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prevalence of mycobacterium avium complex in respiratory specimens from aids and non-aids patients in a san francisco hospital.over the past several years there has been a large increase in the recovery of mycobacterium avium complex (mac) isolates from respiratory specimens submitted to the clinical laboratory at san francisco general hospital (sfgh). this increase in mac recovery correlates with an increase in the number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) in the community. although it is well known that mac is often isolated from patients with aids, the isolation of mac from respiratory specimens is ...19911986686
environmental source of mycobacteriosis in a california swine herd.between july 1985 and april 1986, mycobacterial lymphadenitis was recorded in six of 2407 slaughter pigs from a commercial swine herd in which the majority of pigs were raised in confinement. records showed that all six affected pigs had access to dirt-floored pens at least 81 days prior to slaughter. the mycobacteriosis lesion rate for pigs exposed to dirt pens was 9.4% while in nonexposed pigs the lesion rate was zero. the risk associated with movement of pigs from concrete floored pens to dir ...19892914225
serologic survey of california wild hogs for antibodies against selected zoonotic disease agents.blood samples were collected from trapped or hunter-killed wild hogs (sus scrofa) in 4 areas of california. sera were tested for antibodies against 7 zoonotic disease agents. antibodies against brucella sp were detected in 21 (15%) of 136 samples. antibodies against coxiella burnetii were found in 50% of the collected samples (67 of 135 tested). of the 135 wild hogs screened for pseudorabies virus, 4 (3%) were seropositive. leptospira interrogans antibodies were discovered in 118 (87%) of the 13 ...19836315659
evolving trends revealed by autopsies of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 565 autopsies in adults with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, los angeles, calif, 1982-1993 [corrected].to determine changes in causes of death, survival, and organ system distribution of major opportunistic infections and neoplasms in adults dying with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) following the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis for opportunistic infections since 1988.19948080357
mycobacterium avium complex in water, food, and soil samples collected from the environment of hiv-infected individuals.as part of an epidemiologic study of mycobacterium avium complex (mac) infection in san francisco, water, food and soil samples were collected from the home environment of 290 persons with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection and cultured for mycobacteria. isolates recovered from the environment were compared with isolates cultured from study patients. although mycobacteria were recovered from numerous environmental samples, isolates reactive with mac-specific dna probes were recovered f ...19957749796
nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in heart transplant recipients: a seventeen-year experience.a retrospective review was undertaken to determine the clinical features, outcome, and impact on survival of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in 14 (of 502) heart transplant recipients. the prevalence of these infections was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) during the precyclosporine than during the cyclosporine era. the mean interval from transplantation to diagnosis was 3.5 +/- 0.7 years (+/- sem). the 14 patients had a higher (p less than 0.05) linearized rejection rate than did ...19902398429
mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infections in a tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) herd.between 2 august and 22 september 2000, 37 hunter-killed tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) were evaluated at the grizzly island wildlife area, california, usa, for evidence of paratuberculosis. elk were examined post-mortem, and tissue and fecal samples were submitted for radiometric mycobacterial culture. acid-fast isolates were identified by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) that discriminates among members of the mycobacterium avium complex (mac). histopathologic evaluations were c ...200617255437
comparison of large restriction fragments of mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from aids and non-aids patients with those of isolates from potable water.we examined potable water in los angeles, california, as a possible source of infection in aids and non-aids patients. nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 12 (92%) of 13 reservoirs, 45 (82%) of 55 homes, 31 (100%) of 31 commercial buildings, and 15 (100%) of 15 hospitals. large-restriction-fragment (lrf) pattern analyses were done with asei. the lrf patterns of mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from potable water in three homes, two commercial buildings, one reservoir, and eight ...199910074518
amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of mycobacterium avium complex isolates recovered from southern california.fine-scale genotyping methods are necessary in order to identify possible sources of human exposure to opportunistic pathogens belonging to the mycobacterium avium complex (mac). in this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis was evaluated for fingerprinting 159 patient and environmental mac isolates from southern california. aflp analysis accurately identified strains belonging to m. avium and mycobacterium intracellulare and differentiated between strains within each spe ...200717761476
accuracy of self-reports of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related conditions in women.to investigate the validity of self-reported acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) among women enrolled in a prospective study of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection, the authors compared the self-reported occurrence of aids-specific diagnoses with aids diagnoses documented by county aids surveillance registries. also examined was the association between participant characteristics and the validity of self-reports. among the 339 hiv-infected participants in the northern california w ...200111390333
splenomegaly in 2,505 patients at a large university medical center from 1913 to 1995. 1963 to 1995: 449 patients.splenomegaly was studied retrospectively at the university of california, san francisco (ucsf), school of medicine in 301 patients from 1963 to 1995 and compared with the ucsf service of the san francisco general hospital medical center (sfgh) in 148 patients from 1979 to 1994. the combined 449 patients were classified into several diagnostic groups and were studied by means of several clinical and laboratory associations. hepatic disease in the percentage of patients at ucsf (with those at sfgh ...19989735689
genetic similarity among mycobacterium avium isolates from blood, stool, and sputum of persons with aids.large-restriction-fragment pattern comparison of mycobacterium avium from 85 blood, stool, and respiratory specimens from 25 human immunodeficiency virus-infected san francisco patients revealed 4 strains that infected multiple people (3 groups of 2 patients and 1 group of 3 patients). most patients harbored a single m. avium strain, but 2 strains were recovered from 8 patients. the significance of recovering 2 strains is not clear, since the second strain was seldom recovered more than once. th ...19979333156
geographic distribution, frequency, and specimen source of mycobacterium avium complex serotypes isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.isolates of mycobacterium avium complex from 727 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) were submitted by medical centers across the united states to the centers for disease control for serotyping. we were able to type 630 (87%) of these isolates by our seroagglutination procedure. almost all typeable isolates were m. avium (serotypes 1 to 6 and 8 to 11). blood was the major specimen source for both m. avium and the nontypeable isolates. m. intracellulare serotypes made up only ...19902351735
related strains of mycobacterium avium cause disease in children with aids and in children with lymphadenitis.sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer of 56 mycobacterium avium complex isolates from pediatric patients with aids or lymphadenitis revealed (similar to the situation in adults) that the closely related mav-b and mav-a sequevars caused the vast majority of disease. is1245 restriction fragment-polymorphism analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed sets of isolates with closely related patterns among strains from patients in the boston area and among isolates ...200010753729
missed tb in aids unit leads to tighter isolation.the san francisco general hospital recently tightened its tuberculosis (tb) policies for isolating hiv-positive patients after learning that active tb patients had been admitted without respiratory protection. the new policy resulted from what was initially believed to be a tb outbreak on the aids unit. however, an investigation concluded that the patients were infected outside the hospital. the hospital now automatically screens patients for tb when they are admitted to the aids ward. hiv-posit ...199611363656
cmv.cytomegalovirus (cmv) occurs 25 percent less often than it did before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart), according to a recent study by the university of california at san francisco. cmv is the most common infection in hiv-positive persons with t-cell counts below 50, and it can cause blindness. researchers have also found that macrolide antibiotic treatment for mycobacterium avium complex (mac) may lead to resistance in people with aids who have been treated for mac in ...200011366342
bacteria isolated from lymph nodes of california slaughter swine.lymph nodes from 280 slaughter swine from 9 california ranches were examined for the presence of aerobic microflora. genera of interest which were isolated (and percentage of animals from which they were isolated) included salmonella (4.3%), beta-hemolytic streptococci (8.2%), mycobacterium avium-complex (6.4%), corynebacterium pyogenes (0.4%), and aeromonas hydrophila (5.7%). patterns of bacterial isolations from swine herds may be of assistance in predicting herd health problems.19846383150
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