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a morphologically distinct phlebotomus argentipes population from active cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in central sri lanka.although the reported aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in sri lanka is leishmania donovani, the sandfly vector remains unknown. ninety-five sandflies, 60 females and 35 males, collected in six localities in the district of matale, central sri lanka, close to current active transmission foci of cl were examined for taxonomically relevant characteristics. eleven diagnostic morphological characters for female sandflies were compared with measurements described for indian and sri l ...201222510837
distribution and ecological aspects of sand fly (diptera: psychodidae) species in sri lanka.human indigenous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania donovani complex is endemic in sri lanka. we performed an entomological survey to determine the distribution of probable vector species. sand flies were collected in districts in the dry zone, in the wet zone highlands, and in the wet zone coastal belt of sri lanka using cdc light traps, sticky traps and cattle-baited net traps during july, 2005. the survey was reconducted in february, 2006. overall, 584 sand flies belonging to phlebo ...201121366784
leishmania donovani causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in sri lanka: a wolf in sheep's clothing?research involving leishmaniasis, a newly established disease in sri lanka, has focused mostly on parasitological and clinical factors, with inadequate understanding of other aspects, including its epidemiology and vector. the escalation in the spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases within sri lanka and the close resemblance (genotypic and phenotypic) between the local parasite leishmania donovani mon-37 and the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis in india (l. donovani mon-2), underscored b ...200919734098
is leishmaniasis in sri lanka benign and be ignored?cutaneous leishmaniasis is now an endemic disease in sri lanka. many studies have focussed on various aspects of this disease but the knowledge, particularly on epidemiological and vector aspects is still poor and the awareness among the general public and even medical/paramedical personnel regarding this disease remains grossly inadequate. the steady increase in the numbers and spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in sri lanka and the very close similarity (genotypic and phenotypic) between ...200919326703
cutaneous leishmaniasis in sri lanka: a study of possible animal reservoirs.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) has been detected with increasing frequency in sri lanka in recent years. leishmania donovani has been identified as the causative agent, but no information is available on vector(s) or reservoir(s). in this paper we present data on the screening of possible reservoirs for evidence of infection.200919095480
clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis in sri lanka - possible evidence for genetic susceptibility among the sinhalese.human cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) caused by leishmania donovani, a pathogen more usually associated with visceral leishmaniasis, is now endemic in sri lanka. this report details the characteristics of 200 patients with locally acquired cl, who were recruited prospectively for an ongoing study into the genetic susceptibility to cl in sri lanka. in each case, the cl was confirmed by the demonstration of amastigotes in a direct smear and/or promastigotes in a culture. although only 82% of the sri ...200818577329
cutaneous leishmaniasis, sri lanka.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) is an emerging disease in sri lanka. of 116 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of cl, 86 were confirmed positive for leishmania donovani. most patients had single dry lesions, usually on the face. patients were from 5 of the 7 agroclimatic zones in sri lanka.200718214182
locally acquired visceral leishmaniasis in sri lanka. 200717585579
microculture for the isolation of leishmania parasites from cutaneous lesions -- sri lankan experience.novy, mcneal and nicolle (nnn) medium and evans' modified tobie's medium are two conventional media for the isolation of leishmania parasites in in-vitro cultures. both are biphasic, with a solid layer of blood agar, and are normally prepared in glass test-tubes. in sri lanka at least, a monophasic microcapillary culture, based solely on rpmi 1640 medium supplemented with foetal calf serum, has been found simpler, more economical and more sensitive, for the isolation of l. donovani from skin les ...200516156970
cross-sectional study to assess risk factors for leishmaniasis in an endemic region in sri lanka.sri lanka reports significantly more cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) cases than visceral leishmaniasis (vl) cases, both of which are caused by leishmania donovani mon-37. a cross-sectional study conducted in an area with a high prevalence of cl prevalent included 954 participants of an estimated population of 61,674 to estimate the number of cl cases, ascertain whether there is a pool of asymptomatic vl cases, and identify risk factors for transmission. a total of 31 cases of cl were identified, of ...201323918217
surveillance for antibodies to leishmania spp. in dogs from sri lanka.the global distribution of leishmaniasis is rapidly expanding into new geographic regions. dogs are the primary reservoir hosts for human visceral leishmaniasis caused by infection with leishmania infantum. natural infections with other leishmania spp. can occur in dogs, but their role as reservoir hosts for other species of leishmania is uncertain. leishmania donovani is traditionally considered a visceralizing anthroponotic species; however, cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by l. donovani has be ...201019803542
characterisation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in matara district, southern sri lanka: evidence for case clustering.leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomus spp. sand flies. cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in sri lanka is caused by leishmania donovani. transmission patterns are different in southern and northern sri lanka. current study examined the prevalence, risk factors and distribution of cl in matara district, southern sri lanka. total of 2260 individuals from four district secretariat divisions (dsds) were screened by house to house surveys using an interviewer administered ...201526345305
use of a clinical tool for screening and diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in sri lanka.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) was first detected in sri lanka in 1992.local disease is caused by a genetically different variant of leishmania donovani. early case detection and management is the mainstay of l. donovani control. high degree of clinical suspicion is critical but a clinical diagnostic tool is not available for leishmaniasis. current study described, for the first time, a two-staged clinical algorhythm that facilitates screening of cl in sri lanka by primary health care worker in st ...201526184581
leishmania donovani zymodeme mon-37 isolated from an autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis patient in sri lanka.although the strain causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in sri lanka was first identified in 2003, the strain causing visceral leishmaniasis (vl) has not yet been identified. we report the first isoenzyme typing of a strain causing vl in sri lanka at an early stage of emergence of vl in the country. the parasite was isolated from a 57-year-old civil soldier who had been in the jungle in the vavuniya district in the northern province of sri lanka for a period of nearly 6 months immediately befor ...201223265615
clinical and epidemiological studies on the cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (leishmania) donovani in sri lanka.sri lanka is the newest reported focus of human leishmaniasis within the indian subcontinent. over the last 8 years, more than 2000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl), apparently caused by leishmania donovani (a species usually associated with the visceral form of the disease), have been passively identified in the country. the clinical profiles of 401 suspected cases of cl in sri lanka were recently explored and some of the cases' immunological responses were investigated, in antibody-detect ...201020507695
first report on the presence of morphospecies a and b of phlebotomus argentipes sensu lato (diptera: psychodidae) in sri lanka--implications for leishmaniasis transmission. 200516457386
Morphometric and meristic characterization of Phlebotomus argentipes species complex in northern Sri Lanka: evidence for the presence of potential leishmaniasis vectors in the country.The transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is of public health concern in Sri Lanka. The parasite Leishmania donovani is reported to be the causative agent for CL in Sri Lanka. However there is no report on the vector of CL in the country. Phlebotomus argentipes sensu lato is the well known vector of L. donovani which causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the nearby South India. The taxon Ph. argentipes previously reported to occur as a species complex comprising of two morphospe ...201122041744
leishmania donovani and cutaneous leishmaniasis, sri lanka.to investigate the relationship of cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates from sri lanka to known species, we performed dna sequencing and microsatellite analyses. we identified leishmania donovani as the agent of sri lanka cutaneous leishmaniasis and showed that these parasites are closely related to those causing visceral leishmaniasis in the indian subcontinent.200717552105
antiprotozoal activities of millettia richardiana (fabaceae) from madagascar.with at least 60% of the millettia species (fabaceae) being in medicinal use, we found it relevant to assess the potential antiprotozoal and antifungal activities of millettia richardiana. water and methanol crude extracts of the stem barks from m. richardiana and the six fractions resulting from the fractionation of the methanol extract were tested. the dichloromethane extracted fraction showed the best in vitro antiprotozoal activities (ic50=5.8 μg/ml against plasmodium falciparum, 11.8 μg/ml ...201424705564
characteristics of phlebotomine sandflies in selected areas of sri lanka.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) is an endemic disease in sri lanka. studies on vector aspects, although important for better understanding of disease transmission dynamics, are still limited. the present study describes the species distribution and behavioral patterns of sandflies within selected disease-prevalent zones in the country. adult sandflies were collected from several field sites over a two-year duration in sri lanka using cattle-baited net traps, cdc light traps and manual methods. spec ...201526867357
polymerase chain reaction detection of leishmania dna in skin biopsy samples in sri lanka where the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis is leishmania donovani.leishmania donovani is the known causative agent of both cutaneous (cl) and visceral leishmaniasis in sri lanka. cl is considered to be under-reported partly due to relatively poor sensitivity and specificity of microscopic diagnosis. we compared robustness of three previously described polymerase chain reaction (pcr) based methods to detect leishmania dna in 38 punch biopsy samples from patients presented with suspected lesions in 2010. both, leishmania genus-specific jw11/jw12 kdna and litsr/l ...201526676321
sri lankan cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by leishmania donovani zymodeme mon-37.sri lankan cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl), once considered sporadic, is fairly widespread in some parts of the country. identification of 5 isolates from 4 cl patients by enzyme analysis during 2002 showed that they were all leishmania donovani zymodeme mon-37, the parasite which also causes visceral leishmaniasis in india and east africa.200315259461
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