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simple and economical culture of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in co2 in moist air.strains of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli representing the 18 serogroups (lior) most commonly isolated from humans in canada were grown on solid media in an atmosphere of 10% co2 in moist air, 99% relative humidity. when the growth of all 18 serogroups on mueller hinton agar in a microaerobic atmosphere (5% o2, 10% co2 and 85% n2) was compared with the growth of all 18 serogroups on the same media in 10% co2 in moist air, colony sizes were significantly larger (p less than 0.05) for strains gr ...19921419543
an epidemiological study of selected calf pathogens on holstein dairy farms in southwestern ontario.fecal samples from calves on 78 randomly selected holstein dairy farms in southwestern ontario were screened for salmonella, campylobacter jejuni/coli, enteropathogenic escherichia coli, rotavirus and coronavirus. based on the observed prevalence, 22% of farms had calves infected with salmonella, 13% with campylobacter jejuni/coli, 41% with enteropathogenic e. coli, 19% with rotavirus and 5% with coronavirus. these estimates can be modified, using a method developed by mullen and prost (1983) fo ...19863017528
an outbreak of campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis at a resort--ontario. 19883242891
campylobacter colitis in ranch mink in ontario.outbreaks of colitis, where campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were the only pathogens isolated occurred in weanling mink (mustella vision) on two commercial mink ranches in ontario. lesions were restricted to the proximal colon and were characterized by multiple 1 mm focal or 1 mm linear erosions/ulcers in the region 2 cm distal to the ileal-colonic junction. histological changes included thickening of the colonic mucosa, inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria and submucosa ...19863742356
rate of campylobacter spp. isolation in three regions of ontario, canada, from 1978 to 1985.isolation rates of campylobacter spp. were analyzed for an 8-year period, 1978 through 1985. three laboratories of the ontario ministry of health examined 146,842 human feces samples for bacterial pathogens, including campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. campylobacter spp. were isolated from 5,580 specimens (3.8%), with monthly isolation rates ranging from 1.1 to 7.4%. the data showed a seasonal distribution of isolations, with peaks during the summer months (june to september). most inf ...19863771774
characterization of waterborne outbreak-associated campylobacter jejuni, walkerton, ontario. 200314609457
comparison of agar dilution and e-test for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of campylobacter coil isolates recovered from 80 ontario swine farms.the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement of the e-test for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of campylobacter coli using the agar dilution technique, which is the approved method. a convenience sample of 80 ontario swine farms was chosen for this study; each farm was visited from january to june 2004. a total of 233 isolates of c. coli were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials by agar dilution and the e-test. performance of the tests was evaluate ...200818505206
cost analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing comparing the e test and the agar dilution method in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.although numerous reports have compared the antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter spp., controversy still exists about the use of the e test as an alternative to the agar dilution method suggested by the clinical and laboratory standards institute. mics of 8 antimicrobials were determined using the e test and agar dilution methods for 103 campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from fresh chicken randomly purchased from stores in 3 southern ontario counties. overall, 72.6% o ...200919748428
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter spp. isolated from retail chicken in two health units in ontario.campylobacter is an important enteric pathogen of humans and can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. campylobacter infections have frequently been associated with the handling and consumption of raw and undercooked poultry. antimicrobial resistance among campylobacter strains is of concern in the treatment of campylobacteriosis in vulnerable populations. a 2-year multidisciplinary study was conducted in the perth and wellington-dufferin-guelph public health units in ontario, canada, to in ...201020615345
antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter spp. isolated from ontario sheep flocks and associations between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance.the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (amr) in faecal campylobacter spp. from lambs and adult sheep and associations between antimicrobial use (amu) and amr. a total of 275 faecal samples collected during initial and final visits from 51 sheep flocks, including one feedlot, across southern ontario were tested for the presence of campylobacter spp. campylobacter jejuni was detected in 52% (143/275) of the faecal samples, campylobacter coli in 7% ...201222273455
antibiotic susceptibility of clinical isolates of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in ontario, canada during 2011-2013.a total of 219 clinical isolates of campylobacter spp. including 180 campylobacter jejuni and 39 campylobacter coli were assessed for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. resistance among c. coli was higher for ciprofloxacin (41% versus 30.80%), erythromycin (12.80% versus 3.90%) and lower for tetracycline (53.80% versus 64.60%) compared to c. jejuni.201526320936
a national investigation of the prevalence and diversity of thermophilic campylobacter species in agricultural watersheds in canada.the occurrence and diversity of thermophilic campylobacter species (c. jejuni, coli, and lari) were studied in water samples from four river basins located across canada. these basins located in quebec (bras d'henri), alberta (oldman), ontario (south nation), and british columbia (sumas) represented some of the most intensive farming areas in canada for hog, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and poultry, respectively. this study analyzed 769 water samples collected from 23 monitoring sites with agricul ...201424930011
the occurrence of campylobacter in river water and waterfowl within a watershed in southern ontario, canada.quantitative pcr and a culture method were used to investigate campylobacter occurrence over 3 years in a watershed located in southern ontario, canada that is used as a source of drinking water.201020408936
an outbreak of acute bacterial gastroenteritis is associated with an increased incidence of irritable bowel syndrome in children.acute bacterial gastroenteritis is associated with subsequent post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (pi-ibs) in adults. less is known about this relationship in children. in may 2000, contamination of municipal water by escherichia coli 0157:h7 and campylobacter species caused a large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in walkerton, ontario. we assessed this association among a cohort of children enrolled in the walkerton health study (whs).201020179687
post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome following water contamination.post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (pi-ibs) is a common disorder wherein symptoms of ibs begin after an episode of acute gastroenteritis. the walkerton health study (whs) was initiated in 2002 to study the long-term outcomes of tragic contamination of its municipal water supply with escherichia coli and campylobacter species in 2000. within a cohort of 2069 adult walkerton residents with no prior history of chronic gastrointestinal disorders, the incidence of pi-ibs 2 years after the outbr ...200919180133
factors that led to the walkerton tragedy.in may 2000, bacterial contamination of municipal water in walkerton, ontario, resulted in the worst public health disaster involving municipal water in canadian history. at least seven people died and 2300 became ill. a public inquiry led by judge dennis o'connor examined the events and delineated the causes of the outbreak, including physical causes, the role of the public utilities operators, the public utilities commissioners, the ministry of the environment (moe), and the provincial governm ...200919180129
occurrence of campylobacter spp. in raw and ready-to-eat foods and in a canadian food service operation.the occurrence of campylobacter spp. in a variety of foods from ottawa, ontario, canada, and raw milk samples from across canada was determined over a 2-year period. the samples consisted of 55 raw foods (chicken, pork, and beef), 126 raw milk samples from raw milk cheese manufacturers, and 135 ready-to-eat foods (meat products, salads, and raw milk cheeses). campylobacter jejuni was detected in 4 of the 316 samples analyzed: 1 raw beef liver sample and 3 raw chicken samples. an isolation rate o ...200818939758
temperate bacteriophages affect pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of campylobacter jejuni.the recently sequenced genome of campylobacter jejuni rm1221 revealed the presence of three integrated bacteriophage-like elements. in this study, genes from the first element, a mu-like bacteriophage, were amplified by pcr and used to probe pulsed-field gels of clinical c. jejuni strains obtained from a waterborne outbreak (ontario, canada, 2000). these highly similar strains differed only by their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) patterns due to an apparent insertion or deletion of a 40 ...200717135440
incidence and epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome after a large waterborne outbreak of bacterial dysentery.postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (pi-ibs) is a common clinical phenomenon. to better define its incidence and epidemiology, a large cohort study was initiated after the contamination of a municipal water supply led to a large outbreak of acute escherichia coli 0157:h7 and campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis.200616890598
a fatal waterborne disease epidemic in walkerton, ontario: comparison with other waterborne outbreaks in the developed world.an estimated 2,300 people became seriously ill and seven died from exposure to microbially contaminated drinking water in the town of walkerton, ontario, canada in may 2000. the severity of this drinking water disaster resulted in the government of ontario calling a public inquiry by mr. justice dennis o'connor to address the cause of the outbreak, the role (if any) of government policies in contributing to this outbreak and, ultimately, the implications of this experience on the safety of drink ...200312638998
drinking water contamination in walkerton, ontario: positive resolutions from a tragic event.in may 2000, escherichia coli o157:h7 and campylobacter jejuni contaminated the drinking water supply in walkerton, ontario. seven people died and over 2,000 were ill as a result. the ontario provincial government set up a judicial inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the outbreak and also moved quickly to introduce a new drinking water regulation that incorporated some significant requirements for drinking water providers. the inquiry itself was in three parts: (a) part 1 related to the e ...200312638997
resistance to quinolones among campylobacter species--ontario. 19957581214
outbreak of campylobacter infection among farm workers: an occupational hazard. 19957581213
effect of incubation temperature on the detection of thermophilic campylobacter species from freshwater beaches, nearby wastewater effluents, and bird fecal droppings.this large-scale study compared incubation temperatures (37°c versus 42°c) to study the detection of thermophilic campylobacter species, including campylobacter jejuni, c. coli, and c. lari, in various surface water samples and bird fecal droppings around hamilton harbor, lake ontario. the putative culture isolates obtained from incubation temperatures of 37 and 42°c were confirmed by campylobacter genus- and species-specific triplex pcr assays targeting the 16s rrna gene and the 16s-23s rrna ge ...201324077717
arthritis risk after acute bacterial gastroenteritis.reactive arthritis (rea) may occur from bacterial gastroenteritis. we studied the risk of arthritis after an outbreak of escherichia coli o157:h7 and campylobacter species within a regional drinking water supply to examine the relationship between the severity of acute diarrhoea and subsequent symptoms of arthritis.200818184664
frequency of escherichia coli o157:h7 isolation from stool specimens.during a 6-month period, 7252 faeces specimens were examined for escherichia coli serotype o157:h7. forty-nine specimens (0.7%) from 19 patients yielded this organism. escherichia coli o157:h7 was the third most frequently isolated bacterial pathogen, following campylobacter jejuni and (or) salmonella sp. although regional variation between laboratories determined whether campylobacter jejuni or salmonella was the primary bacterial pathogen isolated, e. coli o157:h7 was consistently isolated mor ...19873319115
antibiotic resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from hog, beef, and chicken carcass samples from provincially inspected abattoirs in ontario.campylobacterjejuni is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne infection in the united states, and there are reports of resistance of campylobacter spp. to antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of gastroenteritis. the purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of campylobacter spp. isolated from hog, beef, and chicken carcasses from provincially inspected abattoirs in ontario. the agar dilution method was performed to measure antimicrobial res ...200616416896
the walkerton health study.the contamination of the walkerton, ontario, municipal water with e. coli o157:h7 and campylobacter in may 2000 resulted in at least 2,300 cases of gastrointestinal illness. there were 28 confirmed cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome, the most severe kidney complication. the provincial ministry of health and long-term care determined that a study needed to be conducted on the long-term health effects associated with drinking the contaminated water. the walkerton health study, a seven-year project ...200516035513
use of the oxford multilocus sequence typing protocol and sequencing of the flagellin short variable region to characterize isolates from a large outbreak of waterborne campylobacter sp. strains in walkerton, ontario, canada.the walkerton (ontario, canada) outbreak of waterborne escherichia coli o157:h7 and campylobacter jejuni was quite limited in both space and time, making it a good model for exploring the utility of different typing and subtyping methods for the characterization of relationships among isolates of these organisms. we have extended previous work with these organisms through analysis by the oxford multilocus sequence typing (mlst) and the flagellin short variable region (fla-svr) sequencing methods ...200515872226
incidence of campylobacter jejuni in fresh eviscerated whole market chickens. 19817296414
an outbreak of campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis linked to meltwater contamination of a municipal well.a large outbreak of campylobacter jujuni gastroenteritis attributed to contamination of an unchlorinated municipal water system was investigated. unlike most previous summer outbreaks, this one began in early spring and was attributed to meltwater entering one or more municipal wells. 241 suspected cases were documented, but retrospective information from local health care workers suggested a much larger outbreak. 45 laboratory-confirmed cases participated in a case-control study which showed a ...19912009481
cluster analysis of campylobacter jejuni genotypes isolated from small and medium-sized mammalian wildlife and bovine livestock from ontario farms.using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms (eight beef, eight swine and nine dairy) in 2010, we assessed clustering of molecular subtypes of c. jejuni based on a campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative genomic fingerprinting assay (cgf40) subtypes, using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (upgma) analysis, and multiple correspondence analysis. exact logistic regression was used to determine which genes differentiate wildlife and livestock subtypes in our stud ...201727492809
walkerton, 2 years later: "memory fades very quickly". 200212041857
molecular epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni human and chicken isolates from two health units.a study was conducted over a 2-year period in the perth district and wellington-dufferin-guelph health units in ontario, with an objective of using comparative genomic fingerprinting (cgf) with a 40-gene assay (cgf40) to investigate the association between human cases of campylobacteriosis and spatially and temporally related campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. cgf results were available for isolates from 115 human cases and 718 retail chicken samples. these data were combined with cgf r ...201424219173
molecular and statistical analysis of campylobacter spp. and antimicrobial-resistant campylobacter carriage in wildlife and livestock from ontario farms.the objectives of this study were to (i) compare the carriage of campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant campylobacter among livestock and mammalian wildlife on ontario farms, and (ii) investigate the potential sharing of campylobacter subtypes between livestock and wildlife. using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms in 2010, we assessed associations, using mixed logistic regression models, between campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant campylobacter carriage and the fol ...201727460061
factors related to campylobacter spp. carriage in client-owned dogs visiting veterinary clinics in a region of ontario, canada.summaryfrom july 2008 until may 2009, 240 client-owned pet dogs from seven veterinary clinics in the region of waterloo, ontario, canada participated in a study to determine pet-related management factors that may be associated with the presence of campylobacter spp. in dogs. the prevalence of campylobacter spp. carriage in our study population of pet dogs was 22%, with 19% of the dogs positive for c. upsaliensis, and 3% positive for c. jejuni. a significant risk factor from multivariable logist ...201121208515
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