haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: clinical, virological and epidemiological perspectives.haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is caused by a group of rna viruses within the family of bunyaviridae known as hantaviruses. the classical, severe form of hfrs is characterized by fever, headache, abdominal and lumbar pain, proteinuria, haemorrhagic phenomena, shock and renal failure. the disease is associated with the prototype hantaan virus and occurs in rural areas of korea and china with apodemus mice as reservoir hosts. a clinically less severe form of hfrs, which is caused by ...19872895603
the tick ixodes granulatus infests rattus rattus populating a small island offshore of singapore.the ixodid tick ixodes granulosus supino 1897 was found infesting rattus rattus in semakau island, one of the small offshore islands fringing singapore to the south. none of the examined r. rattus from the other islands fringing singapore, or from singapore island were found infested. ixodes granulatus occurs, however, on singapore island on rattus annandalei, resident of undisturbed forested habitats. we speculate that invading black rats in semakau replaced autochthonous sylvatic rodent popula ...200616605073
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