[the plague: disease and vaccine?].plague has existed in madagascar since 1896, with epidemic control achieved by girard with an ev vaccine in 1937. plague persists in madagascar, however, due to the large animal reservoir. with a predilection for nodal tissues, yersinia pestis is a virulent bacteria that is potent inducer of antibody synthesis. immunity mechanisms stimulated by infection were studied: 1. in human by immunoenzymatic methods 2. in mice by seroprotection and vaccinating tests. induced immunity for people in endemic ...19921345094
[seroepidemiologic survey on plague in an endemic zone: cumulative results: 1987-1990].plague is a bacterial disease, induced by yersinia pestis growth in rodents, with human transmission by fleas. in numerous cases, lymph node reaction is important. this survey (329 patients and contacts) is the most extensive ever realised, associating plasmidic virulence and immunity studies. from the results, we can retain that: all the strains were 47 plasmid+. the immunity was precocious, specific, of high titer and persistent. in conclusion, in plaque endemic zone, high bacillus circulation ...19902078084
[sensitivity of yersinia pestis to antibiotics: 277 strains isolated in madagascar between 1926 and 1989].the antimicrobial susceptibility of 277 strains of yersinia pestis was studied using broth microdilution panel. in recent strains, trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole and ampicillin were the most active of the antibiotics tested (mics less than 2 mg/l). all strains were inhibited by 16 mg/l of kanamycin and sulfamethoxazole, 32 mg/l of sulphadiazine and sulfanilamide, and 64 mg/l of sulfamethoxypyridazine. doxycycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, demeclocycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlor ...19892633713
[study of the plasmid expression of malagasy strains of yersinia pestis from 1926 through 1988]. 19892633714
[study of the virulence plasmids of 100 strains of yersinia pestis isolated in madagascar]. 19883242429
[sensitivity of the malagasian frugivorous bat, pteropus rufus, to the inoculation of yersinia pestis]. 19714261513
[remarks on the report of messieurs brygoo and dodin apropos of telluric plague and of burrowing plague. madagascan data]. 19655898563
[response, to polymyxin, of plague microbe strains isolated from various natural foci and of their mutants with a decreased requirement in nutritional factors].investigation of the response to polymyxin of 65 strains of pasteurella isolated from various foci and 46 their back mutants showed that all of them were usually highly resistant to polymyxin (mic 200--500 micrograms/ml). the pasteurella strains isolated in the gissaro-darvaz natural focus, turkey and congo were highly sensitive to polymyxin (mic 10--25 micrograms/ml). single cultures highly sensitive to the antibiotic were detected among the polymyxin-resistant strains. polymyxin-sensitive muta ...19816271044
[9 epidemic cases of bubonic plague in tananarive (madagascar)]. 19827154899
plague in majunga, madagascar. 19957475693
[the plague in madagascar: epidemiologic data from 1989 to 1995 and the national control program].after briefly reviewing the history and epidemiological cycle of the plague in madagascar, we report a detailed analysis of 5,927 suspected cases of plague observed from 1989 to 1995 (average of 846 cases per year). of those, 1,337 individuals (average of 191 cases per year) were confirmed (by isolation of yersinia pestis) or indicated to be probable for plague (by positive smears). since 1994, we observed an increasing number of confirmed and probable cases (252 cases in 1995). most of the case ...19979172878
[seroepidemiologic study of human plague in madagascar].an igg anti-f1 enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been developed for plague diagnosis in the malagasy republic. the sensitivity of the test was 91.4% and the specificity 98.5%. this technique is cheap and the cross reaction with other infections diseases prevalent in madagascar is very limited. during the urban plague outbreak (mahajanga city, 1995), the positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 95.2% and 97% respectively. during this outbreak, the usefulness of ...19979309233
recent emergence of new variants of yersinia pestis in madagascar.yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has been responsible for at least three pandemics. during the last pandemic, which started in hong kong in 1894, the microorganism colonized new, previously unscathed geographical areas where it has become well established. the aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the genetic stability of y. pestis strains introduced into a new environment just under a century ago and to follow the epidemiology of any new genetic variant detected. in t ...19979350742
plague, a reemerging disease in madagascar.human cases of plague, which had virtually disappeared in madagascar after the 1930s, reappeared in 1990 with more than 200 confirmed or presumptive cases reported each year since. in the port of mahajanga, plague has been reintroduced, and epidemics occur every year. in antananarivo, the capital, the number of new cases has increased, and many rodents are infected with yersinia pestis. despite surveillance for the sensitivity of y. pestis and fleas to drugs and insecticides and control measures ...19989452403
the 102-kilobase unstable region of yersinia pestis comprises a high-pathogenicity island linked to a pigmentation segment which undergoes internal rearrangement.several pathogenicity islands have recently been identified in different bacterial species, including a high-pathogenicity island (hpi) in yersinia enterocolitica 1b. in y. pestis, a 102-kb chromosomal fragment (pgm locus) that carries genes involved in iron acquisition and colony pigmentation can be deleted en bloc. in this study, characterization and mapping of the 102-kb region of y. pestis 6/69 were performed to determine if this unstable region is a pathogenicity island. we found that the 1 ...19989573181
[update on plague in madagascar].after a thirty year period of successful control, bubonic plague showed the first signs of return in madagascar where a fatal outbreak occurred in antananarivo in 1978. a second outbreak was observed in mahajanga in 1991 after more than a half century. in 1997, 459 confirmed or presumptive cases were reported, as compared to 150 to 250 cases during the last years. however the actual extent of this recrudescence must be placed in the perspective of a more efficient control program that has led to ...19989812306
f1 antigenaemia in bubonic plague patients, a marker of gravity and efficacy of therapy. 19989861385
diagnosis of bubonic plague by pcr in madagascar under field conditions.the diagnostic value of a pcr assay that amplifies a 501-bp fragment of the yersinia pestis caf1 gene has been determined in a reference laboratory with 218 bubo aspirates collected from patients with clinically suspected plague managed in a regional hospital in madagascar. the culture of y. pestis and the detection of the f1 antigen (ag) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were used as reference diagnostic methods. the sensitivity of pcr was 89% (57 of 64) for the y. pestis-positive pa ...200010618097
epidemiological and diagnostic aspects of the outbreak of pneumonic plague in madagascar.plague is a re-emerging disease and pneumonic plague is the most feared clinical form. we describe a well-documented outbreak of pneumonic plague in madagascar.200010675169
current epidemiology of human plague in madagascar.from 1996 to 1998, 5,965 patients with suspected plague were identified in 38 districts of madagascar (40% of the total population are exposed). using standard bacteriology, 917 of them were confirmed or presumptive (c + p) cases. however, more than 2,000 plague cases could be estimated using f1 antigen assay. two out of the 711 yersinia pestis isolates tested were resistant to chloramphenicol and to ampicillin (both isolates found in the harbour of mahajanga). urban plague (mahajanga harbour an ...200010717537
seroepidemiology of human plague in the madagascar highlands.we conducted a seroepidemiological survey of human plague in the general population using random sampling in the area of ambositra, the main focus of plague in the central highlands of madagascar (520 confirmed and presumptive cases notified during the past 10 years). sera were tested using an elisa igg f1 assay. considering the internal validity of the assay and the sampling method, the overall corrected prevalence of f1 antibodies was 0.6% (95% ci: 0.2%-1.8%). being nearly 0 up to the age of 4 ...200010747268
early diagnosis of bubonic plague using f1 antigen capture elisa assay and rapid immunogold dipstick.plague is still prevalent in more than 20 countries. two f1 antigen diagnostic assays (an immunocapture elisa and an immunogold chromatography dipstick) were evaluated using bubo aspirates, serum and urine specimens from patients suspected with plague. the specificity of the two f1 assays was found 100%. using bacteriology as a gold reference diagnostic assay, 52 patients were yersinia pestis culture positive and 141 negative. the sensitivity of the f1 elisa test was 100% in bubo, 52% in serum a ...200010959730
[resurgence of the plague in the ikongo district of madagascar in 1998. 1. epidemiological aspects in the human population].between the 20th october and the 18th november 1998, an outbreak of bubonic plague was declared in a hamlet in the ikongo district of madagascar. we conducted an epidemiological survey because of the re-emergence of the disease in this area (the last cases had been notified in 1965) and because of the low altitude compared to the classical malagasy foci. the outbreak had been preceded by an important rat epizootics during september. a total of 21 cases were registered with an attack rate of 16.7 ...200111475028
[resurgence of the plague in the ikongo district of madagascar in 1998. 2. reservoirs and vectors implicated].our survey of mammals and fleas arose as a result of an outbreak of bubonic plague at an usually low altitude in the ikongo district (madagascar), while a previous study had found anti-f1 antibodies in an endemic hedgehog. animals were sampled with live traps in two hamlets (antanambao-vohidrotra, 540 m alt. and ambalagoavy, 265 m alt.) and with pitfall traps in a neighbouring forest (750 m alt.). rat fleas were collected by brushing the fur and free-living fleas by use of light traps. the intro ...200111475029
epidemiologic features of four successive annual outbreaks of bubonic plague in mahajanga, madagascar.from 1995 to 1998, outbreaks of bubonic plague occurred annually in the coastal city of mahajanga, madagascar. a total of 1,702 clinically suspected cases of bubonic plague were reported, including 515 laboratory confirmed by yersinia pestis isolation (297), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or both. incidence was higher in males and young persons. most buboes were inguinal, but children had a higher frequency of cervical or axillary buboes. among laboratory-confirmed hospitalized patients, the ...200211927030
[plague in the port of mahajanga: 6 inhabitants out of 1000 carry the anti-f1 antibody in 1999].the authors report the results of a randomized epidemiological survey aiming to assess the sero-prevalence of plague in the general population > or = 2-year-old in mahajanga. in 656 sera tested (by elisa), the prevalence of anti-f1 antibodies was found to be 6.1%@1000 inhabitants, close to the expected prevalence in the area, where plague reappeared in 1991 after 62 years of absence. the study also demonstrated that the shrew, suncus murinus, is an important reservoir in the plague transmission ...200012463025
[the plague at the tsenabe isotry market in antananarivo: a complex epidemiologic situation].the transmission of yersinia pestis is intense among rats in the wholesale market tsenabe isotry in the capital antananarivo (anti-f1 sero-prevalence 80%, flea index 8.4 for a cut-off risk index of > 1). however, the number of plague-suspected (not laboratory confirmed) human cases has only been 3 in this district during a four years period from 1995 to 1999. a seroepidemiological survey among the market vendors was undertaken in june 1999 to test the hypothesis that the low incidence of human p ...200112471741
[evaluation of the effect of knox-out microencapsulated v.o. 240 and k-othrine powder on rat lice in two villages in the betafo region].the effect of two different insecticides on flea control was tested from january to march 2000 in the ivory village and the ambatolahy village: knox-out, a microcapsulated formulation of diazinon, organophosphorous compound (240 gr/l) and the deltamethrin powder (2 g/kg ai), respectively. the villages are located 2.5 km apart in the betafo region in madagascar. deltamethrin is a pyrethroid and is still used in the national plague control program, whereas diazinon has not previously been applied ...200112471748
development and testing of a rapid diagnostic test for bubonic and pneumonic plague.plague is often fatal without prompt and appropriate treatment. it affects mainly poor and remote populations. late diagnosis is one of the major causes of human death and spread of the disease, since it limits the effectiveness of control measures. we aimed to develop and assess a rapid diagnostic test (rdt) for plague.200312547544
[immunity in plague. acquisitions supplied by 30 years of work on the "pasteurella pestis ev" (girard and robic) strain]. 196314095162
from the recent lessons of the malagasy foci towards a global understanding of the factors involved in plague of human cases of plague after decades of silence does not necessarily mean that plague foci are re-emerging. most often, yersinia pestis bacteria have been maintained and circulating at low levels in the rodent populations. it seems therefore more appropriate to speak in terms of expansion or regression phases for sylvatic rodent plague foci and to reserve the term re-emergence for human cases. from the analysis of well-documented human plague cases in madagascar, we underline the ...200515845233
transmission potential of primary pneumonic plague: time inhomogeneous evaluation based on historical documents of the transmission network.the transmission potential of primary pneumonic plague, caused by yersinia pestis, is one of the key epidemiological determinants of a potential biological weapon, and requires clarification and time dependent interpretation. method: this study estimated the reproduction number and its time dependent change through investigations of outbreaks in mukden, china (1946), and madagascar (1957). reconstruction of an epidemic tree, which shows who infected whom, from the observed dates of onset was per ...200616790838
ccr5 polymorphism and plague resistance in natural populations of the black rat in madagascar.madagascar remains one of the world's largest plague foci. the black rat, rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague in rural areas. this species is highly susceptible to plague in plague-free areas (low-altitude regions), whereas rats from the plague focus areas (central highlands) have evolved a disease-resistance polymorphism. we used the candidate gene ccr5 to investigate the genetic basis of plague resistance in r. rattus. we found a unique non-synonymous substitution (h184r) in a funct ...200818703167
typing methods for the plague pathogen, yersinia pestis.phenotypic and genotypic methodologies have been used to differentiate the etiological agent of plague, yersinia pestis. historically, phenotypic methods were used to place isolates into one of three biovars based on nitrate reduction and glycerol fermentation. classification of y. pestis into genetic subtypes is problematic due to the relative monomorphic nature of the pathogen. resolution into groups is dependent on the number and types of loci used in the analysis. the last 5-10 years of rese ...200919714987
study on the movement of rattus rattus and evaluation of the plague dispersion in madagascar.plague affects mainly the rural areas in the central highlands of madagascar. rattus rattus is the main rodent host of yersinia pestis in these localities. since the introduction of plague, endemic foci have continued to expand, and spatiotemporal variability in the distribution of human plague has been observed. to assess the movements of r. rattus and evaluate the risk of dispersion of the disease, a field study at the scale of the habitats (houses, hedges of sisals, and rice fields) in the pl ...201020158335
susceptibility to yersinia pestis experimental infection in wild rattus rattus, reservoir of plague in madagascar, the black rat, rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague (yersinia pestis infection), a disease still responsible for hundreds of cases each year in this country. this study used experimental plague challenge to assess susceptibility in wild-caught rats to better understand how r. rattus can act as a plague reservoir. an important difference in plague resistance between rat populations from the plague focus (central highlands) and those from the plague-free zone (low altitude ...201020443044
aflp genome scan in the black rat (rattus rattus) from madagascar: detecting genetic markers undergoing plague-mediated selection.the black rat (rattus rattus) is the main reservoir of plague (yersinia pestis infection) in madagascar's rural zones. black rats are highly resistant to plague within the plague focus (central highland), whereas they are susceptible where the disease is absent (low altitude zone). to better understand plague wildlife circulation and host evolution in response to a highly virulent pathogen, we attempted to determine genetic markers associated with plague resistance in this species. to this purpo ...201120444082
phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of yersinia pestis in madagascar.plague was introduced to madagascar in 1898 and continues to be a significant human health problem. it exists mainly in the central highlands, but in the 1990s was reintroduced to the port city of mahajanga, where it caused extensive human outbreaks. despite its prevalence, the phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of y. pestis in madagascar has been difficult to study due to the great genetic similarity among isolates. we examine island-wide geographic-genetic patterns based upon whole-geno ...201121931876
lack of antimicrobial resistance in yersinia pestis isolates from 17 countries in the americas, africa, and asia.yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, a fulminant disease that is often fatal without antimicrobial treatment. plasmid (inca/c)-mediated multidrug resistance in y. pestis was reported in 1995 in madagascar and has generated considerable public health concern, most recently because of the identification of inca/c multidrug-resistant plasmids in other zoonotic pathogens. here, we demonstrate no resistance in 392 y. pestis isolates from 17 countries to eight antimicrobials used for trea ...201222024826
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