 21 li or li-related virus e gene sequences have been used for a detailed molecular analysis of the evolution, phylogeny and geographical distribution of li virus in the british isles and ireland. the res ...19979607079
effectiveness of a social support intervention on infant feeding practices: randomised controlled assess whether monthly home visits from trained volunteers could improve infant feeding practices at age 12 months, a randomised controlled trial was carried out in two disadvantaged inner city london boroughs.200919141661
zoonotic cryptosporidiosis from petting farms, england and wales, 1992-2009. 201121192888
bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease: a risk analysis.there is doubt that variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease (vcjd) resulted from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) transmission from cattle to human. what is uncertain is the total number of vcjd cases (currently about 80). in this review i covered recent data on the vcjd and bse epidemic, the mode of bse spreading to humans and, finally, the data on the prnp analogue--the doppel gene (prnd).200011693716
incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw sheep and goats' milk in england, wales and northern ireland.a blind survey of 104 raw sheep and goats' milk samples (90 goat, 14 sheeps) from bulk tanks on farms throughout england, wales and northern ireland was carried out over a 5-month period (january-may 1998) in order to determine the incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis. each milk sample (100 ml) was divided into two 50ml portions. one portion was decontaminated with 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride for 5h before culture on slopes of herrold's egg yolk medium and in bactec radiometric med ...200111230934
rickets in lion cubs at the london zoo in 1889: some new 1889, when dr john bland-sutton, a prominent surgeon in london, england, was consulted concerning fatal rickets in more than 20 successive litters of lion cubs at the london zoo, he evaluated the role of diet relative to the development of rickets. he prescribed goat meat and bones and cod-liver oil to be added to the lean horse-meat diet of the cubs and their mothers. rickets reversed, the cubs survived, and litters were reared successfully. in classic controlled studies conducted in puppies ...200919349374
metabolic bone disease in lion cubs at the london zoo in 1889: the original animal model of 1889 dr. john bland-sutton, a prominent london surgeon, was consulted about fatal rickets in over 20 successive litters of lion cubs born at the london zoo. he evaluated the diet and found the cause of rickets to be nutritional in origin. he recommended that goat meat with crushed bones and cod-liver oil be added to the lean horsemeat diet of the cubs and their mothers. rickets were reversed, the cubs survived, and subsequent litters thrived. thirty years later, in classic controlled studies ...201020804612
assessment of welfare on 24 commercial uk dairy goat farms based on direct observations.the preliminary findings from an investigation into the health and welfare of goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the uk are described. an assessment protocol involving direct observations of the goats was developed in order to assess their welfare. twenty-four dairy goat farms in england and wales were visited and assessed during the period autumn 2004 to summer 2005. the main welfare issues identified were lameness and claw overgrowth, udder and teat lesions, skin lesions and pruritus.201021262609
bovine tuberculosis infection in wild mammals in the south-west region of england: a survey of prevalence and a semi-quantitative assessment of the relative risks to the united kingdom, badgers are implicated in the transmission of mycobacterium bovis to cattle, but little information is available on the potential role of other wild mammals. this paper presents the results of the largest systematic uk survey of m. bovis infection in other wild mammals. mammal carcasses (4715) from throughout the south-west region of england were subjected to a systematic post mortem examination, microbiological culture of tissues and spoligotyping of isolates. infection w ...200716434219
comparison of different control strategies for foot-and-mouth disease: a study of the epidemics in canada in 1951/52, hampshire in 1967 and northumberland in 1966.the measures used to control the epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in canada in 1951/52 (29 outbreaks) were compared with those used in the epidemic in hampshire in 1967 (29 outbreaks). in both epidemics the disease spread more from premises where the disease was reported late and the imposition of quarantine or restrictions on infected premises was delayed. in hampshire, area restrictions were imposed, susceptible livestock on infected premises and on premises in direct contact were slaughter ...200616400097
dicrocoelium dendriticum in devon. 201020710037
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