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primary humoral antibody response to coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of q fever.of 147 patients with acute q fever diagnosed during a major outbreak in birmingham, england, in early summer 1989, 41 provided sets of sera which allowed us to make a detailed analysis of the primary humoral immune response. antibody titers specific for coxiella burnetii were measured by the complement fixation test and by an immunoglobulin m (igm)- and igg-specific indirect immunofluorescence test. the relative avidity of specific iggs was determined by the indirect immunofluorescence test with ...19921500499
q fever in plymouth, 1972-88. a review with particular reference to neurological manifestations.between 1972 and 1988 we have serologically confirmed 103 coxiella burnetii infections: 46 were acute, 5 were chronic, 52 represented past infections. details of 61 cases are presented. of acute cases 80% had respiratory involvement; at least 63% had pneumonias. the incidence (22%) of neurological complications was of particular interest; 40% of these patients had prolonged sequelae. one acutely ill patient died of fulminating hepatitis. patients with pre-existing pathology or immunosuppression ...19902209742
a prospective study of viral and mycoplasma infections in chronic inflammatory bowel disease.seventy-two children with chronic inflammatory bowel disease were investigated for infections with various viruses and mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia psittaci, and coxiella burnetii to determine whether these pathogens are associated with acute onset exacerbations. altogether 54 infections were identified serologically, of which 23 (42.6%) were associated with exacerbations. this corresponded to 24.2% of the recorded exacerbations during the study period. the respiratory pathogens accounted fo ...19902298361
an epidemiological study of an outbreak of q fever in a secondary school.five cases of clinical q fever were identified amongst students and staff of a somerset secondary school between 23 october 1987 and 21 december 1987. five goats which were kept at the school were found to have antibodies to coxiella burnetii phase ii. a cross-sectional study was conducted at the school in july 1988. a single cf test was used to identify evidence of prior infection, and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure variables and illness during 1987. four ...19902347385
aetiology and epidemiology of infective endocarditis in england and wales.comparing data relating to the estimated incidence of infective endocarditis and deaths due to this condition highlights the changing age and sex patterns over the last 50 years. using these data it is estimated that about 20 cases per million population per year can now be expected many of whom will be aged 65 years or more. about 20% of cases die. viridans streptococci are responsible for almost half the cases of endocarditis, faecal streptococci for 11%, staphylococci for 20% and coxiella bur ...19873316164
q fever in the united kingdom and ireland.in britain, q fever in man was first reported in 1949. two years later a serological survey of cattle revealed a prevalence of infection of 2.1%. in the 1970's prevalences of 4.5% and 3.1% were encountered respectively in cows that had aborted or calved normally in central england. in sheep, antibodies to c. burnetii have been detected in approximately 2.8% of sera examined for diagnostic purposes and 0.6% of sheep awaiting export. since 1975 fewer than 10 incidents of c. burnetii associated dis ...19873324568
an outbreak of q fever affecting postal workers in oxfordshire.twenty-five people in oxfordshire were found to have had clinical illness due to q fever in the 3 months from april to june 1983. twelve cases were diagnosed through the routine laboratory diagnostic service. five of these were postmen, four of whom worked in a sorting office where an outbreak of illness similar to influenza had been noted by the occupational health nurse. thirteen cases were diagnosed by active case-finding in this sorting office but investigation failed to define the source of ...19873585037
the occurrence of coxiella burnetii in north-western england and north wales. a report from five laboratories of the public health laboratory service. 19695278153
q-fever endocarditis in england and wales, 1975-81.endocarditis was recorded in 92 (11%) of 839 confirmed q-fever infections reported for the communicable disease report by laboratories between 1975 and 1981; q-fever endocarditis accounted for approximately 3% of all cases of endocarditis reported. two-thirds of the 92 reports were of men, and in both men and women endocarditis affected mainly young and middle-aged adults. only one-third of q-fever endocarditis patients were noted to have an underlying heart-valve lesion. there were also 30 repo ...19826129519
the risk of acquiring q fever on farms: a seroepidemiological study.to determine the occupational risk of q fever.19957489053
q fever (coxiella burnetii) reservoir in wild brown rat (rattus norvegicus) populations in the uk.seroprevalence of coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of q fever in humans, was examined in wild brown rat populations from 4 oxfordshire farmsteads (n = 127), 9 somerset homesteads (n = 98), and 1 captive enclosure (n = 88) in the uk. seroprevalence ranged between 7 and 53%, the lowest being within the captive population and the highest on dairy farmsteads with sheep present. this is the first reported investigation of c. burnetii in wild rats outside india. we suggest that the high seroprevale ...19957845709
prospective study of aetiology and outcome of adult lower-respiratory-tract infections in the community.community-acquired adult lower-respiratory-tract infections (lrti) are generally thought to be caused by atypical and viral infections. we have studied 480 adults presenting to a single general practice with community-acquired lrti between november, 1990, and december, 1991. the overall incidence was 44 cases per 1000 population per year; the incidence was 2-4 times higher in people aged 60 and over than in those aged less than 50. 206 patients were studied in detail; among this group 91 (44%) h ...19938094769
epidemiological features of coxiella burnetii infection in england and wales: 1984 to 1994.q fever is an important zoonosis caused by the rickettsial organism coxiella burnetii, which can result in life threatening illness, especially in those with an underlying cardiac defect. c. burnetii infections in england and wales reported to the phls communicable disease surveillance centre between 1984 and 1994 were reviewed. a total of 1117 cases were reported, a third of which came from the south western region. the annual totals fell over this period. the mean age of cases was 45 years, an ...19968810119
prevalence of antibodies to coxiella burnetii (q fever) in bulk tank milk in england and wales.in the united kingdom, the infection of people with coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of q fever, is of significant public health importance and is associated with contact with dairy cattle. an elisa was developed for the detection of igg antibodies against c burnetii in bulk tank milk, and in a survey of randomly selected samples from dairy herds in england and wales, 21 per cent showed serological evidence of c burnetii infection.199910378278
the public health laboratory service (phls) and its role in the control of zoonotic disease.the aetiology of zoonotic infections embraces organisms from every branch of the microbial world. in addition, zoonoses must be considered as a truly global problem, both in terms of their distribution and the measures required for their control. within the uk, zoonotic disease is considered to be less frequent than in some less developed parts of the world. however, its contribution to overall morbidity and mortality within the uk population is not well established. in an attempt to define the ...200010913770
chronic fatigue following infection by coxiella burnetii (q fever): ten-year follow-up of the 1989 uk outbreak cohort.some patients exposed to q fever (coxiella burnetii infection) may develop chronic fatigue.200212145392
toxoplasma and coxiella infection and psychiatric morbidity: a retrospective cohort analysis.it has been suggested that infection with toxoplasma gondii is associated with slow reaction and poor concentration, whilst infection with coxiella burnetii may lead to persistent symptoms of fatigue.200415491496
case-control study for risk factors for q fever in southwest england and northern ireland.q fever (coxiella burnetti) is thought to account for 1% (700 cases) of community acquired pneumonia in the united kingdom each year, and can result in serious complications such as endocarditis. although outbreaks have frequently been reported worldwide, the causes are often not clearly identified and there have been few studies of risk factors in sporadic cases. we conducted a matched case-control study. cases of acute q fever in people aged over 15 years in southwest england and northern irel ...200617130654
seroprevalence of coxiella burnetii and brucella abortus among pregnant women.coxiella burnetii and brucella abortus are two intracellular bacteria implicated in zoonotic miscarriage. in the present study, c. burnetii and b. abortus seroprevalence was compared among women from london with and without miscarriage. coxiella burnetii seroprevalence was high (4.6%, 95% ci 2.8-7.1) despite the rare apparent exposure of this urban population. only two patients exhibited anti-b. abortus antibodies. as a result of the risk of chronic q fever with endocarditis and/or hepatitis, th ...200919489927
q fever outbreak in cheltenham, united kingdom, in 2007 and the use of dispersion modelling to investigate the possibility of airborne spread.we describe the investigation of an outbreak of q fever in the town of cheltenham, england. the outbreak was detected in june 2007, and prospective and retrospective case finding identified 30 confirmed or probable human cases. the investigation identified windborne spread of coxiella burnetii from nearby sheep farms as the most likely source of infection. a telephone survey was conducted to identify risk practices at local farms. subsequently the atmospheric dispersion model name was used to id ...201020350497
coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk of dairy cattle in south-west england. 201222843608
q fever in great britain; epidemiological information from a serological survey of healthy adults in kent and east anglia. 195613319698
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