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distribution and control of chironomus riparius (diptera: chironomidae) in a polluted creek.mass emergences of adult chironomus riparius have been regularly occurring in late february near residential areas adjacent to a creek receiving municipal sewage effluent located in lexington, kentucky. prior to attempting control of this chironomid, the larval distribution of this species in the creek was investigated. although large numbers of larvae were being produced in this creek, the greatest larval density occurred downstream from an adjacent horse "muck" pile and an adjacent landfill. a ...19921431860
prevalence and serovars of leptospira involved in equine abortions in central kentucky during the 1990 foaling season.a study to determine the prevalence of leptospira-induced abortions in the central kentucky equine population during the 1990 foaling season and to determine the leptospira serovars responsible was conducted. from july 1, 1989 through june 30, 1990, 32 (4.4%) of 726 submissions (fetuses, stillborn foals, and/or placentas) were diagnosed as leptospirosis by the fluorescent antibody test and/or microscopic agglutination test. attempts were made to isolate leptospires from the fetal tissues and/or ...19921515489
analysis of serotypes and electropherotypes of equine rotaviruses isolated in the united states.equine group a rotaviruses isolated over a 10-year period in new york state, new jersey, kentucky, and texas were compared serotypically and electropherotypically. all isolates were determined to be serotype 3 by reaction with hyperimmune antiserum to the serotype 3 h-2 strain of equine rotavirus. all displayed rna electrophoretic migration patterns related to that of the h-2 strain but distinct from that of serotype 5 strain h-1. a serologic survey of 184 mares in kentucky, which was done to de ...19911647407
arthropod faunal composition on kentucky equine premises.thirty-nine arthropod species representing the families muscidae, chloropidae, tabanidae, simuliidae, culicidae, and ixodidae were collected from kentucky equine premises using dry ice-baited canopy traps, light traps, water samples, tick drags, and animal inspections during late april to mid-october 1987 and 1988. thirty-three species were collected from canopy traps, consisting of 74.3% muscid, 16.7% chloropid, 5.0% simuliid, 3.8% tabanid, and 0.2% culicid species. light traps attracted eight ...19911941934
a new field strain of equine abortion virus (equine herpesvirus-1) among kentucky horses.from restriction endonuclease characterization of the dna of 317 isolates of equine abortion virus (equine herpesvirus-1; ehv-1) from 176 epizootically unrelated outbreaks of equine virus abortion occurring over 24 years in kentucky, an epizootic pattern and variation of the virus have emerged. two electropherotypes of ehv-1 (1p and 1b) accounted for greater than 90% of the nonvaccine-related abortion isolates examined. from 1960 to 1981, ehv-1 1p was the predominant isolate circulating in the c ...19852982294
demonstration of the carrier state in naturally acquired equine arteritis virus infection in the stallion.the chronic carrier state was virologically confirmed in 15 thoroughbred stallions naturally infected with equine arteritis virus based on the results of test matings and, or, isolations of the virus from semen. carrier stallions were shown to shed equine arteritis virus in the semen for at least one to two years. existence of a short-term or convalescent carrier state was also demonstrated in five additional stallions. the frequency of the long-term carrier state in stallions naturally infected ...19863022363
common internal parasites found in the stomach, large intestine, and cranial mesenteric artery of thoroughbreds in kentucky at necropsy (1985 to 1986).a total of 278 thoroughbreds (less than 1 to 31 years old) were examined at necropsy (july 9, 1985, to feb 2, 1986) in kentucky for various internal parasites. examination was not made of all the horses for each of the parasites. specific parasites recovered from the stomach of foals (n = 30) and yearlings and older horses (n = 96) and percentage (in parentheses) of each age category infected, respectively, were as follows: gasterophilus intestinalis 2nd instar (53% and 32%) and 3rd instar (37% ...19872950814
distribution of equine infectious anemia in equids in southeastern united states.state veterinarians in 11 southeastern states completed a questionnaire designed to determine the proportion of equids in the region that were seropositive for equine infectious anemia (eia). cases of eia were diagnosed in each of the states surveyed. distinct geographic clusters of cases were apparent in tennessee and kentucky adjacent to the mississippi river, in the piedmont of north carolina at the virginia border, in north central georgia, and throughout the florida peninsula. it is suggest ...19902173692
trajectory analysis of winds and eastern equine encephalitis in usa, 1980-5.backward trajectories of winds were determined to identify possible sources of eastern equine encephalitis virus associated with isolation of virus from mosquitoes or birds or outbreaks in horses between 1980 and 1985 in maryland, new jersey, new york and michigan, usa. the results of the trajectory analyses suggested that eastern equine encephalitis virus could have been carried by infected mosquitoes on surface winds at temperatures 13 degrees c or higher from north carolina north-eastwards al ...19901969804
epidemiology of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in north america based on histologically confirmed cases. a report.following a workshop on equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (epm) convened at the veterinary medical forum of the american college of veterinary internal medicine in 1988, this survey of epm in north america was developed. it is based upon 364 histologically confirmed case records from california, florida, illinois, kentucky, new york, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, pennsylvania, and texas up to 1988. the highest rate of infection was found in young thoroughbred, standardbred, and quarter horses. diffe ...19902342022
diagnosis and prevalence of leptospira infection in aborted and stillborn horses.a study was conducted to evaluate a recently available fluorescent antibody test (fat) conjugate for the detection of leptospires in tissues of aborted and stillborn horses, to determine the leptospira antibody titers and compare serologic test results with fat results, and to determine the prevalence of leptospira-induced abortions and stillbirths in the equine population of central kentucky. from july 1, 1988 through june 30, 1989, 15 (2.5%) of 594 submissions (fetuses, stillborn foals, and/or ...19911892931
occurrence of second and third instars of gasterophilus intestinalis and gasterophilus nasalis in stomachs of horses in kentucky.the occurrence of 2nd and 3rd instars of gasterophilus intestinalis and gasterophilus nasalis was determined in 476 horses during the 22-year period from 1951 to 1973. overall, g intestinalis infected 98.7% of the horses and averaged 168/horse; whereas g nasalis infected 80.7% of the horses and averaged 52/horse. aggregate average total numbers for g intestinalis ranged from a low of 50 in september to a high of 229 in march, and for g nasalis, from a low of 14 in september to a high of 82 in fe ...19751190600
vaccination against equine herpesvirus 1 and equine influenza infection. 19846093330
thelazia lacrymalis in horses in kentucky and observations on the face fly (musca autumnalis) as a probable intermediate host.eyes from 114 (30.3%) of 376 dead horses, examined from 3 april 1975 to 3 april 1976, were naturally infected with adult thelazia lacrymalis; 1 horse was also infected with 1 male thelazia skrijabini. adult t. lacrymalis from dead horses were successfully transferred mechanically to the eyes of 3 of 4 shetland ponies raised helminth-free. larvae from gravid female t. lacrymalis underwent development in experimentally infected, laboratory-raised face flies (musca autumnalis) and third-stage larva ...19761033990
contagious equine metritis in the usa. 1978754407
contagious equine metritis--outbreak of the disease in kentucky and laboratory methods for diagnosing the disease.contagious equine metritis (cem) was initially reported during the 1977 breeding season in england (crowhurst, 1977) and ireland (timoney, ward & kelly, 1977. the disease has also been diagnosed in france and australia (huges, bryden & macdonald, 1978). the first occurrence of cem in the united states followed the importation or 2 stallions from france late in 1977 which resulted in an outbreak early in the 1978 breeding season (swerczek, 1978). mares usually develop clinical signs of cem 8--10 ...1979383988
the 1872 epizootic. 1977323206
epidemiological observations on contagious equine metritis in kentucky, 1978.contagious equine metritis, introduced by importation of 2 comtaminated stallions from france, affected 54 thoroughbred brood mares during the 1978 breeding season in kentucky. the infection was diagnosed bacteriologically and by the use of a complement fixation test. although lateral spread to stallions, and probably to a few mares, occurred through human agency in the breeding sheds of 2 stud farms, control measures instituted early in the epidemic confined the disease to brood mares bred by s ...1979289808
equine abortion and stillbirth in central kentucky during 1988 and 1989 foaling seasons.pathologic and microbiologic examinations were performed on 1,211 aborted equine fetuses, stillborn foals, and placentas from premature foals in central kentucky during the 1988 and 1989 foaling seasons to determine the causes of reproductive loss in the mare. placentitis (19.4%) and dystocia-perinatal asphyxia (19.5%) were the 2 most important causes of equine reproductive loss. the other causes (in decreasing order) were contracted foal syndrome and other congenital anomalies (8.5%), twinning ...19938286455
contagious equine metritis outbreak in kentucky. 1978287097
arbovirus studies in the ohio-mississippi basin, 1964-1967. v. trivittatus and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses. 19695817893
occurrence of the eyeworm, thelazia lacrymalis, in horses in kentucky. 19751238519
prevalence of microfilariae (onchocerca spp) in skin of kentucky horses at necropsy. 19817341604
prevalence of some internal parasites recovered at necropsy of thoroughbreds born in 1982 in kentucky.a total of 89 thoroughbreds, 14 to 333 days old (born in 1982), were examined at necropsy for certain internal parasites during a 1-year-period, mar 1, 1982, to feb 28, 1983. the eyes of 73 of the horses and the cranial mesenteric arteries of 71 were examined. specific interest was on prevalence of parasites according to month of the year and age of the horses at necropsy. parasites recovered (first month-last month infected horse found) were as follows: thelazia lacrymalis (eyes) immature and m ...19853994134
onchocerca spp: frequency in thoroughbreds at necropsy in kentucky.examination of the ligamentum nuchae for onchocerca spp was completed in 523 thoroughbreds (1 to 29 years old) at necropsy in kentucky during a 13-month period (1984 to 1985). onchocerca spp were found in 306 (59%) of the horses. frequencies of this parasite were 3%, 17%, 40%, 43%, and 42% in 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old horses, respectively. for 6- to 29-year-old horses, frequency varied from 71% to 100%, except for 26-year-old horses (50%); 87% of the 304 horses examined in the 6- to 29-year ...19863963592
eyeworms (thelazia lacrymalis) in one- to four-year-old thoroughbreds at necropsy in kentucky (1984 to 1985).from mar 1, 1984, to feb 28, 1985, both eyes from 189 one- to four-year-old thoroughbreds (88 males, 90 females, and 11 geldings) in kentucky were examined at necropsy for eyeworms. thelazia lacrymalis was recovered from 45% of 1-year-old horses, 26% of 2-year-old horses, 45% of 3-year-old horses, and 50% of 4-year-old horses; overall, 43% of 1- to 4-year old horses were infected. prevalence of eyeworms in horses in the present study was comparable with that in horses of similar ages examined at ...19863954210
prevalence of internal parasites in horses in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983) in kentucky.the prevalence and number of naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites were compiled for horses used in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983). data are presented as follows: n = number of horses examined; % = mean prevalence; number in parentheses after % = aggregate mean number of parasites in infected horses. parasites found were: bots (n = 513) - gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd instar, 61%(58); 3rd instar, 94%(168); g. nasalis, 2nd instar, 36%(28); ...19873564356
piperazine resistance in population-b equine strongyles: a study of selection in thoroughbreds in kentucky from 1966 through 1983.observations were completed over an 18-year period (1966 through 1983) in thoroughbred mares (15/year) and yearlings (11 to 24/year) on a farm where benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles had emerged previously (1962 to 1965). this farm was operated as a closed, nonboarding type, which included a racing stable for its home-bred foals. at 2-week intervals, counts of worm eggs per gram of feces (epg) and larvae per gram of feces were done to monitor strongyle infections and efficacies of bimonth ...19883421545
survey of histoplasmin and blastomycin test reactors among thoroughbred horses in central kentucky. 19725047123
lungworms (dictyocaulus arnfieldi): prevalence in live equids in kentucky.prevalence of natural infections of the lungworm, dictyocaulus arnfieldi, was investigated in kentucky in 5,437 live equids (horses, ponies, and asses) on 91 farms by examination of fecal samples over a 15-month-period from january 28, 1983 to april 19, 1984. for the 91 farms investigated, asses only were examined on 1 farm; for the other 90 farms, examinations were made of horses on all of them, of ponies on 4 farms, and of asses on 9 farms. larvae of d arnfieldi were found in fecal samples of ...19853160271
status of equine viral arteritis in kentucky, 1985.clinical cases of equine arteritis virus infection have not been diagnosed in kentucky since 1984, and there has been no indication that any of the horses involved in the 1984 epizootic have since been responsible for spread of the disease to horses in other states or other countries. cases of abortion caused by naturally acquired infection with this virus have not been confirmed in 1984 or 1985. neither field nor vaccine strains of equine arteritis virus have been shown to induce teratologic ab ...19873038806
prevalence of equine onchocerciasis in southeastern and midwestern united states.of 664 horses reported to have originated in southeastern and midwestern united states, 341 (51.4%) were positive for onchocerca cervicalis cutaneous microfilariasis. the highest prevalence of 68.8% was recorded for horses from virginia. horses with the highest concentrations of microfilariae (as high as 19,770 microfilariae/mg in 1 horse) were from the southeast (georgia, florida, tennessee, and alabama). for horses from south carolina, the prevalence of infection was 57.1%; from the midwest (k ...19854008301
an effective program to control equine infectious anemia in kentucky. 19816784324
status of equine viral arteritis in kentucky for 1986. 19873035776
prevalence of strongylus vulgaris and parascaris equorum in kentucky thoroughbreds at necropsy.at necropsy of 49 thoroughbreds from farms with generally good parasite control programs in central kentucky, examination was specifically made for presence of strongylus vulgaris in all of the horses and of parascaris equorum in 21 of them. none of the deaths of the horses was caused by infections of internal parasites. visceral arteries were examined for specimens of s vulgaris and lesions related to migrating stages of this parasite. contents of the small intestines were examined for p equoru ...19817341597
evaluation of early fetal losses on four equine farms in central kentucky: 73 cases (2001).to determine features of an early fetal loss (efl) syndrome and evaluate potential risk factors for efl in thoroughbred broodmares on 4 farms in central kentucky.200212092957
caterpillars, cherry trees may take blame for foal deaths in kentucky. 200111439761
case-control study of early-term abortions (early fetal losses) associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome in central kentucky.to identify factors associated with abortions during early gestation classified as mare reproductive loss syndrome (mrls).200312555985
case-control study of late-term abortions associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome in central kentucky.to identify factors associated with abortions of mares during late gestation attributed to mare reproductive loss syndrome (mrls).200312555984
survey in central kentucky for prevalence of anoplocephala perfoliata in horses at necropsy in 1992.a total of 118 horses was examined at necropsy in central kentucky for the tapeworm anoplocephala perfoliata. the examination period was between 28 august and 21 december 1992. prevalence was 64% for thoroughbreds (n = 81 examined) and 54% for non-thoroughbreds (n = 37 examined). the number of tapeworms per infected horse varied from one to 853. data on infections are categorized by breed, sex (n = 38 males, 8 geldings, and 72 females), age (1-31 years), and month of necropsy of the horses.19947886922
[equine infectious arteritis: molecular biology, epidemiology and preventative measures].after a brief historical account of the outbreak of infectious arteritis of horses which occurred in 1984 in kentucky (united states of america), the author reports on the present state of knowledge concerning the organisation of the genome of the virus. clinical signs of the disease are described, as well as modes and routes of transmission. finally, currently-available vaccination procedures are discussed and their value is assessed.19947949357
prevalence and serovars of leptospira involved in equine abortions in central kentucky during the 1991-1993 foaling seasons.in this study, the prevalence of leptospira-induced abortions/stillbirths for the past 3 foaling seasons (1991-1993) was determined, and fetal tissues and/or the mare's urine from positive cases were cultured in an attempt to isolate and identify the leptospira serovars responsible for the abortions. the sensitivity and specificity of the primary diagnostic tests, the fluorescent antibody test (fat) and the microscopic agglutination test (mat), used for the diagnosis of leptospirosis were also d ...19957779971
transmission of some species of internal parasites in horses born in 1993, 1994, and 1995 on the same pasture on a farm in central kentucky.data are presented on the last 3 years of a 7-year study (1989-1995) on transmission of natural infections of internal parasites in horse foals (n = 27) born in 1993, 1994, and 1995 on the same pasture on a farm in central kentucky. the foals were in a closed breeding herd of horses. research on the first 4 years (1989-1992) of the study was published earlier (lyons et al., 1991, 1994). thirty-five species of endoparasites were identified, including 24 species of small strongyles. monthly, seaso ...19979211648
chronic environmental cadmium toxicosis in horses and cattle. 19979373353
external anomalies of anoplocephala perfoliata from remainder of a collection from equids in kentucky with notes on anoplocephala magna. 19989654001
epidemiology of equine cryptosporidium and giardia infections.prevalence and infection patterns of cryptosporidium and giardia infections in horses were studied by a direct immunofluorescence staining method. faecal examinations of 222 horses of different age groups revealed cryptosporidium infection rates of 15-31% in 66 foals surveyed in central ohio, southern ohio and central kentucky, usa. only 1 of 39 weanlings, 0 of 46 yearlings, and 0 of 71 mares were positive. giardia infection was found in all age groups, although the infection rates for foals wer ...19948143656
current concerns about control programs in temperate climates.efforts to control cyathostome nematodes in temperate climates have not been uniformly successful, as evidenced by contemporary reports of clinical disease and widespread anthelmintic failure. indeed, effective control is confounded by numerous factors, including ignorance of local transmission patterns, confusing or conflicting control recommendations, and use of ineffective anthelmintics or regimens. most of these problems are universal rather than being climatically unique, and it is importan ...199910485362
efficacy of omeprazole paste in the treatment and prevention of gastric ulcers in horses.equine gastric ulcer syndrome (egus) is very common among performance horses, with a reported prevalence of approximately 90% in racehorses, and also > 50% in foals. omeprazole, an acid pump inhibitor 5 times more potent than ranitidine, has been used with great success to treat egus. this multicentre study of thoroughbred racehorses with endoscopically verified gastric ulcers was designed to demonstrate the efficacy of an equine oral paste formulation of omeprazole in the treatment and preventi ...199910696301
use of repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction for molecular epidemiologic analysis of streptococcus equi subspecies equi.to determine whether repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-pcr) could be used to differentiate streptococcus equi isolates, to examine s equi isolates from throughout the world, and to determine whether a horse had > 1 subtype of s equi during an outbreak of disease.200010850848
prevalence of selected species of internal parasites in equids at necropsy in central kentucky (1995-1999).a survey to determine current prevalence of several species of endoparasites in equids (n=350) at necropsy was conducted at the livestock disease diagnostic center in central kentucky (1995-1999). thelazia lacrymalis were found in 42% of the 1- to 4-year olds (n=132), which was the only age group examined for these parasites. five- to 30-year olds (n=157), examined for onchocerca spp. worms/lesions, had a prevalence of 24%. in > or =1-year olds (n=324), the infection rate for gasterophilus intes ...200010936545
molecular genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of restricted genomic dna of strains of taylorella equigenitalis isolated in ireland and in the united states.the profiles, after digestion with apai or noti and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), of genomic dna from 18 strains of taylorella equigenitalis isolated in ireland were of three different types. the 13 strains in one of these types gave pfge profiles identical to that of an american prototype strain, kentucky 188, but different from strain nctc11184t and from a strain isolated in japan. eight additional strains isolated in the united states gave four distinct types of genomic pfge profil ...19989686436
west nile virus activity--united states, october 20-26, 2004.during october 20-26, a total of 80 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 16 states (arizona, california, florida, iowa, kentucky, louisiana, michigan, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, new york, ohio, south dakota, texas, and utah).200415514584
continuance of studies on population s benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles in a shetland pony herd in kentucky: effect of pyrantel pamoate (1992-1999).research on benzimidazole-resistant population s small strongyles began in a shetland pony herd in 1974 at the university of kentucky and has continued for over 25 years. the present update, for the period 1992-1999, evaluated activity of pyrantel pamoate (prt) in field tests in the pony herd. additional critical tests with prt and oxibendazole (obz) were done in foals born in the herd. activity of prt was initially excellent in field tests, based on epg/lpg count data, but declined rapidly duri ...200111137272
colic surgery in 206 juvenile thoroughbreds: survival and racing results.the purpose of our study was to determine the types of lesions that cause colic in juvenile thoroughbreds, factors associated with these lesions and the subsequent survival and athletic performance of the juveniles. the age of juvenile thoroughbreds requiring surgical exploration for abdominal pain has an influence on the type of lesion causing colic. the short-term survival rate (discharge from the hospital) after colic surgery for foals was 85% and was strongly influenced by the lesion causing ...200011202379
transmission of endoparasites in horse foals born on the same pasture on a farm in central kentucky (1996-1999).research carried out during the last 4 years (1996-1999) of an 11-year study of the prevalence of internal parasites naturally transmitted to horse foals born on the same pasture on a farm in central kentucky is presented here. horses in this herd were not treated with any antiparasitic compound for over 20 years except for a replacement stallion in 1994. a total of 22 species, including 12 species of small strongyles, were recovered in the 4-year period. transmission patterns of all species (n= ...200111358626
use of a bayesian risk-mapping technique to estimate spatial risks for mare reproductive loss syndrome in kentucky.to estimate spatial risks associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome (mrls) during 2001 among horses in a specific study population and partition the herd effects into those attributable to herd location and those that were spatially random and likely attributable to herd management. animals-pregnant broodmares from 62 farms in 7 counties in central kentucky.200515691030
prevalence of anoplocephala perfoliata and lesions of draschia megastoma in thoroughbreds in kentucky at necropsy.a total of 396 thoroughbreds (86 males, 293 females, and 17 geldings) in kentucky, 1 to 30 years of age, were examined at necropsy for presence of anoplocephala perfoliata (2 female horses were not examined) in the cecum for lesions of draschia megastoma in the stomach, during the 1-year period of mar 1, 1982 through feb 28, 1983. prevalence of a perfoliata was 53% and of lesions of d megastoma was 63%. all lesions of d megastoma were partially or entirely in the glandular region of the stomach. ...19846732037
kentucky veterinarians investigate mysterious foal death syndrome. 200111417724
parasites in kentucky thoroughbreds at necropsy: emphasis on stomach worms and tapeworms.a total of 363 thoroughbreds (62 males, 292 females, and 9 geldings), 1 to 26 years of age, were examined at necropsy for internal parasites for about a 12-month period from february 1981 through february 1982. emphasis was on examining the stomach for nematodes and the small intestine and cecum for tapeworms. parasites recovered from the stomach and infection rates were: habronema spp--immature (24%), h muscae--adult (38%), draschia megastoma--immature (13%), d megastoma--adult (62%), and trich ...19836869991
temporality of early-term abortions associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome in horses.to characterize the temporality of dates of breeding and abortion classified as mare reproductive loss syndrome (mrls) among mares with abortions during early gestation.200516273913
descriptive epidemiology of late-term abortions associated with the mare reproductive loss syndrome in central kentucky.epidemiological and pathological findings of 433 late-term abortions associated with the mare reproductive loss syndrome (mrls) in central kentucky were identified by reviewing the records of the university of kentucky livestock diseases diagnostic center. the distribution of dates of abortion was clustered during a brief period of time, presumably from a simultaneous environmental exposure. the most common pathological findings were microscopic pulmonary lesions consisting of squamous epithelia ...200312735356
amycolatopsis kentuckyensis sp. nov., amycolatopsis lexingtonensis sp. nov. and amycolatopsis pretoriensis sp. nov., isolated from equine placentas.actinomycete strains isolated from lesions on equine placentas from two horses in kentucky and one in south africa were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics indicated that the isolates are members of the genus amycolatopsis: on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of 16s rdna sequences, the isolates are related most closely to amycolatopsis mediterranei. physiological characteristics of these strains indicated that they do not belong to a. med ...200313130055
focal myelitis-encephalitis in horses. 19705464755
case-control study of factors associated with fibrinous pericarditis among horses in central kentucky during spring 2001.to identify factors significantly associated with an epidemic of fibrinous pericarditis during spring 2001 among horses in central kentucky.200314507101
transmission of some species of internal parasites in horses born in 1990, 1991, and 1992 in the same pasture on a farm in central kentucky.studies were conducted on transmission of natural infections of several species of internal parasites in horses born and kept on the same pasture on a farm in central kentucky. data for the first year (1989) of a 4 year study on this farm have been published recently. the present research represents the second (1990), third (1991), and fourth (1992) years of the investigation. the number of animals (n = 28) examined varied from eight born in 1990 to ten each born in 1991 and 1992. for each year, ...19948073609
natural infections of strongyloides westeri: prevalence in horse foals on several farms in central kentucky in 1992.during the period 28 february-1 july 1992, fecal samples were collected and examined for eggs of strongyloides westeri once from each of 382 horse foals (364 thoroughbreds, 16 standardbreds, one lippizaner, and one draft-type horse) in central kentucky. ages of the foals at the time of sampling ranged from 7 to 63 days (mean 22 days). the nine farms in the study were considered to have overall excellent deworming programs. none of the foals had been treated with an antiparasitic compound before ...19938291184
prevalence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes on horse farms.to determine prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostome nematodes of horses in the southern united states.200415485051
injury during contact with horses: recent experience with 75 patients at a level i trauma center.the objective of this study was to examine equine-related trauma at a trauma center servicing a region in which there is significant contact between horses and humans.200211958244
alternate circulation of recent equine-2 influenza viruses (h3n8) from two distinct lineages in the united states.phylogenetic and antigenic analyses indicate that recent circulating equine-2 influenza viruses in the united states have been alternating between two genetic and antigenic distinct lineages since 1996. the evolution rates for these two lineages, the kentucky and the florida lineage, are very similar. for the earlier isolates in the kentucky lineage, there are multiple and sequential nonsynonymous substitutions at antigenic sites b and d. however, there are no changes at any of these antigenic s ...200415019234
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-august 15, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, august 15, 2006. a total of 26 states had reported 388 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 214 (56%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 49 years (range: 2-91 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to august 10; a total of 13 cases were fatal. a total of 68 presumptive west nile viremic blood ...200616915222
west nile virus activity--united states, august 4-10, 2004.during august 4-10, a total of 89 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 14 states (alabama, arizona, california, florida, illinois, kentucky, louisiana, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, north dakota, south dakota, and wyoming).200415306758
results of physical inspection before races and race-related characteristics and their association with musculoskeletal injuries in thoroughbreds during races.to estimate the relative risk of injury among horses deemed to be at increased risk of injury on the basis of prerace physical inspection findings and to examine the association of injury during races with race-related characteristics.199910476712
epizootic of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis on a farm.to determine the clinical findings, course of treatment, and long-term outcome of horses on a farm in central kentucky during an epizootic of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (epm).19979096721
prevalence of parasite eggs (strongyloides westeri, parascaris equorum, and strongyles) and oocysts (emeria leuckarti) in the feces of thoroughbred foals on 14 farms in central kentucky in 2003.prevalence of internal parasites was determined by fecal examination for eggs and oocysts in thoroughbred foals in central kentucky in 2003. fecal samples were examined from 733 foals on 14 farms. this included 70 trips to the farms and a total of 2,346 fecal samplings. monthly collection of fecal samples was begun for four farms in february, six in march, three in april, and one farm in may. termination of the study for all farms was the end of july. a criterion was that the foals be at least 1 ...200414760526
environmental salmonella surveillance in the ohio state university veterinary teaching hospital.sampling was conducted at the ohio state university's veterinary teaching hospital (osu-vth) to evaluate the extent of environmental contamination with salmonella enterica, at 1-week intervals beginning march 19, 2007, through may 21, 2007. environmental samples were collected from various surface and floor locations in the equine and food animal areas using sterile moistened gauze sponges. all samples were processed using standard bacteriologic culture to identify the presence of salmonella spp ...200919272003
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and musculoskeletal injuries in thoroughbred racehorses in kentucky.injuries sustained by horses during racing have been considered as an unavoidable part of horse racing. many factors may be associated with the musculoskeletal injuries of thoroughbred race horses. this study surveyed the amounts of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (nsaids) in injured horse's biological system (plasma) at kentucky racetracks from january 1, 1995 through december 31, 1996. during that period, there were 84 catastrophic cases (euthanized horses) and 126 noncatastrophic cases. ...200919646092
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
initial occurrence of taylorella asinigenitalis and its detection in nurse mares, a stallion and donkeys in kentucky.in 1998, a newly identified bacterium taylorella asinigenitalis was isolated from the external genitalia and reproductive tracts of nurse mares, a stallion and donkey jacks in kentucky. an extensive regulatory effort was implemented to contain the outbreak including the tracing and testing of 232 horses and donkeys on 58 premises. t. asinigenitalis was isolated from the reproductive tract of 10 adult equids, including two donkey jacks, one paint quarter-horse stallion and seven draft-type breedi ...201020537742
critical tests evaluating efficacy of moxidectin against small strongyles in horses from a herd for which reduced activity had been found in field tests in central kentucky.critical tests were performed in 2009 and 2010 in four 2-year-old horses naturally infected with internal parasites. the horses were from a herd (farm mc) where reduced activity of ivermectin and moxidectin on small strongyles was demonstrated previously from epg (eggs/gram of feces) data in field tests. also, in critical tests in horses from the same herd, ivermectin was less effective on immature small strongyles in the lumen of the large intestine than when the drug was first marketed. the ma ...201020714749
the mare reproductive loss syndrome and the eastern tent caterpillar: a toxicokinetic/statistical analysis with clinical, epidemiologic, and mechanistic implications.during 2001, central kentucky experienced acute transient epidemics of early and late fetal losses, pericarditis, and unilateral endophthalmitis, collectively referred to as mare reproductive loss syndrome (mrls). a toxicokinetic/statistical analysis of experimental and field mrls data was conducted using accelerated failure time (aft) analysis of abortions following administration of eastern tent caterpillars (etcs; 100 or 50 g/day or 100 g of irradiated caterpillars/day) to late-term pregnant ...200315136975
compounded equine drugs seized from kentucky pharmacy. 200415515973
molecular epidemiologic features of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from horses.to characterize isolates of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from horses, cattle, and sheep in colorado, kentucky, utah, and california in samples collected during perceived epidemics of infection (increased numbers of cases identified) in 2002 and 2003, and determine how closely isolates were related and their possible source.200415631043
microbiologic and pathologic findings in an epidemic of equine pericarditis.during the spring and summer of 2001 and in association with the mare reproductive loss syndrome, 22 terminal and 12 clinical cases of equine pericarditis were diagnosed in central kentucky. actinobacillus species were the principal isolates from 8 of 10 nontreated, terminally affected and 3 of 10 clinically affected horses. enterococcus faecalis and streptococcus zooepidemicus were cultured from the remaining 2 nontreated terminal cases. no viruses were isolated in tissue culture. nucleic acid ...200515690949
risk of transplacental transmission of sarcocystis neurona and neospora hughesi in california horses.the study objective was to assess the risk of transplacental transmission of sarcocystis neurona and neospora hughesi in foals from 4 california farms during 3 foaling seasons. serum of presuckle foals and serum and colostrum of periparturient mares were tested using indirect fluorescent antibody tests for s. neurona and n. hughesi. serum antibody titers were < or =10 in 366 presuckle foals tested. there was no serologic or histologic evidence of either parasite in aborted fetuses or placentas e ...200415715226
west nile virus activity--united states, august 18-24, 2004.during august 18-24, a total of 154 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, connecticut, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, south dakota, tennessee, and wisconsin).200415329654
application of an automated surveillance-data-analysis system in a laboratory-based early-warning system for detection of an abortion outbreak in mares.to develop an early-warning automated surveillance-data-analysis system for early outbreak detection and reporting and to assess its performance on an abortion outbreak in mares in kentucky.200919231958
natural infection with eimeria leuckarti: prevalence of oocysts in feces of horse foals on several farms in kentucky during 1986.during 1986, fecal specimens were collected 1 or more times from each of 164 horse foals (158 thoroughbred and 6 mixed light horse type), ranging in age from 0 to 252 days, on 13 farms in central kentucky. to detect natural infection with eimeria leuckarti, feces were examined for oocysts. oocysts were found in 67 (41%) of the foals on 11 (85%) of the farms. the earliest age at which oocysts were first detected was 15 days (1 foal); the latest age was 123 days (1 foal). the mean age for the firs ...19883354972
phylogenetic relationships of sarcocystis neurona of horses and opossums to other cyst-forming coccidia deduced from ssu rrna gene sequences.phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuclear-encoded small subunit rrna (ssurrna) gene were performed to examine the origin, phylogeny, and biogeographic relationships of sarcocystis neurona isolates from opossums and horses from the state of michigan, usa, in relation to other cyst-forming coccidia. a total of 31 taxa representing all recognized subfamilies and genera of sarcocystidae were included in the analyses with clonal isolates of two opossum and two horse s. neurona. phylogen ...200516133298
u of l partnership helps backside workers stay healthy as a horse. 200616894913
field studies on endoparasites of thoroughbred foals on seven farms in central kentucky in 2004.fecal samples (n=1,584) for a parasite study were collected from thoroughbred foals (n=349), 28 to 330 days old, on seven farms in central kentucky during 49 monthly trips from may to october, november, or december 2004. the main purpose was to determine possible drug resistance of ascarids, also of strongyles, to ivermectin (ivm) and other commercially available compounds [fenbendazole, moxidectin (mox), oxibendazole (obz), and pyrantel pamoate]. in addition, interest was on prevalence of foal ...200616385405
botulism in foals less than 6 months of age: 30 cases (1989-2002).botulism has been recognized as a clinical entity in foals since the 1960s. also known as "shaker foal" disease, the toxicoinfectious form of botulism affects foals, with the highest incidence in the united states seen in kentucky and the mid-atlantic region. the disease is characterized by progressive muscular weakness caused by the action of botulism neurotoxin at cholinergic neuromuscular junctions. increased number of episodes and duration of recumbency, muscular trembling, and dysphagia are ...200314529138
study (1991 to 2001) of drug-resistant population b small strongyles in critical tests in horses in kentucky at the termination of a 40-year investigation.population b, drug-resistant small strongyles have been studied in naturally infected horses in kentucky for more than 40 years. these parasites first were found to be resistant to phenothiazine (ptz) and thiabendazole (tbz), later to other parasiticides. studies have been on evaluation of antiparasitic efficacy of several compounds, especially the benzimidazoles, against population b small strongyles in clinical (field) tests (1959-1983) on the commercial farm of origin and in clinical and crit ...200717468973
parasite field study in central kentucky on thoroughbred foals (born in 2004) treated with pyrantel tartrate daily and other parasiticides periodically.foals (79), born in 2004 on three thoroughbred horse farms (c, m, and s) in central kentucky, were fed pyrantel tartrate daily, beginning at about 3 months of age. in addition, other parasiticides [fenbendazole (fbz), ivermectin (ivm) alone or with praziquantel (praz), oxibendazole (obz), pyrantel pamoate (prt), and moxidectin (mox)] were given periodically. all treatments were administered by farm personnel. over a 14-month period, from may 2004 to july 2005, collections (n=989) of feces were m ...200717013652
diverged evolution of recent equine-2 influenza (h3n8) viruses in the western hemisphere.we reported previously that equine-2 influenza a virus (h3n8) had evolved into two genetically and antigenically distinct "eurasian" and "american" lineages. phylogenetic analysis, using the ha1 gene of more recent american isolates, indicated a further divergence of these viruses into three evolution lineages: a south american lineage, a kentucky lineage, and a florida lineage. these multiple evolution pathways were not due to geographic barriers, as viruses from different lineages co-circulate ...200111504416
population-s benzimidazole- and tetrahydropyrimidine-resistant small strongyles in a pony herd in kentucky (1977-1999): effects of anthelmintic treatment on the parasites as determined in critical tests.population-s small strongyles have been studied since 1974 in central kentucky in a closed shetland pony breeding herd. the ponies were treated approximately every 8 weeks with cambendazole (1974-1978), oxibendazole (obz) (1978-1992), or pyrantel pamoate (prt) (1992-1999). small strongyles in the ponies have shown resistance to these compounds in field and critical tests. one purpose of this presentation was to compare different parameters for determination of effects on the small strongyle spec ...200314530968
evaluation of parasiticidal activity of fenbendazole, ivermectin, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate in horse foals with emphasis on ascarids (parascaris equorum) in field studies on five farms in central kentucky in 2007.horse foals on five farms in central kentucky were used in field studies in 2007 evaluating activity of paste formulations of four compounds (fenbendazole-fbz, ivermectin-ivm, oxibendazole-obz, and pyrantel pamoate-prt) against internal parasites with emphasis on ascarids (parascaris equorum). it has been well established the last few years that there is widespread resistance of p. equorum to ivermectin. the main purpose of the present research was to obtain current data on ascaridicidal activit ...200818470536
probable reason why small strongyle epg counts are returning "early" after ivermectin treatment of horses on a farm in central kentucky.critical tests were carried out in 2008 in four yearling horses (h-2, h-4, h-10, and h-11) born and raised together on a farm (mc) in central kentucky. these horses were treated intraorally with ivermectin paste at the dose rate of 200 microg/kg. the main interest was to try and determine more precisely, from posttreatment (pt) worm count data, the current activity of ivermectin against small strongyles in a horse herd. these horses had been treated repeatedly with this compound and counts of sm ...200918931857
field studies indicating reduced activity of ivermectin on small strongyles in horses on a farm in central kentucky.field studies (n=6) were completed on evaluation of activity of ivermectin (200 microg/kg) paste formulation against small strongyles in horses (foals, yearlings, and older animals) on a farm (farm mc) in central kentucky in late 2006 and during 2007. a girth tape was used to estimate body weights which were then used to calculate the proper dose rate of ivermectin. the foals, yearlings, and some of the older horses were born and raised on the farm. however, most of the older horses which were n ...200818389281
prevalence of various presale radiographic findings and association of findings with sales price in thoroughbred yearlings sold in kentucky.to estimate prevalences of various presale radiographic findings and of presale arthroscopy in horses offered for sale at the 2006 keeneland september yearling sale and to compare sales prices between yearlings with and without various presale radiographic findings or a history of arthroscopy.201020151870
pathological, entomological, avian and meteorological investigation of a west nile virus epidemic in a horse farm.pathological, entomological and avian investigations were conducted during the summer of 2002, in a horse farm that had four cases of west nile virus (wnv) infection in horses. all the four horses had encephalitis and wnv infection was confirmed by rt-pcr and in situ hybridization procedure. forty-seven per cent of house sparrows that resided on the farm were tested positive for wnv infection. mosquitoes (98%culex pipiens) collected by trapping at the farm, during this period were positive for w ...200818397501
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