effect of smoking on meningococcal carriage.a case-control study was done to examine whether certain environmental or medical factors were associated with meningococcal carriage. questionnaires were posted to 138 meningococcal carriers and their controls, and to 52 carriers of neisseria lactamica and their controls. carriers were matched to controls by age, sex, and area of residence. the overall response rate was 89%. there were no differences in environmental or medical factors between n lactamica carriers and their controls, nor in hou ...19892570968
the stonehouse survey: nasopharyngeal carriage of meningococci and neisseria lactamica.a total of 6234 nasopharyngeal swabs was collected during a survey of the population of stonehouse, gloucestershire in november 1986 as part of an investigation into an outbreak of meningococcal disease. the overall meningococcal carriage rate was 10.9%. the carriage rate rose with age from 2.1% in the 0- to 4-year-olds to a peak of 24.5% in the 15- to 19-year-olds, and thereafter declined steadily with age. male carriers outnumbered female carriers of meningococci by 3:2. group b (or non-groupa ...19873123263
modeling future changes to the meningococcal serogroup c conjugate (mcc) vaccine program in england and wales.the uk meningococcal serogroup c conjugate (mcc) vaccine program has successfully controlled serogroup c disease, due to high vaccine effectiveness and substantial herd immunity. however, children immunised at 2, 3 and 4 months of age receive only short-term direct protection and may be at risk of disease 15 months after vaccination. to investigate this we applied a mathematical model to predict the future epidemiology of serogroup c disease, with and without changes to the immunization schedule ...200617012888
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