identification of phlebotomine sandfly bloodmeals from baringo district, kenya, by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to identify the sources of bloodmeals in phlebotomine sandflies from baringo district, rift valley province, kenya. some bloodmeals had been stored for over 4 years before being analysed. among 356 sandflies identified, 62.9% were phlebotomus martini, 14.8% sergentomyia antennatus, 10% s.schwetzi, 6% s.clydei, 1.9% s.adleri, 1.6% p.duboscqi, 1.4% s.africanus and 0.8% s.bedfordi. out of 224 p.martini bloodmeals, host source was identified ...19921463906
observations on rinderpest in kenya, 1986-1989.rinderpest was confirmed in kenya in 1986, 1987, 1988 and 1989. three epidemiologically distinct events appear to have occurred: repeated outbreaks in west pokot district related to cross-border movement of stock, an outbreak in marsabit district in 1987 (thought to have been caused by illegal movement of cattle, possibly in vehicles, from countries further north) and a series of related outbreaks in and near nairobi between 1988 and 1989 due to the unauthorized movement from abattoirs and holdi ...19921472724
antibody responses against natural taenia hydatigena infection in dogs in kenya.antibody responses (igg) against taenia hydatigena infection in dogs in kenya were analysed in elisa using excretory/secretory products of t. hydatigena scoleces derived from goat cysticercus cysts. helminth infections of individual dogs were confirmed at autopsy. t. hydatigena worms were found in 89.5% of 143 dogs, and positive anti-t. hydatigena antibody levels were detected in 58.7% of infected dogs. positive antiscolex antibody levels were detected in 40.0% of turkana dogs uninfected with t. ...19911869360
hydatid disease in the turkana district of kenya, iv. the prevalence of echinococcus granulosus infections in dogs, and observations on the role of the dog in the lifestyle of the turkana.the prevalence of echinococcus granulosus in dogs in the turkana district of kenya was 39.4% of 695 examined. of these, 98 (35.8%) had heavy echinococcus worm burdens (10(3)-5 x 10(4) ), while 54 (19.7%) and 122 (44.5%) had medium (201-1000) and light (1-200) burdens. the possible sources of these infections are discussed. the prevalence rate differed in various parts of the district, ranging from 63.5% in the northwest, where the highest incidence of human hydatidosis also occurs, to nil along ...19853985706
an ecological interdependence of diet and disease? a study of infection in one tribe consuming two different diets.the nature and incidence of infections were studied in two groups of turkana living in the same area but eating different diets; one consumed milk only and the other a combination of fish and milk. the only apparent and significant nutritional difference between the two groups was mild iron deficiency in the milk drinkers. episodes of fever, symptomatic infection with malaria and brucellosis, molluscum contagiosum and common warts, episodes of diarrhea, and serological evidence of infection with ...19807355850
prevalence of besnoitiosis in domestic ruminants in kenya: a preliminary survey.a preliminary survey on the prevalence of besnoitiosis in domestic ruminants in kenya based on field and farm visits, clinical and post mortem examinations and histopathological examination of tissues and biopsies, showed that goats are the most affected, followed by cattle, while sheep were unaffected. caprine besnoitiosis occurred in a continuous belt in 5 of the 8 provinces in kenya stretching from the coast, eastern, north eastern, nairobi and the rift valley provinces. mandera, in the north ...199910855837
application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in north-western turkana, kenya and toposaland, southern sudan.a study was done to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in goats using ultrasonography. a total of 1,390 goats were examined, 43,6 % (606/1,390) of them from north-western turkana, kenya, and 56,4% (784/1,390) from toposaland, southern sudan. hydatid cysts were visualized in 1,82 % (11/ 606) of the goats from north-western turkana and 4,34% (34/784) of those from toposaland. unlike abattoir surveys, the prevalence data obtained in this study were unbiased because entire flocks were examine ...200011206392
an assessment of the regional and national socio-economic impacts of the 2007 rift valley fever outbreak in kenya.although rift valley fever (rvf) has significant impacts on human health and livestock production, it can also induce significant (and often overlooked) economic losses among various stakeholders in the marketing chain. this work assesses and quantifies the multi-dimensional socio-economic impacts of the 2007 rvf outbreak in kenya based on a rapid assessment of livestock value chains in the northeast part of the country and a national macroeconomic analysis. although study results show negative ...201020682906
epidemiological assessment of the rift valley fever outbreak in kenya and tanzania in 2006 and capture lessons from the 2007 rift valley fever (rvf) outbreak, epidemiological studies were carried out in kenya and tanzania. somali pastoralists proved to be adept at recognizing symptoms of rvf and risk factors such as heavy rainfall and mosquito swarms. sandik, which means "bloody nose," was used by somalis to denote disease consistent with rvf. somalis reported that sandik was previously seen in 1997/98, the period of the last rvf epidemic. pastoralists communicated valuable epidemiolog ...201020682908
rift valley fever outbreak in livestock in kenya, 2006-2007.we analyzed the extent of livestock involvement in the latest rift valley fever (rvf) outbreak in kenya that started in december 2006 and continued until june 2007. when compared with previous rvf outbreaks in the country, the 2006-07 outbreak was the most extensive in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels affecting thousands of animals in 29 of 69 administrative districts across six of the eight provinces. this contrasted with the distribution of approximately 700 human rvf cases in the country, whe ...201020682907
multiple virus lineages sharing recent common ancestry were associated with a large rift valley fever outbreak among livestock in kenya during 2006-2007.rift valley fever (rvf) virus historically has caused widespread and extensive outbreaks of severe human and livestock disease throughout africa, madagascar, and the arabian peninsula. following unusually heavy rainfall during the late autumn of 2006, reports of human and animal illness consistent with rvf virus infection emerged across semiarid regions of the garissa district of northeastern kenya and southern somalia. following initial rvf virus laboratory confirmation, a high-throughput rvf d ...200818786992
a study of cystic echinococcosis in slaughter animals in three selected areas of northern turkana, an attempt to establish the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis, a study was conducted in slaughter animals in three divisions of northern turkana, kenya. a total of 5752 goats, 588 sheep, 381 cattle and 70 camels were examined at slaughter. echinococcus granulosus metacestodes were found in 19.4% of the cattle, 3.6% of sheep, 4.5% of goats and 61.4% of camels. the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in cattle, sheep and goats was higher in lokichogio than in either kakuma or central division ...200211779657
a comparison of susceptibility of two allopatric populations of glossina pallidipes for stocks of trypanosoma congolense.a colony of glossina pallidipes austen which originated from nguruman, rift valley province, kenya, was significantly more susceptible to infection (19.3%) with a stock of trypanosoma congolense broden isolated from g. pallidipes in nguruman than a colony of the same species which originated from shimba hills, coast province, kenya (5.6%). male g.pallidipes from nguruman were significantly more susceptible than females to this t.congolense stock whilst the susceptibility of both sexes of g.palli ...19938268493
dermatophilosis in camels (camelus dromedarius linnaeus, 1758) in kenya.natural dermatophilosis (caused by dermatophilus congolensis van saceghem, 1915) has only recently been described in camels (camelus dromedarius). further work has shown that the disease is actually widespread. at the ol maisor farm where it was first diagnosed (in the laikipia district of northern kenya), detailed investigations have revealed that thirty camels (ten calves and twenty adult animals) were infected. the signs varied from mild to more than 50% skin involvement. patches of wool on t ...19921305855
economic contribution and viability of dairy goats: implications for a breeding augment the incomes of smallholder farmers in kenya and consequently improve their nutrition and income, many development organisations and policy makers are increasingly promoting dairy goat farming. among the key organisations supporting the initiative is heifer project international-kenya (hpik). however, the economic contribution and viability of dairy goats under the hpik project have not been studied so far. the aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of dairy goats t ...201019937381
blood-feeding patterns of culex quinquefasciatus and other culicines and implications for disease transmission in mwea rice scheme, kenya.studies were conducted in mwea rice scheme, kenya during the period april 2005 and january 2007 to determine the host-feeding pattern of culicine mosquitoes. mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors and tested for human, bovine, goat, and donkey blood meals by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. a total of 1,714 blood-engorged samples comprising culex quinquefasciatus say (96.1%), culex annulioris theobald (1.8%), culex poicilipes theobald (0.9%), aedes cuminsi theobald (1.0%), aedes tay ...200818297310
the use of ultrasound to study the prevalence of hydatid cysts in the right lung and liver of sheep and goats in turkana, kenya.ultrasound examination of the liver and right lung was performed in 260 sheep and 320 goats from the turkana district of kenya. hydatid cysts were visualized in 9.2% of the sheep and 2.5% of the goats. of the animals positive on ultrasound, 87.5% received post-mortem examinations. eighteen (6.9%) sheep and 5 (1.5%) goats were positive for hydatid cysts on ultrasound and post-mortem examination. false-positives were a result of taenia hydatigena cysticerci present in the liver in all but 1 case. ...19969024882
comparison of effects of breast-feeding practices on birth-spacing in three societies: nomadic turkana, gainj, and quechua.variation in the duration and pattern of breast-feeding contributes significantly to inter-population differences in fertility. in this paper, measures of suckling frequency and intensity are used to compare the effects of breast-feeding practices on the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, and on the length of the birth interval in three prospective studies undertaken during the 1980s, among quechua indians of peru, turkana nomads of kenya, and gainj of papua new guinea. in all three societies, ...19948200881
host blood meals and chromosomal inversion polymorphism in anopheles arabiensis in the baringo district of kenya.studies were carried out in the villages of kapkuikui and maji-ndege in the loboi area of baringo district, kenya, to obtain baseline data on species identification of the anopheles gambiae group, their feeding and resting behavior, and their frequencies of chromosomal inversions. this was carried out towards predicting the effect of introducing permethrin-impregnated cloths or other intervention measures. in this study, anopheles arabiensis was identified as the only species of the an. gambiae ...19947707055
a comparison of susceptibility to stocks of trypanosoma simiae of glossina pallidipes originating from allopatric populations in kenya.a colony of glossina pallidipes which originated from nguruman, rift valley province, kenya, was significantly more susceptible than a colony of the same species which originated from shimba hills, coast province, kenya, to infection with a stock of trypanosoma simiae cp 11 isolated from wild g. austeni in coast province, kenya, irrespective of whether pigs or goats were used as infecting hosts. male g.pallidipes from both the colonies were more susceptible than females to this t.simiae stock. s ...19957548937
an active intermediate host role for man in the life cycle of echinococcus granulosus in turkana, kenya.hydatid material removed at operation from 97 turkana was compared for fertility and viability with hydatid material removed from camels, cattle, sheep, and goats. the results showed that the human material was extremely fertile and viable, as was material from the camels, goats, and sheep. cattle cysts were invariably sterile, and the protoscoleces, when present, were comparatively less viable. the high incidence and fertility of hydatid cysts in the turkana, together with the lack of burial cu ...19836837848
hydatid disease: research and control in turkana, kenya. 1. epidemiological observations.a brief account is given of the geographical features of the turkana area and of the events which led to the discovery that this part of kenya had the highest incidence of clinically recognized hydatid disease in man anywhere in the world. observations were made on the distribution of the disease following an aerial survey designed to determine the distribution of the people. it was found that the highest incidence of 198 surgical cases per 100,000 people per annum was in the north-western area ...19863787676
leishmaniasis in kenya: description of leishmaniasis of a domestic goat from transmara, narok district, kenya.extensive research has been carried out in eastern africa for animal reservoirs of both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. the domestic dog has been the only domestic animal so far implicated as a possible reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis. for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania aethiopica, the hyrax and the giant rat are the proven reservoirs of the disease while several species of rodents have been demonstrated to harbor l. major. recent studies conducted in domestic animals in ...19892772523
influence of regular tick and helminth control on productivity of small ruminants in the lolgorien area, narok district, kenya.forty-five indigenous goats (one to two years old) and 45 indigenous sheep (six to eight months old) were exposed to natural tick and gastro-intestinal parasite challenge. all animals were born and reared in a pastoral husbandry system. throughout the study they were housed at night under improved hygienic conditions and grazed during daytime with the flock from which they originated. improvement of hygienic conditions reduced mortality. control of intestinal parasites increased liveweight gain ...19892515642
observations on the epidemiology of rift valley fever in kenya.the epizootic range of rift valley fever in kenya is defined from the results of virus isolations during epizootics, and form an extensive serological survey of cattle which were exposed during an epizootic. a study of the sera from a wide range of wild bovidae sampled immediately after the epizootic, showed that they did not act as reservoir or amplifying hosts for rvf. virus isolation attempts from a variety of rodents proved negative. rift valley fever did not persist between epizootics by pr ...19751058243
using participatory epidemiological techniques to estimate the relative incidence and impact on livelihoods of livestock diseases amongst nomadic pastoralists in turkana south district, kenya.a participatory epidemiological (pe) study was carried out with turkana pastoralists in turkana south district, kenya, to determine the relative incidence of livestock diseases and their impact on livelihoods. a sub-location was used as the sampling unit. a sub-location is the smallest administrative unit and is occupied by clusters of families (called adakars) that share common grazing patterns. a total of 32 sub-locations were randomly selected for the study. at least one focus group discussio ...200919487039
host feeding preference of phlebotomus guggisbergi, a vector of leishmania tropica in kenya.recently the sandfly phlebotomus guggisbergi was found to be a vector of leishmania tropica causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the laikipia focus, kenya, but extensive searches have shed no light on the identity of the rural reservoir host(s). in order to discover more about the biology of the vector, a host feeding preference study was conducted on wild sandflies in their natural cave environment over a 6-month period. solid state army miniature (ssam) traps, without light bulb, were suspended ...19938369555
molecular examination of the sympatry and distribution of sheep and camel strains of echinococcus granulosus in kenya.previous studies have shown that camel and sheep strains of the cystic hydatid parasite echinococcus granulosus occur in kenya. we examined 208 larval isolates and 40 worm samples of e. granulosus from various hosts in kenya using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a segment of ribosomal dna amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. this was in an effort to determine whether additional strains of e. granulosus occur in kenya, to examine the level of genetic heterogeneity with ...19938097619
outbreaks of contagious ecthyma in camels (camelus dromedarius) in the turkana district of kenya.mortality among camel calves (camelus dromedarius) is one of the most serious problems faced by camel herdsmen and, although there are several reasons for this mortality, diseases play a major role. in an investigation of outbreaks of contagious ecthyma in camels in the turkana district of kenya, four outbreaks were detected involving only camel calves. the principal lesions were distinct or largely coalesced pustules on the mouth, nose and muzzle. direct electron microscopy of infected scabs wa ...19947949365
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