assessing flavivirus, lentivirus, and herpesvirus exposure in free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs in southwestern madagascar.the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) is an endangered species found in southwestern madagascar, and understanding infectious disease susceptibility is an essential step towards the preservation of wild and captive lemur populations. lemurs are primates that are widely dispersed throughout the island of madagascar and may serve as hosts or reservoirs for zoonotic infections. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to west nile virus (wnv), simian immunodeficiency virus ...200717347392
[persistence of an endemic circulation of the west nile virus in madagascar].the wide geographic distribution of the west nile virus and the increase in virulence observed since 1994 in the mediterranean basin, central europe and north america, with several outbreaks of lethal encephalitis, demonstrate the importance of regular surveillance of the epidemiological data regarding this virus in the world. the institut pasteur de madagascar has shown between 1975 and 1990 that this arbovirus was most abundant in madagascar, where it had an endemic circulation. there has been ...200315678813
[a serological survey regarding flaviviridae infections on the island of réunion (1971-1989)].serological prevalence of flaviviridae was studied on reunion island by testing 2,507 human sera from a randomised sample. each serum was tested against 5 viruses (yellow fever, dengue type 1 and 2, west nile and wesselsbron) using haemagglutination inhibition test: 42.68% of human sera were found positive. the multivalent reactions represent practically three fourths of the positive ones. a severe dengue type 2 outbreak on the island in 1977-1978 and the possible circulation of a flavivirus may ...19948061530
[west-nile virus in madagascar]. 19846534284
arboviruses and lemurs in madagascar: a preliminary note.the epidemiological role played by lemurs in the circulation of arboviruses in madagascar has been studied. from serological (hai) tests, exposure of lemurs to alphaviruses and flaviviruses appears to vary considerably with location and species of lemur; positive tests varied from 0 to 32%. finally, the data concerning the lemurophilic part of the mosquito fauna suggests that some lemur species and man are infected by the same arboviruses, especially west nile virus. the susceptibility of these ...19826125046
arboviruses and lemurs in madagascar: experimental infection of lemur fulvus with yellow fever and west nile previous serological surveys of lemurs in madagascar, antibodies against flaviviruses were frequently detected. to examine the epidemiological role of lemur fulvus, experimental infections with yellow fever (yf) virus and west nile (wn) virus were performed. yf and wn infections were clinically unapparent. a 3 to 4-day-long viremia, with moderate levels was observed with yf virus. wn virus, especially the strain isolated in madagascar, provoked a 4 to 6-day-long viremia sufficient to infect a ...19852862804
[transmission cycles of the west-nile virus in madagascar, indian ocean].virological, serological and entomological research conducted in madagascar since 1975, reveal the wide-spread presence of west-nile virus on the island. this arbovirus has been isolated from humans, parrots and egrets. vectors belong to the genus culex (e.g. cx. decens, cx. quinquefasciatus, cx. antennatus, cx. univittatus), however the virus has also been isolated from aedes and anopheles. serological tests carried out on over 1,600 human and almost 1,000 animal sera, revealed that human being ...19892575365
hepatitis c and arboviral antibodies in the island populations of mauritius and rodrigues.a serological survey for antibodies to hepatitis c virus (hcv), dengue viruses (den), west nile virus (wn), and sindbis virus (sin) was carried out in sera of selected groups of the population of the islands of mauritius (n = 449) and rodrigues (n = 115), indian ocean. 8.3% of 564 sera were positive for anti-hcv. in mauritius, 2.1% of sera of healthy individuals were found with anti-hcv. the highest prevalence was found in sexually transmitted disease (std) patients and prison inmates with 46.2% ...19947534820
antigenic variations in west nile virus strains isolated in madagascar since 1978.the antigenic interrelationship between 52 madagascan west nile isolates and two prototype viruses (eg101 and g2266) was assessed by an immunofluorescent technique using monoclonal antibodies. this analysis enabled us to define 5 groups of variants, 4 of which were closer to the egyptian strain (eg101) than to the indian prototype (g2266). groups ii and v were dominant whereas strains of groups i and iv were less numerous. one strain belonging to group iii was antigenically similar to the indian ...19901982372
[serological surveillance of west nile virus infection in a village of the central highlands in madagascar].a serological survey on the frequency of west nile virus antibodies has been carried out in a village near antananarivo. igg antibodies were searched for by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on 460 sera collected in december 1988 and on 494 sera collected in july 1989. the prevalence of west nile virus antibodies varied from 13.4% to 21.8% between the beginning and the end of the rainy season. seroconversion was observed in 14.7% of 354 paired serum samples collected in december and july which h ...19902369170
[use of monoclonal antibodies for the antigenic analysis of west nile viral strains isolated in madagascar. contribution to the understanding of the epidemiological cycle].the antigenic relationship of 53 madagascar west nile isolates to each other and to the two prototype viruses (eg 101 and g 2266) was assessed using monoclonal antibodies. in madagascar exist 5 antigenic groups: 4 which are much closer to the egyptian strain eg 101 than to the indian, and antigenically distinct from south african h 442 strain. one other is closely related to indian strain g 2266. antigenic variations are observed in every periods of transmission cycle. some differences between s ...19902078079
[prevalence of antibodies to west nile virus in youngsters from 5 to 20 years old in madagascar].in 1990 a serological investigation among 3,177 children (5 to 20 years old) sera has been conducted by the pasteur institute of madagascar in several areas of madagascar, in order to evaluate the prevalence of west nile virus antibodies. 29.9% out of human sera tested by elisa for west nile igg antibodies are positive, that shows a rather high level of west nile virus circulation in madagascar. prevalence is increasing with age but no significant difference has been registered among prevalence ...19911764750
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